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PEMODELAN

SISTEM
Dosen
Dosen : Asrul Harun Ismail
Email :
ismael.aaron3@gmail.com
asrul@dayamitra.com

2
Komponen Penilaian
TUGAS & LATIHAN : 30 %
UTS : 30 %
UAS : 40 %

3
REFERENSI
_, System Engineering Fundamental,
DAU, 2001.
Murthy, D.N.P., Page, M.W., and
Rodin,E.Y., Mathematical Modelling,
Pergamon Press, 1990.
Makalah dari beberapa Jurnal Nasional
dan Internasional
BAGIAN 1
PENDAHULUAN
SISTEM dan MODEL
Outline Kuliah:

Sistem (System)
Model
Berpikir Sistem (Systems Thinking)
Teknik Industri Definisi, masalah
khas TI, dan Kebutuhan pendekatan
komprehensif untuk pemecahan
masalah (pengambilan keputusan)
Industrial Engineering (IE)
SISTEM
Definition:
a collection of entities (people, factory orders,
cars, phone calls, data packets, ) which interact
to accomplish some logical purpose.
A collection of elements that function
together to achieve a desired goal
Kumpulan elemen/komponen yang bekerja
bersama untuk mencapai tujuan yang
diharapkan
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Komponen Sistem
Components of a system:
1. Entities:
- Items processed through the system such as
products, customers, and documents.
2. Attributes:
- Properties of an entity.
3. Activities:
- An operation carried out by entity during a specified
period of time.
- Tasks performed in the system that are either directly
or indirectly involved in the processing of entities.
-Collection of operations that transform the state of an
entity

Bahan Ajar Kuliah Permodelan Sistem


Jurusan Teknik Industri UP 9
Komponen Sistem
Components of a system:
4. Resources :
-The means by which activities are performed.
5. Controls :
-Dictate how, when, and where activities are
performed, they impose order on the system.
6. System state :
-a collection of variables necessary to describe a
system at any given time, relative to the
objectives of the study.
-Define the state of the system
7. Event :
-Instantaneous occurrence that changes the
system state.
- change in the system state. Bahan Ajar Kuliah Permodelan Sistem
Jurusan Teknik Industri UP 10
Contoh Sistem
Traffic Systems
Political Systems
Economic Systems
Manufacturing Systems
Service Systems
Information Systems

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Contoh Sistem Sederhana

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Sistem dan Lingkungan Luarnya
System: Relationship between Elements
Integrated System
Typical IE Questions

Is the system providing the best possible economic


return to its owners?
Are some products not economically viable? Which
ones?
Are resources being utilized appropriately? Where is
capacity excessive or inadequate?
Is the mix of resources appropriate? Are new
technologies needed?
Are the resources organized and managed properly?
Are suppliers' prices, terms, delivery, and quality
appropriate?
Are the products/services meeting customers' needs?
How could they be improved?
Cara Mempelajari Sistem

Sistem dapat dipelajari dengan pengamatan


langsung atau pengamatan pada model dari
sistem tersebut.

Model matematik ada yang dapat diselesaikan


dengan solusi analitis, ada yang tidak. Bila
solusi analitis sulit didapatkan maka digunakan
SIMULASI
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Cara mempelajari sistem
SISTEM

Eksperimen Eksperimen
dengan sistem dengan model
sebenarnya

Model Fisik Model Matematik

Solusi Analitis SIMULASI

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What Does IE Do?
MODEL
Representasi dari sistem

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What is a Model?
A model is a representation
of a real system.
Physical Models: Toys, flight simulators, wind
tunnels
Mathematical Models: Differential equations,
stochastic models, statistical models, mathematical
programs
Computer Models: Simulation models,
Mathematical programming, stochastics, statistics,
video games, weather forecasters
Bahan Ajar Kuliah Permodelan Sistem
Jurusan Teknik Industri UP 23
KLASIFIKASI MODEL
Tipe Klasifikasi Tipe Model
Fungsi Deskriptif (kondisi nyata )
Prediktif (meramalkan)
Normatif ( seharusnya )
Waktu Statik
Dinamik
Tingkat Uncertainty Deterministik
(Ketidakpastian) Probabilistik
Interaksi dgn Terbuka
lingkungan Tertutup
Tingkat Kuantifikasi Kualitatif
Kuantitatif
Dimensi 2 dimensi
3 dimensi
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I/O Model of An Open System
QUIZ
Jelaskan apa itu sistem !
Sebutkan komponen komponen sistem,
berikan penjelasannya masing-masing !
Jelaskan apa itu model !
Sebutkan Tipe Klasifikasi Model !

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BAGIAN 1I
BERPIKIR SISTEM
(System Thinking)
A process is work performed on, or in response to,
incoming data flows or conditions.

input The output


input System output
input is a output
Process

Feedack and
Control Loop

The System's Environment


(constantly changing)

A System is a Process

8/29/2017 28
Decomposition is the act of breaking a system into its component
subsystems, processes, and sub processes. Each level of
abstraction reveals more or less detail.

8/29/2017 29
APPLICATION OF SYSTEMS
THINKING
Thinking about phenomena as
hierarchically organised wholes
Identification of some common
principles which enable a system to
be defined and a boundary drawn
around it.
Defining the inputs and outputs
which cross the system boundary.
APPLICATION OF SYSTEMS
THINKING
Identification of the mechanisms of
control by the means of which the
system maintains its identity and
coherence
Identification of the purpose or goals
of the system, and principles by
which its component, or sub-systems
are organised
Depict Conceptual Model
Conceptual (logical) Models
Logical system models depict what a system is
or what a system must donot how the
system will be implemented. Because logical
models depict the essential requirements of a
system, they are sometimes called essential
system models.
Process models (e.g., data flow diagrams)
Data models (e.g., entity relationship diagrams)
Interface models (e.g., context diagrams)
Object models (e.g., Uniform Modeling Language diagrams)

8/29/2017 32
A decomposition diagram or hierarchy chart shows the
top-down, functional decomposition of a system.

