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Cell

B M Subramanya Swamy M.Sc. B.Ed.
CIE Co ordinator & Examination Officer
Kanaan Global School
Jakarta
Indonesia
swamy@kanaanglobal.sch.id
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING ORGANISMS
• Movement: action by an organism or part of an organism causing a change of position or
place

• Respiration: the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to
release energy

• Sensitivity: ability to detect or sense changes in the environment (stimuli) and to make
responses

• Growth: permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell number or cell size or
both

• Reproduction: processes that make more of the same kind of organism

• Excretion: removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism
(chemical reactions in cells including respiration) and substances in excess of requirements

• Nutrition: taking in of nutrients which are organic substances and mineral ions, containing
raw materials or energy for growth and tissue repair, absorbing and assimilating them
CLASSIFICATION AND DIVERSITY OF LIVING
ORGANISMS
• BINOMIAL SYSTEM
• KING PHILIP CAME OVER FOR GOOD SPAGHETTI
• Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
• Kingdom - Species = Similarity increases
• Species: organisms which can reproduce successfully
• Binomial system: a system of naming species in which
the scientific name of an organism is made up of two
parts showing the genus (starting with a capitol letter)
and species (starting with a lower case letter), written
in italics when printed (therefore underlined when
handwritten) e.g. Homo sapiens
KINGDOMS
• Animal: Multi-cellular ingestive heterotrophs (eat living
organisms)

• Plant: Multi-cellular photosynthetic autotrophic (make their
own food) organism with a cellulose cell wall.

• Fungi: Single celled or multi cellular heterotrophic organism
with a cell wall not made of cellulose, saprotrophs (feed off
dead organisms) or parasites

• Monera: Single celled organism with no true nucleus

• Protista: Single celled organism with a nucleus
VERTEBRATES

Bony fish:

• Wet scales

• External fertilization
and soft eggs

• Gills to breathe
VERTEBRATES

Amphibians:
• Smooth, moist skin
• External fertilization
and soft eggs
• Gills/lungs to breathe
• Can live on land and in
water
• 4 legs
VERTEBRATES
Birds
• Feathers on body and
scales on legs

• Have 2 legs and 2 wings

• Lungs to breathe

• Hard eggs
VERTEBRATES
Reptiles:

• Scales on skin

• Usually 4 legs

• Lungs to breathe

• Hard eggs
VERTEBRATES
Mammals
• Fur/hair on skin

• Can live on land and in
water

• 4 legs

• Lungs to breathe

• Give birth to live young
INVERTEBRATES: NO LEGS

Molluscs: (e.g. snails)
• Soft
• Not segmented - body
in three continuous
parts
• Have 1 or 2 shells
• Moves on muscular foot
• Mainly herbivore, some
carnivores
INVERTEBRATES: NO LEGS
Annelids: (e.g. earthworms)
• Hard, slightly waterproof

• Rounded bodies

• Bodies made of segment

• Uses chaetae (bristles) to
move from place to place

• Mainly herbivores
INVERTEBRATES: NO LEGS
Nematode: (e.g. roundworm)
• Soft, not waterproof

• Not segmented

• Wriggles but lives in one place

• Mainly parasites

• Circular cross section and tapered
ends

• Invades digestive tracts
ARTHROPODS (INVERTEBRATES WITH LEGS)

Crustaceans: (e.g. crabs)
• Have an exoskeleton

• 1 pair of compound eyes

• 2 body segment –
cephalothorax and abdomen

• More than four pairs of legs

• 2 pairs of antennae sensitive
to touch and chemicals
ARTHROPODS (INVERTEBRATES WITH
LEGS)
Arachnids: (e.g. spiders)
• 2 body segment –
cephalothorax and
abdomen
• Four pairs of legs
• Pair of chelicerae to
hold prey
• Two pedipalps for
reproduction
• Simple eyes
ARTHROPODS (INVERTEBRATES WITH
LEGS)
Insects: (e.g. bees)
• 3 body segments –
head, thorax and
abdomen
• 3 pairs of legs
• 1 pair of antennae
• 1 or 2 pairs of wings
• Compound and simple
eyes
ARTHROPODS (INVERTEBRATES WITH
LEGS)
Myriapods: (e.g. centipede)
• Segmented body
• Additional segments
formed
• One pair of antennae
• 70+ pairs of legs – 1 or 2
pairs on each segment
• Fused head and thorax
and segmented abdomen
• Simple eyes
VIRUSES AND BACTERIA
Virus Bacteria

Covered by Protein coat Cell wall

Cell membrane No Yes

Cytoplasm No Yes

Genetic material DNA or RNA – only a few genes DNA – enough for several 100 genes

Living or not? Non-living unless in host Living
Introduction
• A cell is the basic unit of structure and
function in an organism

