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Rocket Engine

Rocket Engine

A space rocket is a vehicle with a very powerful jet engine


designed to carry people or equipment beyond Earth and out
into space.

If we define space as the region outside Earth's atmosphere,


that means there is not enough oxygen to fuel the
conventional engine on a jet plane.

So one way to look at a rocket is as a very special kind of jet-


powered vehicle that carries its own oxygen supply.

What else can we figure out about rockets straight away?


They need great speed and a huge amount of energy to
escape the pull of gravity and stop them tumbling back down
to Earth like stones.
Vast speed and energy mean rocket engines have to generate
enormous forces.

How enormous?

In his famous 1962 speech regarding the efforts to go to the


Moon, US President John F. Kennedy compared the power of a
rocket to "10,000 automobiles with their accelerators on the
floor.

According to NASA's calculations, the Saturn V moon rocket


"generated 34.5 million Newton's (7.6 million pounds) of
thrust at launch
A rocket engine is a type of jet engine that uses only
stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high speed
propulsive jet.

Rocket engines are reaction engines, obtaining thrust in


accordance with Newton's third law.

Vehicles propelled by rocket engines are commonly


called rockets. Since they need no external material to form
their jet, rocket engines can perform in a vacuum and thus can
be used to propel spacecraft and ballistic missiles.

Rocket engines become more efficient at high velocities, since


they do not require an atmosphere, they are well suited for
uses at very high altitude and in space.
Chemical
Solar
Source of Energy
Nuclear
Electrical
Types of Rocket

Liquid
Propellants Used Solid
Hybrid
Single Stage
Number of Stage
Multi Stage
Short Range Small Rocket
Size and Range
Long Range Large Rocket
Space rocket
Military Rocket
Application Weather or Sounding rocket
Booster Rocket
Retro Rocket
Liquid-Propellant Rocket

Basic Parts:
1. Fuel Tank
2. Oxidizer Tank
3. Pumps
4. Combustion Chamber
5. Nozzle
In a liquid propellant rocket, stored fuel and stored oxidizer are pumped
into a combustion chamber where they are mixed and burned.

The combustion produces great amounts of exhaust gas at high


temperature and pressure.

The hot exhaust is passed through a nozzle which accelerates the flow.

Thrust is produced according to Newton's third law of motion.

The amount of thrust produced by the rocket depends on the mass flow
rate through the engine, the exit velocity of the exhaust, and the pressure
at the nozzle exit.

All of these variables depend on the design of the nozzle.

The smallest cross-sectional area of the nozzle is called the throat of the
nozzle.
Solid-Propellant Rocket
Rockets which use solid fuels and oxidizer are called as solid
propellant rocket engine.

Solid fuel and oxidizer are mixed in a single propellant grain


and packed into steel shell.

A cylindrical star shape cavity is provided for combustion in


the Centre along the axis of the shell.

Different shapes of this cavity can be employed to obtain


several patterns of the thrust burning time profiles.

A liner provided between the case and the propellant protects


the case from high temperature developing inside the
propellant layer.
The igniter located at the top starts the combustion process.

Once the flame front is established combustion is self-


sustaining.

The rate of burning for a given fuel oxidizer mixture depends


on the internal shape of the cast propellant shell

Solid propellant rockets are comparatively simple and lighter.


They are widely used in small sizes; however recent
developments have made it possible to design large size solid
propellant rockets also for space vehicle