8/29/2017 33
Contoh Soal IPO-1
Sistem Informasi Penilaian berjalan sebagai berikut :
1. Data nilai dari dosen diserahkan ke bag
administrasi
2. Bag administrasi mencatat nilai-nilai tsb untuk
dihitung nilai akhirnya
3. Mahasiwa dapat melihat daftar nilai akhir melalui
tampilan dan menerima lembar hasil studi yang
memuat seluruh mata kuliah yg diambil
4. Ketua jurusan menerima laporan hasil studi
Buatlah identifikasi kebutuhan sistem
komputerisasi
(a)proses, (b)data-data, dan (c)model sistemnya

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Jawab Soal-1
(a) Proses

Proses-proses yang dikomputerisasi :


1. Mencatat data nilai dr dosen
Bisa digabung
2. Menghitung nilai akhir
3. Menampilkan daftar nilai
4. Membuat lembar hasil studi
5. Membuat laporan hasil studi.

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Jawab Soal-1
(b) Data
Masukan (Input / I ): Catatan :
1. Data mahasiswa Masukan adalah data
input yg bisa berupa
Keluaran (Output / O): file, dokumen atau
tampilan
1. Lembar hasil studi
Keluaran adalah data
2. Lap hasil studi
output hsl proses yg
bisa berupa file,
dokumen atau
tampilan

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Jawab Soal-1
(c) Model Sistem Informasi

1. P : mencatat data nilai dari dosen


I : data nilai dari dosen
O : data nilai per mahasiswa

2. P : menghitung nilai akhir


I : data nilai per mahasiswa
O : data nilai akhir
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Jawab Soal-1
(c) Model Sistem Informasi (Lanjutan)
3. P : menampilkan daftar nilai
I : data nilai akhir
O : tampilan daftar nilai akhir

4. P : membuat lembar hasil studi


I : data nilai akhir, data mahasiswa
O : lembar hasil studi

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Jawab Soal-1
(c) Model Sistem Informasi (Lanjutan)
5. P : membuat laporan hasil studi
I : data nilai akhir, data mata kuliah
O : laporan hasil studi.

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Contoh Soal IPO-2
Sistem Informasi Persediaan Barang berjalan sbb :
1. Dokumen penerimaan barang dari supplier
diterima oleh gudang
2. Bag gudang akan memperbaharui data persediaan
yang ada
3. Petugas dari supplier menerima bukti terima
barang
4. Bag. Administrasi mengajukan permintaan
barang ke gudang, petugas gudang memeriksa
data yg diminta dan mencatat pengeluaran
barang dan memperbaruinya
5. Bag administrasi menerima bukti permintaan
barang
6. Kepala bagian menerima laporan persediaan
barang. 40
Jawab Soal-2 :
Identifikasi Kebutuhan Sistem
Komputerisasi : (a) Proses

Proses-proses yang dikomputerisasi :


1. Mencatat data barang
2. Mencatat penerimaan barang
3. Memperbaharui data persediaan
4. Membuat bukti terima barang
5. Mencatat permintaan barang
6. Memperbarui data pengeluaran
7. Membuat bukti permintaan barang
8. Membuat laporan persediaan barang.

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Jawab Soal-2 :
Identifikasi Kebutuhan Sistem Komputerisasi : (b)
Data Masukan/Keluaran

Data Masukan : ???


1. Daftar Identitas Barang
2. Dokumen Penerimaan Barang

Data Keluaran : ???


1. Lap Persediaan Barang

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Jawab Soal-2 :
Identifikasi Kebutuhan Sistem Komputerisasi : (c)
Model Sistem Informasi

1. P : Mencatat data barang


I : Daftar identitas barang
O : Data barang (master)

2. P : Mencatat penerimaan barang


I : Dok penerimaan barang, data barang (master)
O : Data terima barang

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Jawab Soal-2 :
Identifikasi Kebutuhan Sistem Komputerisasi : (c)
Model Sistem Informasi

3. P : Memperbaharui data persediaan


I : Data stok barang, data terima barang
O : Data stok barang (hasil update)

4. P : Membuat bukti terima barang


I : Data terima barang
O : Dokumen bukti terima barang

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Jawab Soal-2 :
Identifikasi Kebutuhan Sistem Komputerisasi : (c)
Model Sistem Informasi

5. P : Mencatat permintaan barang


I : Data permintaan barang
O : Data keluar barang

6. P : Memperbaharui data pengeluaran


I : Data stok barang, data keluar barang
O : Data stok barang (hasil update)

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Jawab Soal-2 :
Identifikasi Kebutuhan Sistem Komputerisasi : (c)
Model Sistem Informasi

7. P : Membuat bukti permintaan barang


I : Data permintaan barang
O : Dokumen bukti permintaan barang

8. P : Membuat laporan persediaan barang


I : Data stok barang, data barang (master)
O : Laporan persediaan barang (dokumen
dan tampilan)

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Sebuah Toko swalayan melayani penjualan barang secara
tunai dan kredit (khusus untuk karyawan toko tsb.).
Agar pelayanan yang lebih cepat, sistem ingin dibantu
oleh komputer dengan prosedur sebagai berikut :
1. Pembeli datang dan membawa barang yang dibelinya ke
kasir.
2. Petugas kasir memasukkan barang yang dibeli ke
komputer dan merekamnya ke file penjualan dan secara
otomatis data saldo barang pada file barang di-
updatenya.
3. Petugas menginformasikan total pembayaran ke
pembeli, lalu petugas menerima pembayaran dan
mencatatnya di komputer untuk direkam ke file
pembayaran. Untuk penjualan kredit, petugas mencatat
identitas pembeli dan jumlah uang pembayaran ke file
piutang.
4. Petugas mencetakkan bukti pembayaran untuk pembeli.
5.Setiap hari petugas membuat Laporan penjualan dan
laporan keuangan untuk Supervisor, serta laporan
permintaan barang untuk Gudang.
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BAGIAN III
PERANGKAT PEMODELAN
SISTEM
(Konvensional)
3.1. Flow Chart
is a type of diagram that
represents an algorithm or
Flow Chart

process, showing the steps


as boxes of various kinds,
and their order by
connecting these with
arrows.
Teknik Industri Universitas Pancasila 49
A simple flowchart representing a process
for dealing with a non-functioning lamp
Flow Chart