• All organisms are unicellular or multicellular

• It is a smallest living unit showing all the
characteristic of life and performing all the
vital functions
Animal cell
Structure Function

Cell Membrane Also called plasma High surface area of the
membrane cell provides for absorption
of nutrients and the
disposal of wastes

A thin delicate layer Differentially permeable
made of layers of controlling the transport of
materials in and out of the
proteins and fats
cell

Allow certain small
Completely surrounds substances like glucose
and holds in the water and oxygen to enter
the cell
constituents of the cell
Prevent larger molecules
like protein and starch from
leaving the cell
Most prominent structure of the cell Involved in cell division
Nucleus
Usually spherical in shape Controls all cellular activity

Found near the centre of the animal cell Houses the organisms genetic
material
Bound by two membranes forming the
nuclear envelop Nuclear pores act as channels
Permitting certain molecules to
Isolates the genetic material from the enter or leave the nucleus
rest of cell

Nuclear pores are scattered over the
surface of this envelop

Found within the nucleus is one or more
small spherical structure called the
nucleolus which is not bound by a
membrane

Nucleoplasm is the cytoplasm like
material that fills up the nucleus .it
contains chromatin which is made up of
DNA
Structure Function

Cytoplasm Jelly like substance It is here that
metabolisms takes
Fills up the cell
place
Suspension of various
organelles
Organelles
Structure Functions

Vacuoles Sacs filled with cell Some function
sap a watery during digestion
solution of sugars eliminating excess
salts and pigments water entrapping
food particles or
for discharging
wastes
Structure Function

Mitochondria Rod shaped organelles Power house of the cell
Structure with the inner
folded membranes Site for aerobic respiration
Permanent structure in the which generates energy for
cell all the cellular activities

Inner folds carry respiratory
enzymes which help to
control respiration and the
release of energy from
glucose molecules in the cel

Involved in chemical energy
conversion during metaboli
activities of the cell
Ribosomes
• Translate the genetic
code into proteins.
• Found attached to the
Rough endoplasmic
reticulum or free in the
cytoplasm.
• 60% RNA and 40%
protein.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

• Network of continuous
sacs, studded with
ribosome's.
• Manufactures, processes,
and transports proteins
for export from cell.
• Continuous with nuclear
envelope.
Golgi Apparatus
• Modifies proteins and
lipids made by the ER
and prepares them for
export from the cell.
• Encloses digestive
enzymes into
membranes to form
lysosomes.
Lysosomes
• Single membrane
bound structure.
• Contains digestive
enzymes that break
down cellular waste
and debris and
nutrients for use by
the cell.
Centrioles
• Found only in animal
cells.
• Self-replicating
• Made of bundles of
microtubules.
• Help in organizing cell
division.
Structure Function

Protoplasm Combination of all Cells with
the living parts of protoplasm is
the cell regarded as living
Starch grains
Structure Function

Insoluble carbohydrates Food source for plants

Occurs as very small grains
Cell wall
Structure Function

Rigid wall made up of a layer of cellulose Provides support and shape to the
individuals
vacuole
Structure function

Large compartments Plays a role in osmoregulation

Known as a sap vacuole Maintaining the shape of the cell

Filled with a fluid called cell sap

Membrane that surrounds the vacuole
called a Tonoplast
Chloroplast
Structure Function

Collection of organelles known as plastids Characteristically green

Plastids that store chlorophyll are known Absorption of sunlight
as chloroplast
Required to carry out photosynthesis
Compare and contrast plant and
animal cells
Structures Plant Animal

Cell wall Rigid cell wall made of
cellulose. It determines
-----------------------
the size and shape of -------------
the cell. It also helps to
support and strengthen
the plant
Structures Plants Animals

Starch grains Stores food as starch Excess
carbohydrate is
Can be found in plastids stored as glycogen
granules
Sap vacuole Large and centrally Small in size
located There may be
It is usually filled with some food
cell sap vacuole or
contractile
vacuoles present
Tonoplast This is the membrane that _______________________
______________________
surrounds the sap vacuole
formed by a layer of cytoplasm

Chloroplast -----------------------------------------
Found in green leaves -----------------------------------------
actually it gives the leaf the -----------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------
characteristic green color --------------------------

It contains chlorophyll to
trap light energy for
photosynthesis
Function of the cell membrane
• The cell membrane is a thin layer of proteins
and fats around the cell
• It surrounds the living cells
• Separates one cell from another adjacent cell
• Controls and regulates the passage of
substances in and out of the cells
• Control the exchange rate of substances in
order to maintain normal conditions inside the
cell
Prokaryotic Cells
• Believed to be the first cells to evolve.
• Lack a membrane bound nucleus and
organelles.
• Genetic material is naked in the cytoplasm
• Ribosome are only organelle.