asda

© All Rights Reserved

1 views

asda

© All Rights Reserved

- Corn-Belt-Energy-Corporation-Rate-4-Three-Phase-Commercial
- Appendix C_ Calculations
- Implementation of Fuzzy Sugeno Method for Power Efficiency
- Duke-Energy-Indiana-Inc-Standard-Contract-Rider-No.-70---Summer-Reliability-Adjustment
- Lakeland Electric Tariffs
- City of Newport - Residential Rates
- ABCD
- Flexi Saver - Home, (Jemena)
- Kauai-Island-Utility-Cooperative-Schedule-J---General-Light-and-Power-Service
- Basic - Home (Energex)
- Otter-Tail-Power-Co-Residential-service
- Energy
- Eastern Maine Electric Coop - March 1, 2017 Seasonal Residential Rate
- Rocky-Mountain-Power--General-Service-Energy-Time-of-Day-Option
- Gulf-Power-Co-General-Service-Time-of-Use-Conservation-(Optional-Schedule)
- Central-Vermont-Pub-Serv-Corp-Residential---Rate-1
- Butler-Rural-El-Coop-Assn,-Inc-Commercial-Medium-Rates
- Puget Sound Energy - Rider 95a - Jan2015
- City-of-Gallatin-Electric-Rates-Summary
- City-of-Gallatin-Electric-Rates-Summary

You are on page 1of 71

1.ELECTRIC ENERGY

In terms of natural resources electricity is an

expensive form of energy, since the

efficiency of heat-to-electricity conversion,

on a commercial scale, rarely exceeds 40%.

Electricity constitutes a form of energy itself

which occurs naturally only in unusable forms

such as lightning and other static discharges or in

the natural galvanic cells, which cause

corrosion. A galvanic cell is a spontaneous

electrochemical cell that produces electricity by

a spontaneous redox reaction.

The primary problem in the utilization of electric

is that, unlike fuels or even heat, it cannot be

stored and therefore must be generated and

utilized at the same instant.

The bulk of electric energy utilized today is in

the form of alternating current (a-c),

produced by a-c generators, commonly called

alternators. Direct-current (d-c) generators

are utilized for special applications requiring

large quantities of d-c. In the building field,

such a requirement is found in elevator work.

Smaller quantities of d-c, furnished either by

batteries or by rectifiers are utilized for

telephone and signal equipment, controls,

and other specialized uses.

2. UNIT OF ELECTRIC

CURRENT THE "AMPERE"

When electricity flows in a conductor, a

certain number of electrons pass a given

point in the conductor in 1 second.

Numerically, an ampere of current flows in a

conductor when 6.25 x 1018 electrons pass a

given cross section in 1 second.

Current or amperage, is abbreviated - Amp,

Amps or a. (on 120 volt service, the ordinary

100 Watt lamp filament carries about 0.833

amp, the motor for a desk calculator, about

1.00 amp.) Current is represented in

equations by 1.

It is convenient to establish an analogy between

electric systems and mechanical systems as an

aid to comprehension. Current, or amperage, is a

measure of flow and, and such, would

correspond to water flow in a hydraulic system.

The correspondence is not complete, however,

since in the hydraulic system the velocity of

water flow varies, whereas in the electric system

the velocity of propagation is constant and may

be considered instantaneous; hence, the need to

utilize the electric energy the instant it is

produced.

3. UNIT OF ELECTRIC POTENTIAL

THE "VOLT" OR "V"

The electron movement and its concomittant

energy, which constitutes electricity, is

caused by creating a higher positive electric

charge at one point on a conductor that '

exists at another point on that same

conductor. This difference in charge can be

created in a number of ways.

The oldest and simplest method is by

electrochemical action, as in the battery. In

the ordinary dry cell, or in a storage battery,

chemical action causes positive charges (+) to

collect on the positive terminal and electrons

or negative charges () to collect on the

negative terminals.