Teknik Industri Universitas Pancasila 50


Data flows are not typically
represented in a flowchart, in
contrast with data flow
Flow Chart

diagrams; rather, they are


implied by the sequencing of
operations. Flowcharts are used
in analyzing, designing,
documenting or managing a
process or program in various
fields. Teknik Industri Universitas Pancasila 51
There are many different types of
flowcharts, and each type has its
own repertoire of boxes and
Flow Chart

notational conventions. The two


most common types of boxes in a
flowchart are:
a processing step, usually called activity,
and denoted as a rectangular box
a decision, usually denoted as a diamond.

Teknik Industri Universitas Pancasila 52


A flowchart is described as "cross-functional" when the
page is divided into different swimlanes describing the
control of different organizational units.
Flow Chart

Teknik Industri Universitas Pancasila 53


Network Diagram BAGIAN III
PERANGKAT PEMODELAN
SISTEM
(Konvensional)
3.2. Network Diagram
PDM and ADM Nomenclature
Network Diagram

LS LF LS LF
Activity Name Activity Name LS Activity Name LF
Duration Duration ES Duration EF
ES EF ES EF

PRECEDENCE ARROW
ES : Earliest Start EARLIEST FINISH (EF)
EF : Earliest Finish (EF) = (ES) + (D)
LS : Latest Start
LF : Latest Finish
LATEST START (LS)
(LS) = (LF) - (D)

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Network Diagram Dependency Types

1. Finish-to-start (FS)
FS
Activity A Activity B B can start if A finishes
2. Start-to-start (SS)
Activity A
SS
Activity B
B cant start until A starts
3. Finish-to-finish (FF)
Activity A
FF B cant finish until A
Activity B
finishes
Activity A
4. Start-to-finish (SF)
Activity B B cant finish until A starts
SF

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Lag
delay in the successor task. Activity A
Network Diagram Duration = 14 d
Example : FS with 4 days lag
14 Activity B
0
Activity B cannot start until 4 Duration = 2 d

days after Activity A has FS 4 d lag 18 20


finished

Activity A Lead
Duration = 14 d allows an acceleration of the
successor task.
0 14
FS 4 d lead Lead = - Lag
Example : FS with 4 days lead
Activity B
Duration = 2 d Activity B can start 4 days before
Activity A has finished
10 12

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Network Diagram example
ACT. PRED. DEPENDEN
CY, LAGS
A10 - FS, 0
A20 A10 FS, 0
A30 A20 FS, 0
A40 A10 FS, 0
A50 A40 FS, 0
A60 A30, A50 FS, 0

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Sample of Network Diagram

A20 A30
S F
T I
A N
R A10 A60 I
T S
H

A40 A50

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CPM Calculations
time variable based
(Forward & Backward)
4 A 7 7 A 8
20 30
2 3 5 5 1 6
S F
T I
0 A 2 8 A 13
A N
10 60
R I
T 0 2 2 8 5 13 S
H
0 2 A 6 6 A 8
40 50 13
2 4 6 6 2 8

LEGEND LATE ACTIVITY LATE


START NAME FINISH
Backward
EARLY DURATION EARLY
START FINISH
Forward
Tugas: Buatlah network diagramnya !

Teknik Industri Universitas Pancasila 61


Context Diagram BAGIAN III
PERANGKAT PEMODELAN
SISTEM
(Konvensional)
3.3. Data Flow Diagram Context Level
(Context Diagram)
Data Flow Diagram Context Level
(Context Diagram)
Context Diagram

Context Diagram (CD) adalah


kasus dari DFD (bagian dari DFD
yang berfungsi memetakan model
lingkungan), yang dipresentasikan
dengan lingkaran tunggal yang
mewakili keseluruhan sistem.
CD Menyoroti Sejumlah
Karakteristik Penting Sistem
Context Diagram

Kelompok pemakai; organisasi atau sistem


lain dimana sistem kita melakukan
komunikasi yang disebut juga sebagai
terminator.
Data masuk; data yang diterima sistem
dari lingkungan dan harus diproses dengan
cara tertentu.
Data keluar; data yang dihasilkan sistem
kita dan diberikan ke dunia luar.
Batasan antara sistem kita dan lingkungan
(rest of the world).
Aturan-aturan CD
Context Diagram
Bagian termudah adalah menetapkan
proses yang hanya terdiri dari satu
lingkaran tunggal dan diberi nama yang
mewakili sistem.
Jika terdapat terminator yang mempunyai
banyak masukan dan keluaran,
diperbolehkan untuk digambarkan lebih
dari satu kali.
Jika terminator mewakili individu (personil)
sebaiknya diwakili oleh peran yang
dimainkan personil tersebut.
Antara terminator tidak
diperbolehkan komunikasi langsung.
Lambang-lambang CD
Context Diagram

