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THE ENGINEER IN

SOCIETY

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THREE CORE ASPECTS

(1) Who is the engineer?

(2) The engineer's role in society

(3) The history of engineering

(1) THE ENGINEER
• One who translates into action the dreams of
humanity, traditional knowledge and concepts of
science to achieve sustainable management of
the planet through the creative application of
technology.

Science:
Well founded, testable knowledge about natural
phenomena.

Technology:
Systems concerned with solving problems and
meeting needs in the real world.
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.  Engineering connects pure science to society.(2) THE ENGINEER’S ROLE IN SOCIETY  The scientist develops knowledge and understanding of the physical universe. It is a combination of both. Science is the pursuit of knowledge in its purest sense without any concern to the needs of the society.

analysis and pure guts met these challenges with success and unfortunately. manufacture and operate continually changes and the role of engineers has been fraught with challenges and uncertainties. design. Unlike in science.  Throughout history. engineers have through creativity. failures too. build. in engineering the environment in which engineers plan. .

(3) THE HISTORY OF ENGINEERING  Why study the history of engineering?  Phases of the history of Engineering .

7 . • To understand the connections between engineering and other basic aspects of human society. WHY STUDY THE HISTORY OF ENGINEERING? • To understand why things happened. • To make sense of the present and the future.

• The Industrial Revolution. • The Modern Industrial Era. 8 . PHASES OF THE HISTORY OF ENGINEERING Consists of 3 overlapping phases: • The Scientific Revolution.

Phase 1: The Scientific Revolution • Started out at the end of the 16th century. • The rise of capitalism brought about strong interest in the practice of the trades of the traditional artisan who transformed into modern professionals especially in civil. metallurgical and mechanical engineering. . • Machines powered by steam engines replaced human muscles. • Practical thinking became scientific in addition to intuition • Engineering colleges and professional societies 9 emerged. mining.

observation & 1564 . The Scientific Revolution Galileo Galilee • At the end of the 16th century. Concluded that the Earth revolved round the sun.1642 experiment challenged centuries-old dogma to present a new view of nature. • Galileo (1564-1642) developed the telescope from observation of Jupiter’s satellites. 10 .

• Rene Descartes (1596- 1650) emphasized deductive approach through mathematics. Advocated that science & religion should be separated – promoted the advancement of science. The Scientific Revolution • Francis Bacon (1561- 1626) was an enthusiast of industrial science – used inductive approach to draw conclusions from experimental data. 11 .

Adam Smith (“The Wealth of Nations” .Machines replaced animal and human power. .Phase 2: The Industrial Revolution • Started in mid 18th Century.Revolutionalised many areas of production and everyday life. • “The Machine Age” period: . • Symbolised by mass production and transportation. . 1776) – division of labour and standardisation for productivity of 12 workers.

Electrical Engineering. 13 . Aeronautical Engineering. . . Marine Engineering. . Chemical Engineering. • Control engineering accelerated the pace of automation.• Prominent emergent disciplines: .

14 . • Tinkering became organised research.• Industrial engineers designed and managed mass production and distribution systems. • Individual inventions organised into systematic innovations. • Graduate schools emerged.

Built a lighthouse. harbours. engines. 15 .Some British Pioneer Engineers in the 2nd Phase • John Rennie (1716 – 1821) . windmills. built canals.Built Canals. roads. bridges. • Thomas Telford (1757 – 1834) . bridges.First president of the Institution of Civil Engineers. docks and bridges • John Smeaton (1724 – 1792) .

Designed gun factory. the first president of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Pioneered mass-production.Designed first steamship to cross the Atlantic.First chief engineer of New York. • George Stepherson (1781 – 1848) .• John McAdam (1756 – 1836) .Built roads. • Sir Marc Isambard Brunel (1769 – 1849) .Railway engineer. 16 . • Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1769 – 1849) .

1834) 1st President of ICE. 1820 17 . Contributors to Industrial Revolution John Rennie John Smeaton Thomas Telford (1716 – 1821 (1724 .1792) (1757 .

1849) (1806 .1847 .1859) (1781 . Contributors to Industrial Revolution Marc Isambard Isambard Kingdom Brunel George Brunel Stephenson (1769 .1848) 1st President of 18 IMechE.

as it marked the high point of British industrial ascendancy. High Point of British Industrialization • The Crystal Palace Exhibition in London in 1851 was a celebration of British engineers and engineering. 19 .

Material science & engineering brought advanced material with performance undreamed of. Engineering sciences took great strides: . 20 . .Astronautic engineering conquered outer space.Phase 3: The Modern Industrial Era • From mid 19th Century.

Rise of large-scale R & D organised at the national level.Atomic power brought about a whole new field of nuclear engineering. communications and computer engineering joined forces to kick start the information revolution.Maturing of graduate education. . . . 21 ..Microelectronics.

• Emergence of notable complex technologies that required disciplinary co- operation and integration of knowledge: . . .Biotechnology. At the turn of 21st Century: • Rapid development in information technology. 22 .Nanotechnology.Environmental Technology.