There is a definite force attraction, or

tendency to flow, between the electrified

particles concentrated at the positive and

negative terminals. Potential difference or

Voltage is the name given to this

electromotive force (emf). This force is

analogous to pressure in a hydraulic or

pneumatic system.

Just as the pressure produced by a pump or

blower causes water or air to flow in a

connecting pipe, so too the potential (emf,

voltage) produced by a battery (or generator)

causes current to flow when the terminals

between which a voltage exists are

connected by a conductor. The higher the

voltage (pressure), the higher the current

(flow) for a given resistance (friction).

4.UNIT OF ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE

The flow of fluid in a hydraulic system is

impeded by friction; the flow of current in an

electric circuit is impeded (resisted) by

resistance, which is the electrical term for

friction. In a direct-current circuit (d-c) this

unit is called resistance and is abbreviated R;

in an alternating-current circuit (a-c) it is

called impedance and is abbreviated Z. The

unit of measurement is called the ohm.

Materials display different resistance to the flow of

electric current. Metals generally have the least

resistance and are therefore called conductors. The

best conductors are the precious metalssilver, gold,

and platinumwith copper and aluminum only

slightly inferior. Conversely, materials that resist the

flow of current are called insulators. Glass, mica,

rubber, oil, distilled water, porcelain, and certain

synthetics such as phenolic compounds exhibit this

insulating property and are therefore used to insulate

electric conductors. Common examples are rubber

and plastic wire coverings, porcelain lamp sockets,

and oil-immersed switches.

5.OHMS LAW

OHM'S LAW

The current I that will flow in a d-c circuit is

directly proportional to the voltage V and

inversely proportional to the resistance R of

the circuit. Expressed as an equation, we have

the basic form of Ohm's law that

that is, a current 1 is produced that is

proportional to the electric pressure V and

inversely proportional to the electric friction

R.

Examples:

1) An incandescent lamp having a hot

resistance of 66 ohms is put into a socket that

is connected to a 115 V supply. What current

flows through the lamp?

(these figures correspond to a normal 200 W

lamp)

2)A bathroom heater draws 11 amperes at 120 V

what is its hot resistance?

)A bathroom heater draws 11 amperes at 120

V what is its hot resistance?

(these figures correspond to a 1320 W

portable heater) )A household electric water

heater is rated 220 V and 20 amperes. What is

the unit's resistance when drawing this

amount of current?

6. CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS

a) Series Circuits

The elements are connected one after the

other in series. Thus, the resistance and the

voltage add.

An electric circuit may be defined as a

complete conducting path that carries

current from a source of electricity to and

through some electrical device (or load) and

back to the source. A current can never flow

unless there is a complete (closed) circuit.

The battery voltage may be called Vab = 120v

The voltage across the load resistance, Vcd =

115v The resistance of the two wires rbc = rda

= 0.04 ohm.

Example:

The battery in the above figure is rated at

120v, the line resistance (both wires) is 0.04

ohm, and the load resistance is 1.15 ohms.

Determine the (a) current flowing in the

circuit, (b) the voltage across the load (Vcd)-

A )the current flowing is:

b)The voltage drop across the load is

in an incandescent lamp street lighting

circuits. The figure below explains that loss of

one lamp can disable the entire circuit.

Futhermore, the point of fault is difficult to

pinpoint, necessitating individual testing of

lamps.

b) Parallel Circuits

When two or more branches or loads in a

circuit are connected between the same two

points, they are said to be connected in

parallel or multiple. Such an arrangement and

its hydraulic equivalent are shown below.

From the circuit shown below, it should be

apparent that multiple loads are across the

same voltage and, in effect, constitute

separate circuits. From this we conclude that

the circuit is the sum of the individual

currents flowing in the branches that is,

Loads connected in parallel are equivalent to

separate circuits superimposed into a single

connection. Each load acts as an independent

circuit unrelated to, and unaffected by the

other circuits. Notice that the total current

flowing in the circuit is the sum of all the

branches, but that the current in each branch

is the result of a separate Ohm's Law

calculation. Thus in the 10-ohm load a 12-

amp current flows and so forth.