Rest of the world

Terminator

Data Masuk dan Data Keluar


Contoh Context Diagram
Context Diagram

Data Customer
Data Pem bayaran Bag.
Customer
Data Retur Daftar Bayar Keuangan

Sistem
Daftar Barang
Penjualan
Nota Bayar
Tunai
Nota Retur
Data Barang

Bag. Lap. Penjualan


Pim pinan
Penjualan Daftar Customer
Daftar Bayar Lap. Retur
Daftar Retur
Context Diagram Prosedur Proses :
Customer menyerahkan data customer dan daftar
pembelian produk ke bagian penjualan.
Penjualan menerima daftar pembelian barang, kemudian
mengecek daftar pembelian tersebut dengan melihat
data produk yang berasal dari bagian gudang.
Bagian penjualan membuat daftar pembelian rangkap 3.
Daftar pembelian yang pertama diserahkan kebagian
gudang, yang ke2 digunakan untuk membuat nota
pembayaran rangkap 3 dan laporan data customer.
Laporan data customer dibuat rangkap 2, lembar 1
diberikan kepada bagian pimpinan dan lembar 2 sebagai
arsip sedangkan nota pembayaran 1 diserahkan ke bagian
keuangan, rangkap ke2 diserahkan ke customer sebagai
tanda bukti pembayaran dan yang ke3 untuk diarsip.
Context Diagram Prosedur Proses :
- Setelah bagian produksi menerima daftar pembelian dari
bagian penjualan, bagian produksi menghitung data
produk dan mengecek daftar pembelian serta membuat
data produk sebanyak rangkap 2.
- Lembar 1 diberikan lagi ke bagian penjualan, lembar 2
akan diolah untuk membuat laporan data produk yang
akan diserahkan ke pimpinan.
- Pada bagian keuangan, nota bayar yang berasal dari bagian
penjualan diolah menjadi faktur penjualan.
- Faktur hasil pengolahan untuk selanjutnya akan digunakan
dalam pembuatan laporan penjualan yang masing-masing
rangkap 2.
- Lembar 1 diberikan kepada bagian pimpinan dan lembar 2
sebagai dokumen.
- Pimpinan Operasional memeriksa dan meng ACC
laporan-laporan tersebut dan dijadikan arsip.
Flow of Document (FoD)
Penjualan
Context Diagram
Customer Bag. Penjualan Bag. Gudang Bag. Keuangan Pimpinan

B
A C F E G
Data
Data Customer
Customer
Data Pembelian Data Daftar 1 Nota 1
Barang Data Pembelian Barang Pembayaran Lap Data
Pembelian
Barang Lap. Data Customer
Barang
Lap.
Cek Daftar & Penjualan
Menghitung Buat Faktur
dftr Barang Penjualan
Cek Daftar
Pembelian
Periksa
& ACC
Data Barang
Laporan
Lap Data
Data Barang Faktur
Customer
Daftar 3 Penjualan
ACC
Pembelian Lap. Data
B
Daftar 2 Barang ACC
Pembelian Buat Lap.
Laporan Buat Penjualan
D Daftar 1
Data Barang Laporan ACC
Pembelian
Penjualan

Nota 2 Lap. Data 2


Pembayaran A Barang
Lap. Data Lap. 2
Barang Penjualan
Lap.
Buat Nota Penjualan
Bayar, lap
customer
E
Nota 3 F
Pembayaran
Nota 2
Pembayaran
Nota 1
Pembayaran
Data
Customer D
C

Buat Lap
Customer

Lap Data 2
Customer
Lap Data
Customer

G
Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) BAGIAN III
PERANGKAT PEMODELAN
SISTEM
(Konvensional)
3.4. Data Flow Diagram
Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs)
Graphic representation of a system
that uses a small number of symbol
shapes to illustrate how data flows
through interconnected processes
Most natural way to document
processes
Emphasis on processes rather than
data

B-72
Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs)
DFD Symbols
DFDs consist of four symbols
1) Environmental elements called
terminators
Person
Organization
Another system
2) Processes which transform inputs to
outputs
Labeled with verb and object
Also labeled with system or computer program
name

B-73
Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs)
DFD Symbols [cont.]
DFD symbols [cont.]
Data flows which consist of logically
related data elements that travel from one
point or process to another. In other words,
data in motion.
Structures
Diverge
Converge
Data stores which are data repositories. In
other words, data at rest.
B-74
Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) Mail A Context Diagram of a
Customer Sales Commission System

Sales
Commission
System

Sales
commission
report
Sales
Manager
B-75
Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs)
When Drawing a Context Diagram
1. Use only a single process symbol
2. Label the process symbol to represent
the entire system
3. Do not number the single process
symbol
4. Include all terminators for the system
5. Show all the data flows between the
terminators and the system

B-76
A Data Flow Diagram (Figure
Mail
Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) Customer
0 Diagram) of a Sales
1.
Open
Commission System
mail Sales
orders

Entered
2. sales orders
Enter sales Sales order
order data
Entered form file
sales order
data
3.
Sort
sales Sorted
order s sales
records
Sales commission
4. report Sales
Compute
sales manager
commissions
Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs)
Figure n Diagrams
Documents a single process of a DFD in
a greater amount of detail
n represents the number of the process
on the next higher level that is being
documented
The term leveled DFDs describe the
hierarchy of diagrams ranging from
context to the lowest-level figure n
diagram
B-78
Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs)
Figure 4 Diagram of a Sales Commission
Sorted System
3
sales
records

4.1
Compute
commission
amounts
Sales
commission
report
4.2 Sales
Accumulate manager
totals
Commission
amounts
Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs)
How Many Levels to Use?
Restrict a single DFD to no more than
six to eight processes
Use another tool to document the
lowest level of detail but use no more
than a single page.