1st internal combustion engine • 1878 – Beginning of electric lighting • 1900 – Invention of radio • 1903 – Wilbur Wright’s propeller biplane flight • 1913 – Ford introduced moving assembly line • 1914 – Panama Canal opened • 1926 – Invention of TV 23 . Suez Canal opened • 1876 – Invention of telephone. Timeline of some Pioneers of Modern Technology • 1869 – Union Pacific Railroad across US.

Timeline of some Pioneers of Modern Technology • 1930 – Invention of gas turbine • 1942 – 1st electronic computer • 1947 – Invention of transistor • 1957 – Sputnik launched • 1958 – 1st integrated circuit • 1969 – 1st man on the moon • 1977 – 1st personal computer • 1981 – Microsoft MS-DOS computer operating system • 1982 – Invention of Compact disc • 1996 – “Dolly” the cloned sheep was born on 5 July 24 .

using molds biotechnology 25 to produce cheese. Other Birth of fermentation processes established in fermentation- ancient times include making yoghurt from based classical milk using lactic acid bacteria.000 BC Selective cultivation of crops begins Birth of agriculture 8-9000 BC Orchiectomy/castration of young bulls Growth/behaviour modification 5-9000 BC Domestication of cattle horses and other Birth of animal live stock agriculture circa 6000 BC Yeast used to make beer by Sumerians and Babylonians circa 4000 BC The Egyptians discovered how to bake leavened bread using yeast. making tofu. producing vinegar and wine by fermentation . A Chronological Summary of the History of Biotechnology Date Event Implication(s) circa 10.

he thought that there might reproductive biology be a similar fluid in women. since children clearly receive traits from each parent in approximately equal proportion circa 300 BC Embryo development systematized Birth of embryology 100-300 AD Indian philosophers first pondered the Early insights into 26 nature of reproduction and inheritance genetics . Date Event Implication(s) circa 1400 BC Artificial incubation of eggs Birth of poultry “industry” circa 400 BC Hippocrates (460-377 BC) determined that the male contribution to a child’s heredity is carried in the semen. By Early insights into analogy.

Birth of embryology and livestock species to produce animals with desired traits systematized. Date Event Implication(s) 600-1700 AD Selective breeding of horses. cats. dogs. 1651 Circulation of blood (Harvey) Modern physiological Principles 1665 Plant compartments called “cells” (Hooke) Concept of “cells” born 1674 Simple lenses used to study microscopic Birth of microscopy organisms (Leeuwenhoek) 1780 Successful artificial insemination of dogs “Birth of artificial 27 Insemination” .

Date Event Implication(s) 1856 Existence of microbes demonstrated Germ theory confirmed (Pasteur) 1859 On the Origin of Species published Theory of evolution (Darwin) 1865 Principles of transmission of genetic Birth of genetics traits elucidated using pea plants (Mendel) 1891 First successful embryo transfer Birth of embryo (Heape) manipulation technology 1900 Application of artificial insemination 28 Increased pace of genetic in food animal breeding (Ivanov) improvement for breeding .

Date Event Implication(s) 1919 Term “biotechnology” coined (Ereky) “Biotechnology” in the lexicon 1935 First virus discovered Vectors for generic mutations 1944 DNA identified as the generic material Molecular basis of heredity 1947 Elements of DNA found to be transposable Concept of natural (McKlintock) genetic engineering 1949 Cryoprotectants used for cryopreservation Freezing/shipping of of sperm 29 gametes and cells possible .

Date Event Implication(s) 1950s Mammalian tissues/cells grown in Tissue culture technology laboratory developed 1953 DNA described as “double-helix” of Gene structure described - nucleotides (Watson and Crick) a key milestone in molecular biology and modern biotech- nology. and the birth of genomics 1957 Liquid nitrogen cryopresevation Long-term storage of cells/ gametes 1961 Role of RNA and ribosomes in protein Enabled subsequent controlled 30 synthesis elucidated production of proteins .

Date Event Implication(s) 1966 Microinjection technology developed Physical manipulation of genes 1972 DNA from one organism “recombined” “Recombinant DNA” with that of another technology 1977 Human gene cloned (Itakura) Genes can be copied 1978 Commercial estrous synchronization Timed “artificial in cattle insemination” and embryo transfer 1980-1981 First transgenic mice (mice bearing Mammalian generic 31 foreign genes) engineering .

(Mullis) detection and cloning of genes 1985 First transgenic domestic animals produced Genetic engineering of (pig) livestock 1987 Targeted gene disruption (gene “knockout”) Enabled studies and development of therapies 32 for loss of gene function . Date Event Implication(s) 1981 Transfer of murine embryonic stem (ES) Totipotent ES cells aid cells transgenics 1983 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) described Rapid amplification.

Date Event Implication(s) 1989 Targeted DNA integration and germline Potential for tissue chimeras (mice) engineering and gametic transmission of transgenes 1993 Recombinant growth hormone approved Pharmacologically enhanced for dairy cows milk production 1993-1995 Functional nucleic acid vaccines introduced Potential for engineering medicines and for disease prevention 1996 Sheep cloned by somatic (body) cell transfer True mammalian cloning possible 33 .

to the post-genomic era 2001 Human genome mapped 34 . Date Event Implication(s) 1998 Human embryonic stem cells derived Multiple therapies for genetic and immunological disorders 1999 Draft of complete human genome Watershed events marking our sequence published transition from the pre.

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