The parallel connection is the standard

arrangement in all building wiring. A typical

lighting and receptacle arrangement for a

large room is shown below.

Here the lights constitute one parallel

grouping, and the convenience wall outlets

constitute a second parallel grouping. The

fundamental principle to remember is that

loads in parallel are additive for current, and

that each has the same voltage imposed.

Current is inversely proportional to resist-

ance. Thus as resistance drops, current rises

under ordinary conditions that circuit will

carry 10 amp. and will operate normally.

But, if by some mischance, a connection

appears between points a and b, the circuit is

shortened so that there is no resistance in the

circuit. The current rises instantly to a very

high level, and the condition constitutes a

short circuit. If the circuit is properly

protected, the fuse or circuit breaker will

open, and the circuit will be disabled. If not,

excessive current will probably start a fire.

7. DIRECT CURRENT AND

ALTERNATING CURRENT

(d-c) and (a-c)

Direct currentwhenever the flow of

electric current takes place at a constant

time rate, practically unvarying and in the

same direction around the circuit. The

terms universally accepted are "d-c

voltage" or "d-c current". The d-c voltages

of 1.5v positive polarity, and 1.0v negative

polarity is shown below,

a) GRAPHIC representation of d-c voltages with

positive and negative polarity

b) CIRCUIT SYMBOL representation of

BATTERY SOURCE

Alternating Current whenever the flow of

current is periodically varying in time and in

direction, as indicated by the symmetrical

positive and negative loops or sine waves

as in the figure 2, it is called an alternating

current.

The distance along the time axis spanned by a

positive and negative a-c loop is called one cycle

of time. Modern a-c systems in the United States

operates at 60 cycles per second, or 60 hertz.

This means that current at 60 hertz'(Hz) is

delivered to the consumer. In a-c, instead of

resistance, the corresponding parameter in an a-

c circuit is impedance, which is also measured

in ohms. Thus for an a-c circuit, the equivalent

to Ohm's Law is

8.ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION

a)Direct CurrentSince the d-c generator is in

reality an a-c generator with a device

(commutator), attached, which rectifies the a-c

to d-c, the battery is still the only major direct

source of direct current. The d-c generators are

used where accurate speed control is desired, for

example, for elevators, or where d-c is required

on a larger and more sustained basis than would

be economical for batteries. Of course, a rotating

d-c generator unlike a battery, must be driven to

produce power. The prime mover can be a motor,

engine, turbine, or any other device that will

provide the required input power.

Another source of d-c power is rectification of

a-c that can be accomplished on any desired

scale to provide as much d-c power as there is

available a-c power. Various types of rectifiers

are in commercial use, including selenium,

silicon and copper-oxide types.

b)Alternating Current Alternating current is

produced commercially by an a-c generator,

called an alternator. The prime mover, as in the

case of the d-c units may be any type of engine

or Turbine. The process by which electricity is

produced is shown in the figures below. This

principle of electromagnetic induction states

that when an electrical conductor is moved in a

magnetic field, a voltage is induced in it. The

direction of the movement determines the

polarity of the induced voltage as shown.

If the conductor is formed into a coil and

rotated in the magnetic field, a voltage of

alternating polarity is produced, that is,

alternating current. It does not matter

whether the conductor or the magnet moves;

the motion of the conductor and the field

with respect to each other produces the

voltage.