B-80
Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) Data Flow Diagramming
Guidelines
1. Label each data flow with a unique name.
2. Keep data flow names constant between
levels.
3. Show proper disposition of records deleted
from a data store.
4. When documenting a computer program, do
not include reads/writes.
5. Avoid read-only processes.
6. Write-only processes are permissible when
time serves as the trigger.
B-81
FFBD- Functional Flow Block Diagram BAGIAN III
PERANGKAT PEMODELAN
SISTEM
(Konvensional)
3.5. FFBD
FFBD- Functional Flow Block Diagram
definition :

A Functional Flow Block Diagram (FFBD) is a multi-


tier, time-sequenced, step-by-step flow diagram of a
systems functional flow.
The FFBD notation was developed in the 1950s, and
is widely used in classical systems engineering.
FFBDs are one of the classic business process
modeling methodologies, along with flow charts, data
flow diagrams, control flow diagrams, Gantt charts,
PERT diagrams, and IDEF.
FFBD- Functional Flow Block Diagram

EXAMPLE :
FFBD- Functional Flow Block Diagram

Development :
FFBD- Functional Flow Block Diagram

EXAMPLE :
FFBD- Functional Flow Block Diagram

Function Symbol :
FFBD- Functional Flow Block Diagram

Directed Lines :
FFBD- Functional Flow Block Diagram

AND symbol :
FFBD- Functional Flow Block Diagram

Exclusive OR Symbol :
FFBD- Functional Flow Block Diagram

Inclusive OR Symbol :
FFBD- Functional Flow Block Diagram

FFBD Function 0 Ilustration:
FFBD- Functional Flow Block Diagram

FFBD Function 2 Ilustration :
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method BAGIAN III
PERANGKAT PEMODELAN
SISTEM
(Konvensional)
3.6. IDEF0
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method What is IDEF?
Definition: IDEF is the common name referring
to classes of enterprise modeling languages.
Objective: IDEF is used for modeling activities
necessary to support system analysis, design,
improvement or integration.
Originally, IDEF was developed to enhance
communication among people trying to
understand the system. Now, IDEF is being
used for documentation, understanding,
design, analysis, planning, and Integration.
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method
IDEF History
In the 1970s, IDEF0 originated in the U.S. Air
Force under the Integrated Computer Aided
Manufacturing(ICAM) program from a well-
established graphical language, the Structured
Analysis and Design Technique (SADT).
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method
IDEF Family
IDEF Family of Methods:
IDEF0: for Function Modeling (purpose:description)
IDEF1: for Information Modeling.
(purpose:description)
IDEF1x: for Data Modeling. (purpose:design)
IDEF3: for Process Modeling. (purpose:description)
IDEF4: for Object-Oriented Design.
(purpose:design)
IDEF5: for Ontology Description Capture.
(purpose:description)
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method
IDEF0 models the decisions, actions, and activities
of an organization or system, in order to
communicate the functional perspective of a
system.
IDEF0 models are created as one of the first tasks
of a system development effort because they
describe:
the functions that are performed,
what is needed to perform those functions,
IDEF0 was released as a standard for Function Modeling
by the Computer Systems Laboratory of the National
Institute of Standards and Technology. (1993)
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method
Syntax:
Context Diagram: is a model of the function at the
highest level of inputs, controls, outputs, and
mechanisms
Controls

Inputs Function Name Outputs

Inputs: items that trigger the activity


Mechanisms Controls: guide or regulate the activity
Mechanisms: systems, people,
equipment used to perform the activity
Outputs: results of performing the
activity
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method
Decomposition Diagram: links together the
context diagrams
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method STRENGTHS
The model has proven effective in detailing the
system activities for function modeling.
IDEF0 models provide an abstraction away from
timing, sequencing and decision logic. However, it
is easy to use IDEF0 for modeling activity
sequences whenever needed. (Order the activities
from left to right in the decomposition diagram).
Provides a concise description of systems, by
using the ICOMS. (Inputs, Controls, Output,
Mechanism)
The hierarchical nature of IDEF0 allows the
system to be easily refined into greater detail until
the model is as descriptive as necessary for the
decision making task.
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method

WEAKNESSES
IDEF models might be so concise that only the
domain experts can understand.
IDEF models are sometimes misinterpreted as
representing a sequence of activities.
The abstraction away from timing, sequencing and
decision logic leads to comprehension difficulties
for the people outside the domain.
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method

EXAMPLE
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method

EXAMPLE (2):
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method

Approach:
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method

Box Syntax:
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method

Arrow Position and role:
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method

Label and name semantic:
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method

Example Top Level:
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method
Structure
Decomposition
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method

Detail Reference
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method

Arrow Fork and Join Structure
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method

Connection Between Boxes:
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method

Boundary and internal arrow:
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method

Typical node tree:
IDEF0- Function Modeling Method Negative Node-Numbered Context :
Integrated Definition (IDEF)
BAGIAN III
PERANGKAT PEMODELAN
SISTEM

3.7. Other IDEF


IDEF1- Information Modeling Method
IDEF1 is a method for both analyzing and
communicating the structure and semantics of
information within a system.
IDEF1 models are used to:
IDEF-1

Identify what information is currently managed in a real-world


system, both automated system components, and non-
automated objects (e.g. people).
Identify the rules for managing the information.
Identify deficiencies in the current management of the
information.
Specify what information will be managed in a TO-BE
implementation. (TO-BE implementation: Design of the
functional architecture)
IDEF1- Information Modeling Method
Main IDEF1 Concepts
Entities: Represent the information maintained in a
system about the real-world objects
IDEF-1

Distinguishing properties:
Persistent
May be individuated
Attributes:
Key
Non-key
Relations: Association between entities
IDEF1- Information Modeling Method
IDEF-1
IDEF1- Information Modeling Method
STRENGTHS
IDEF1 requires active participation of the information
users, which serves to accurately model where and
how the information is used and managed.
IDEF-1

An effective method for documenting the


informational requirements of an enterprise, providing
a foundation for database design.
IDEF1 enforces a modularity that eliminates the
incompleteness, imprecision, inconsistencies, and
inaccuracies found in the modeling process.
IDEF1x- Data Modeling Method
IDEF1X is a method for designing relational databases.
IDEF1X Model: Graphical and Textual depiction of
What must I know to do what I do?
IDEF-1X

IDEF1X is most useful for logical database design after


the information requirements are known and the
decision to implement a relational database has been
made.
IDEF1X was released as a standard for Data Modeling
by the Computer Systems Laboratory of the National
Institute of Standards and Technology. (1993)
IDEF1x- Data Modeling Method
EXAMPLE (ref:[2])
IDEF-1X
IDEF1x- Data Modeling Method
EXAMPLE (ref:[2])
IDEF-1X
IDEF1x- Data Modeling Method

STRENGTHS
Powerful tool for data modeling.
IDEF-1X

IDEF1X dont have numerous variants, unlike ER.