9.POWER AND ENERGY

POWER AND ENERGY

Energyis the technical term for the more common

expression work. In terms of power, it is the product of

power and time, that is

energy or work = power x time

In practical terms, energy is synonymous with fuel and

therefore also cost. Thus energy can be expressed as barrels

(tons) of oil, cubic feet (cu. meters'. of gas, tons of coal,

kilowatt hours of electricity usage, and dollars/pesos of

operating cost. The concept of energy efficiency of

structures can be stated in terms of annual usage of oil, gas,

and electricity or alternatively in terms of $,peso or of total

fuel cost. In technical terms, energy is expressed in units of

Btu (calories), foot-pounds (joules), and kilowatt-hours.

Power is the rate at which energy is used, or

alternatively, the rate at which work is done. Since

energy and work are synonymous.

The term power implies continuity, that is, the use of

energy at a particular rate, over a given, generally

considerable, span of time. Thus multiplying power

by time yields energy. Typical units of power in the

English system are horsepower, Btu per hour, wall

and kilowatt. In the metric or SI System the

corresponding units are joules per second, calories

per second, watts and kilowatts. In physical terms

power is also the rate at which fuel (energy) is used.

Thus power can also be expressed as gallons (liters)

of oil per hour, cubic feet (cu. meters) of gas per

minute, and tons of coal per day.

10. POWER IN ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

POWER IN ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

The unit of electric power is the watt W. A larger

unit of 1000 watts is the kilowatt (kw). The power

input in watts to any electrical device having a

resistance R and in which the current is I is given

by the equation:

since the resistance of an item is generally not

known, but the circuit voltage and current are

known. It would be preferable to calculate Power

in this equation.

11. ENERGY IN ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

ENERGY IN ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

Since power is the rate of energy use, it follows

that energy = power x time. Therefore the

amount of energy used is directly proportional to

the power of the system and to the length of

time it is in operation. Since power is expressed

in either watts or kilowatts, and time in hours

(second and minutes are too small for use), we

have for units of energy: watt-hours (wh) or

kilowatt-hours (kwh) energy used for one hour.

NEXT CHAPTER...

- Corn-Belt-Energy-Corporation-Rate-4-Three-Phase-CommercialUploaded byGenability
- Appendix C_ CalculationsUploaded byBatak Ranau
- Implementation of Fuzzy Sugeno Method for Power EfficiencyUploaded byIJAERS JOURNAL
- Duke-Energy-Indiana-Inc-Standard-Contract-Rider-No.-70---Summer-Reliability-AdjustmentUploaded byGenability
- Lakeland Electric TariffsUploaded byGenability
- City of Newport - Residential RatesUploaded byGenability
- ABCDUploaded byMohammed Asif Abubakkar
- Flexi Saver - Home, (Jemena)Uploaded byGenability
- Kauai-Island-Utility-Cooperative-Schedule-J---General-Light-and-Power-ServiceUploaded byGenability
- Basic - Home (Energex)Uploaded byGenability
- Otter-Tail-Power-Co-Residential-serviceUploaded byGenability
- EnergyUploaded byRam Singh
- Eastern Maine Electric Coop - March 1, 2017 Seasonal Residential RateUploaded byGenability
- Rocky-Mountain-Power--General-Service-Energy-Time-of-Day-OptionUploaded byGenability
- Gulf-Power-Co-General-Service-Time-of-Use-Conservation-(Optional-Schedule)Uploaded byGenability
- Central-Vermont-Pub-Serv-Corp-Residential---Rate-1Uploaded byGenability
- Butler-Rural-El-Coop-Assn,-Inc-Commercial-Medium-RatesUploaded byGenability
- Puget Sound Energy - Rider 95a - Jan2015Uploaded byGenability
- City-of-Gallatin-Electric-Rates-SummaryUploaded byGenability
- City-of-Gallatin-Electric-Rates-SummaryUploaded byGenability
- Georgia-Power-Co-GENERAL-SERVICE-SCHEDULEUploaded byGenability
- Town of BoylstonUploaded byGenability
- Dominion-Virginia-Power-Rider-C2---Energy-EfficiencyUploaded byGenability
- SC3Uploaded byGenability
- Butler-Rural-El-Coop-Assn,-Inc-Commercial-Large-RatesUploaded byGenability
- Large General - Time of Use, StandbyUploaded byGenability
- COMMERCIAL AND SMALL POWER TIME-OF-USE SCHEDULE (BTU) - BILL CODE (33) EXPERIMENTAL _ DEMCO – Dixie Electric Membership CorporationUploaded byGenability
- Deaf-Smith-Electric-Coop,-Inc-Summary-of-RatesUploaded byGenability
- Georgia-Power-Co-GENERAL-SERVICE-SCHEDULEUploaded byGenability
- Decision,+ERC+Case+No.+2004-387CCUploaded byciryajam