Depicts the rules governing the management of information.
Used to validate the concepts in the associated IDEF0 model.
Helps to discover underlying causes for problems.
WEAKNESSES
The modeler must be experienced in order to create good models.
Not suited to serve as an AS-IS analysis tool.
IDEF1 (information Model) vs.
IDEF1x (Data Model)
Information Model Data Model
focuses on: focuses on:
Information collected, stored, Actual data elements in a
and managed by the organization relational database
Logical relationships within the Representation & structure of
organization reflected in the the data
information
used for: used for:
Problem identification Logical design of databases &
Requirements definition applications
Information system design Physical design of database
implementation
IDEF3- Process Description Model
IDEF3 is a mechanism for collecting and documenting
processes. IDEF3 captures the behavioral aspects of an
existing or proposed system. (temporal information,
including precedence and causality relationships associated
IDEF-3

with enterprise processes.)


The resulting IDEF3 descriptions provide a structured
knowledge base for constructing analytical and design
models. (unlike simulation languages that build predictive
mathematical models, IDEF3 builds structured
descriptions.)
These descriptions capture information about what a
system actually does or will do and also provide for the
organization and expression of different user views of the
system.
Source: http://www.idef.com/idef3.html
IDEF3- Process Description Model
The development of an IDEF3 Process Flow Description
consists of expressing facts, collected from domain experts, in
terms of five basic descriptive building blocks.
Activity
IDEF-3

Denoted as arcs
Logic Process
Denoted as junction boxes Description
Diagram
Unit of Behavior
Denoted as boxes Object
Object State State
Denoted as circles Transition
State Transition Network
Denoted as arcs

Source: http://www.idef.com/idef3.html
IDEF3- Process Description Model
Organizing Structure: Scenario
A scenario can be thought of as a recurring situation, a set of
situations that describe a typical class of problems addressed
by an organization or system, or the setting within which a
process occurs.
IDEF-3

Example
Scenario:
Parts enter the shop ready for the primer coat to be applied.
We apply one very heavy coat of primer paint at a very high
temperature. The paint is allowed to dry in a bake oven after
which a paint coverage test is performed on the part. If the
test reveals that not enough primer paint has been sprayed
on the surface of the part, the part is re-routed through the
paint shop again. If the part passes the inspection, it is routed
to the next stop in the process.
Source: http://www.idef.com/idef3.html
IDEF3- Process Description Model
Process Description Diagram of the Example
IDEF-3

Source: http://www.idef.com/idef3.html
IDEF3- Process Description Model
Object State Transition Network of the Example
IDEF-3

Source: http://www.idef.com/idef3.html
IDEF3- Process Description Model
Other Example
IDEF-3

Source: (Zakarian & Kusiak, 2001)


IDEF3- Process Description Model
Other Example
IDEF-3

Source: (Bosilj-Vuksics , 2000)


IDEF3- Process Description Model
Discussion
The statement of IDEF3 sounds like
IDEF-3

Is IDEF3 a good
way to represent
process
reference models
Schema ?

Process

Model

Source: http://www.isye.gatech.edu/~lfm/8851/ISyE8851.html
IDEF4- O-O Design Method
IDEF4 method is designed to assist in creating object-oriented
programming software.
IDEF4 provides a framework for navigating an evolving object-
oriented design.
IDEF-4

IDEF4 divides the object-oriented design activity into discrete


chunks. A graphical syntax highlights the design decisions that
must be made and their impact on other perspectives of the
design.
IDEF4 model consists of two submodels, the class submodel
and the method submodel. These two structures capture all the
information represented in a design model.
IDEF4- O-O Design Method
IDEF-4
IDEF5 - Ontology Description Method

An ontology is a domain vocabulary complete with a


set of precise definitions or axioms that constrain
the meanings of the terms sufficiently, to enable
consistent interpretation of the data that use that
IDEF-5

vocabulary.
General ontology construction steps:
1. catalog the terms;
2. capture the constraints that govern how those
terms can be used to make descriptive statements
about the domain; and
3. build the model.
IDEF5 - Ontology Description
Method
The IDEF5 ontology development process consists of
the following activities.
Data Collection of raw data needed for ontology
IDEF-5

development.
Data Analysis to facilitate ontology extraction.
Initial Ontology Development to develop a
preliminary ontology from the data gathered.
Ontology Refinement and Validation.
REALITY NARRATIVE
MODEL
INTERVENE

SYMBOLIC
MODEL
The
PLANNING
modeling
MODEL cycle COMPUTATIONAL
MODEL
I DEF

NORMATIVE
MODEL SYNTHETIC
MODEL
Rasmussen - Design Maps Definition
Map 1: Domain, tasks, and user in context
Map 2: Knowledge base
Map 3: Road maps for navigation
Map 4: Knowledge representation in
design
Map 5: Display composition
Side by Side Comparison
Map 1: Domain, tasks, IDEF0 (IDEF Function
and user in context Modeling)
Map 2: Knowledge base IDEF1 (IDEF Information
Modeling)
Map 3: Road maps for
IDEF1X (IDEF Data
navigation Modeling)
Map 4: Knowledge IDEF3 (IDEF Process
representation in design Modeling)
Map 5: Display IDEF4 (IDEF Object-
composition Oriented Design)
IDEF5 (IDEF Ontology
Description Capture)
Rasmussen Map 1 compared to IDEF0-
Diagram
Decomposition Diagram: links together the context
diagrams Means-Ends Representations/Properties
Goals, WHY
constraints
Abstract WHAT
WHY
functions
General WHAT HOW
functions WHY