- Architectural SpecificationsUploaded byGiovani Carl Dauz Pascua
- umi-umd-1253 (1)Uploaded byTheresa Marie Presto
- UPH_OR Instrument Lists Sample.pdfUploaded byFlorencia Wirawan
- 4ea530a199190Groupe-6 Bahrain RoyalMaternity EnUploaded byTheresa Marie Presto
- 200 Bed Peshmarga General Hospital _ Thesis Project _ by _Munir KhoshawiUploaded byTheresa Marie Presto
- Secondary Tertiary Maternity Facilities t 2Uploaded byTheresa Marie Presto
- Doh Hospital Level 3 RequirementsUploaded byLouisa Katigbak
- EquipmentUploaded byTheresa Marie Presto
- Con Phase w Bs DictionaryUploaded byTheresa Marie Presto
- Building Laws Table (Pedrosantosjr)Uploaded byTheresa Marie Presto
- Manalaysay_JPT_thesis_with_approval.pdfUploaded byTheresa Marie Presto
- ACCOUSTICSUploaded byJedz Gumapas
- Building CodeUploaded byBobby Santero
- Handbook_to_Build_an_Hospital_CRF.pdfUploaded byFernanda Ramírez

- Specific Gravity MeasurementUploaded byEdhy Tarinje
- Dynamic ElectricityUploaded bykrabbytom11
- QuestionUploaded byShaunak Khare
- Lab 4 - ENEL 280Uploaded byFelipe Camargo
- SNO E DB 54 001 Electrical Desain Basis Rev.0Uploaded byJan Richardo Gultom
- r508b LinkUploaded byTarek
- CBdoc_Brochure_ISM15-25%28010811_EN%29.pdfUploaded byEpsp Med
- Overhead LineUploaded bySantosh Rai
- ac_drivesUploaded byPeter Olisa
- LH40Uploaded bykasiiiii
- lab may the force be with youUploaded byapi-264818116
- Power Electronics Principles Power ElectUploaded bykibrom atsbha
- R134a Pressure Temperature ChartUploaded byCris Jackson
- Untitled - CompleteUploaded byJigyesh Sharma
- (24V Dc Sink Source Input1769 IQ16)1769 In007_ en pUploaded byHKF1971
- Altherma 11-16 Service ManualUploaded byGully1234
- (37-8-2) NPTEL - Vacuum TechnologyUploaded byCryogenics_NPTEL
- Mechanical Vibrations Single Degree-Of-Freedom Damped Free Vibration (Chapter TREE)Uploaded bylawlaw
- 2014 12 Lyp Physics 04 Outside DelhiUploaded byUmang Srivastava
- Paper 1 WorkshopUploaded byIlyas Zakaria
- PowerLogic PM5000 SeriesUploaded bysaltwet
- Testing & CommissioningUploaded bypraveshkafle
- Physics Grade 11Uploaded byJan
- hw0225Uploaded bySures Rez
- 2010 Sajc h2 Prelim Paper 1Uploaded byAaron Kang Junyan
- extended essayUploaded byapi-346388644
- ch10sec2Uploaded byTajiriMollel
- T 5350.pdfUploaded byMursia Cia
- AimUploaded bySamb Hit
- HW3SolUploaded bynikat89