Physical WHAT HOW


processes
Physical form HOW
Key
Both require an expert in the field to use
and understand the model
This is a result of the method being a very
high level concept and developing the details
for any single application is not a trivial matter
Advantage of IDEF
IDEF 5 attempts to incorporate the
vocabulary of the specific application
BAGIAN IV
SISTEM MANUFAKTUR
Manufacturing System
Kapasitas
Kuantitas Gaji
Tipe Kuantitas

Tenaga Kerja

Bahan Baku Mesin/peralatan produksi Produk Jadi

Energi Harga
Kuantitas Produksi
Kuantitas Permintaan
Harga Harga
Kuantitas Kuantitas
Biaya Biaya
Komposisi Komposisi

147
A Systems View of Manufacturing
Manufacturing can be viewed either as a
transformation process or as a system.
As a Transformation Process: A
narrow definition of manufacturing is that
it a process of transformation where raw
material are converted into products.
As a System: Manufacturing is not
limited to materials transformation
performed in a factory. Rather, it is a
complex system comprising of several
elements.
Flow of Materials, Information and Cost

PLANNING

Information
RAW Flow of Materials
MATERIALS PROCESS PRODUCTS

Flow of
CONTROL
Flow
of cost

Figure 2.3: Flow of Material, Information and Costs (Hitomi, 1996)


A Systems View of Manufacturing
This involves an internal environment and
an external environment.
The inputs are from the external
environment and involve several variables.
The outputs are to the external
environment and also involve several
variables.
INPUTS EXTERNAL
- FINANCIAL ENVIRONMENT
- HUMAN
- MATERIAL
- INFORMATION
- TECHNOLOGY
TRANSFORMATION
PROCESS
INTERNAL
LABORS EFFORTS ENVIRONMENT

MANAGEMENT
TECHNOLOGY

OPERATIONS

OUTPUTS
PRODUCTS/SERVICES
FINANCIAL
CONSEQUENCES
HUMAN
CONSEQUENCES

Figure 2.2: Systems View of Manufacturing (Murthy, 1995a)


A Systems View of Manufacturing
Can be viewed from three different Aspects:
Technical: Dealing with engineering,
science and technology issues.
Commercial: Dealing with financial,
marketing, legal issues
Management: Dealing with planning,
operations and other related issues such as
information. And also organisational
issues dealing with human related issues.
MANUFACTURING: DIFFERENT
PERSPECTIVES

It can also be viewed from three


different perspectives:
Firm level,
Industry level and
Regional or global level.
Firm Level
Manufacturing at the firm level involves
several variables which can be broadly
grouped into the following three categories:
Technical
Commercial
Management
Technical

The technical side has been


discussed before and involves various
issues related to the science,
engineering and technology aspects
of manufacturing.
Commercial
The commercial side deals with issues
such as costs, sales, revenue and profits.
Each of these involves many variables.
For example, the costs can be investment
costs, unit manufacturing costs, cost of
rework and so on. The basic bottom line
for a firm is that it must make reasonable
profit for its investment.
Management
Deal with managing the various activities
at strategic and operational levels taking
into account the many different legal and
socio-political aspects and various
constraints.
Another very important issue relates to
the organizational side that deals with the
human related issues organisational
structure, communication and flow of
information, skill base of the workforce
and so on.
National Level
In the national level, a manufacturing firm
is influenced by factors such as market
competition and government policies.
Obviously, the market competition is not
only determined by manufactured goods
within the nation but also affected by
imported manufactured goods.
National Level
Some of the government policies that
affect the manufacturing enterprise are
indicated below.
Industry or Technology development
policies,
Taxation policies,
Environmental policies.
Trade policies export and import
subsidies, protection
Financial investment
Regional and Global Levels

Manufacturing at the regional and global


levels deals with the following factors :
Fierce competition
Open market - free trade
Trade organisation - regional partnerships
A THREE LEVEL MODEL OF
MANUFACTURING
Manufacturing is a complex system
involving several elements. It can be
viewed as a three level system (Level 1 -
3)
Note that Level 1 is nested within Level 2,
in turn, is nested within Level 3. We briefly
discuss the elements at each of these
levels.
Level 3 Strategic Level
Research and
Development Finance Partnerships

Level 2 Operations Level

Accounting Legal Planning

Level 1 Process Level

Inputs Processes Outputs CUSTOMERS


SUPPLIERS

Human Environmental Marketing


Resource

New Technologies Socio/Political New Markets

Figure 2.9: Three Level Model of Manufacturing (Murthy, 1995b)


Level 1

This level corresponds to the shop floor


level and has three key elements - Inputs,
Process and Outputs.
Level 2

This level includes Level 1 as well as six


new elements. The focus of this level is
management of business at the operations
level and the six new elements with a
range of operational issues.
Level 3

This level includes the Levels 1 and 2 and


six new elements. Here, the management
focus is long term and strategic.
This is important, as survival of businesses
in the fiercely competitive global market
requires long term strategies. The six new
elements deal with a range of long term
issues.
BAGIAN V
PENDEKATAN SISTEM
Pendekatan sistem adalah metodologi sistematis untuk
mendefinisikan masalah dan mengevaluasi solusi
sebuah metode umum untuk menginvestigasi sistem
Pendekatan sistem
fisik (Ossenbruggen, 1994)

Karakteristik
Memisahkan pengambilan keputusan menjadi
beberapa tahapan untuk masalah yang kompleks
Menyediakan kerangka analitik (berbasis rasional)
untuk pengambilan keputusan
Dapat diterapkan untuk proses yang kompleks,
interaktif, dan mahal
Menyeluruh (Comprehensive)
Sub-system dihubungkan melalui keputusan-
keputusan utama
Pendekatan sistem
Problem
Objectives Criteria
Definition

Data Collection Models

Review Resources Sensitivity


Analysis

Constraints Alternatives

Implementation Selection Evaluation


Problem
Perbedaan antara apa yang diharapkan
dan yang sebenarnya
PROBLEM

Mendefinisikan masalah secara


benar berarti setengah penyelesaian

Sangat sulit untuk mengekstrak


jawaban yang benar dari
permasalahan yang salah
Objective: Suatu hal yang akan dicapai
Objective harus SMART (Specific,
OBJECTIVE

Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timed)


Objective bertujuan untuk mengarahkan
hasil dari sistem
Untuk memastikan keberhasilan sebuah
sistem dapat dicek / dibandingkan dengan
tujuannya setelah diimplementasikan
Index yang akan merepresentasikan
derajat pencapaian tujuan
Berfungsi untuk mengevaluasi dan
CRITERIA

ukuran performa
Dapat dirangking dan dibandingkan
dengan tujuan
Harus relevant dan dapat diperoleh
(collectable)
Contoh: suhu, waktu, kecepatan, dsb
Kendala akan membatasi derajat
ketersediaan sumberdaya atau
CONSTRAINTS

kondisi output dari proyek shg


tidak bisa diterima.
Isu finansial, hukum, sosial, dan
politik akan membatasi alternatif
yang akan menjadi pertimbangan
Alternatif adalah pilihan-pilihan potensial
yang dimiliki untuk menyelesaikan
ALTERNATIVES

permasalahan (problem)
Analis harus kreatif dan inovatif
Alternatif do nothing harus menjadi
salah satu alternatif yang
dipertimbangkan dan digunakan sebagai
dasar untuk membandingkan performa
alternatif yang lain
Data collection
Dapat berupa data primer atau data
sekunder
Data primer: langsung dari sumber
data kepada pengumpul data
Data sekunder: tidak langsung dari
sumber data, misalnya melalui orang
lain atau dokumen
Teknik pengumpulan data: wawancara,
kuisioner, observasi
Model matematis
Merupakan sebuah sistem persamaan-persamaan
dan ekspresi matematis yang mendeskripsikan
esensi dari masalah
Simbol-simbol matematis digunakan untuk
merepresentasikan variabel-variabel
Diasumsikan bahwa semua variabel bisa
dikuantifikasikan
Hubungan antara variabel diekspresikan sebagai
fungsi matematis untuk mendeskripsikan
perilaku sistem
Teknik matematis digunakan untuk
menyelesaikannya, misalnya linear programming
Contoh
Pembakaran bahan bakar A menghasilkan 3kg
polutant , sedangkan B menghasilkan 5kg
polutant per tonnya. Per tonnya, A
menghasilkan 10 unit energi, sedangkan B
menghasilkan 12 unit. Maksimum 4 ton bahan
bakar dapat diproses setiap jamnya dan tidak
lebih dari 15kg polutant yang diijinkan untuk
dihasilkan setiap jamnya. Untuk
memaksimalkan energi yang dihasilkan,
berapakah masing-masing bahan bakar
dapat diproses?
Model simulasi
Merupakan replikasi atau imitasi perilaku
dari sebuah sistem
Variasi acak dapat diperhitungkan
Hubungan yang kompleks dapat dimodelkan
Sample design dan teknik statistik digunakan
untuk menganalisis hasil
Evaluation
Merupakan perbandingan metodikal dari
alternatif, berdasarkan kriteria-kriteria
tertentu, seperti ekonomi, sosial, finansial,
dsb.
Dilakukan pula perbandingan akan prediksi
konsekuensi dari setiap alternatif.
Teknik multi-attribute analysis biasanya
digunakan, seperti AHP (analytical hierarchy
process).
Sensitivity analysis
Merupakan investigasi variabilitas efek-efek
yang diprediksi dari alternatif, kaitannya
dengan asumsi yang dibuat.

Contoh parameter:
Prediksi kondisi ekonomi, mis. suku bunga
Tingkat demand, mis. Tingkat pertumbuhan
Umur asset atau teknologi
Biaya operasional dan pemeliharaan
Implementation
Merupakan kegiatan menterjemahkan hasil
ke dalam instruksi operasional

Membutuhkan:

Dukungan dari manajemen


Penjelasan, komunikasi, dan pelatihan
Seringkali melibatkan manajemen proyek
Review
Setelah implementasi sangatlah penting
untuk mengetahui bagaimana performanya.
Tujuan:
Apakah masalah awalnya sudah terselesaikan???
Apakah tujuannya sudah tercapai????
Memberikan feedback baik untuk prosesnya
maupun untuk perencanaan di masa depan
System analysis dan system
synthesis
Systems Analysis

Merupakan kegiatan mengidentifikasi komponen


penting dan interaksi dalam sistem yang diidentifikasi

Systems Synthesis

Hasil analisis sistem direpresentasikan dalam bentuk


matematik
Verification dan validation
Verification

Untuk memastikan bahwa model tersebut


merupakan representasi yang cukup akan
sistem.

Validation

Merupakan perbandingan hasil dari MODEL


dengan kondisi sebenarnya.
Application
Menggunakan model untuk menghasilkan
estimasi ukuran-ukuran performa dan efek
yang lain yang akan digunakan untuk
mengevaluasi alternatif.
Efek alternatif diprediksi menggunakan
model
Parameter model dan variabel input dapat
diubah untuk melakukan analisis sensitifitas
EXAMPLE
Model penjadwalan
Model matematika LP
Model transportasi
Model penugasan
Model antrian

Teknik Industri Universitas Pancasila 185