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CHAPTER 6

PORTFOLIO RISK AND RETURN: PART II

Presenter
Venue
Date
FORMULAS FOR PORTFOLIO RISK AND
RETURN
E Rp
N

w E R
i 1
i i

N
2p
i 1, j 1
wi w j Cov(i, j )

w
i 1
i 1

Given: Cov(i, j ) ij i j and Cov(i, i ) i2

N N
Then: 2p i i
w 2

i 1
2

i , j 1,i j
wi w j ij i j

p 2p
EXHIBIT 6-1 PORTFOLIO RISK AND
RETURN
Weight in Weight in Portfolio
Portfolio Asset 1 Asset 2 Return Portfolio Standard Deviation
X 25.0% 75.0% 6.25% 9.01%
Y 50.0 50.0 7.50 11.18
Z 75.0 25.0 8.75 15.21

Return 10.0% 5.0%

Standard deviation 20.0% 10.0%
Correlation between 0.0
Assets 1 and 2

X .252 .202 .752 .102 (.25)(0)(.20)(.10) (.75)(0)(.10)(.20) 9.01%

PORTFOLIO OF RISK-FREE AND RISKY
ASSETS

Combine Optimal
Capital Superimpose
risk-free
allocation line utility curves Risky
asset and
(CAL) on the CAL
risky asset Portfolio
EXHIBIT 6-2 RISK-FREE ASSET AND
PORTFOLIO OF RISKY ASSETS
DOES A UNIQUE OPTIMAL RISKY
PORTFOLIO EXIST?

Single Identical Different Different

Optimal Expectations Expectations Optimal
Portfolio Portfolios
CAPITAL MARKET LINE (CML)
EXHIBIT 6-3 CAPITAL MARKET LINE

CML
Points above the
CML are not
achievable
Efficient
E(Rm) frontier
M
Individual
Securities

Rf

Standard Deviation of Portfolio p

CML: RISK AND RETURN

E R p w1 R f 1 w1 E Rm
p 1 w1 m

By substitution, E(Rp) can be expressed in terms

of p, and this yields the equation for the CML:

E Rm R f
E Rp R f p
m
EXAMPLE 6-1 RISK AND RETURN ON THE
CML
Mr. Miles is a first time investor and wants to build a
portfolio using only U.S. T-bills and an index fund
that closely tracks the S&P 500 Index. The T-bills
have a return of 5%. The S&P 500 has a standard
deviation of 20% and an expected return of 15%.
1. Draw the CML and mark the points where the
investment in the market is 0%, 25%, 75%, and
100%.
2. Mr. Miles is also interested in determining the
exact risk and return at each point.
EXAMPLE 6-2 RISK AND RETURN OF A LEVERAGED
PORTFOLIO WITH EQUAL LENDING AND BORROWING
RATES

Mr. Miles decides to set aside a small part of his

wealth for investment in a portfolio that has greater
risk than his previous investments because he
anticipates that the overall market will generate
attractive returns in the future. He assumes that he
can borrow money at 5% and achieve the same
return on the S&P 500 as before: an expected return
of 15% with a standard deviation of 20%. Calculate
his expected risk and return if he borrows 25%, 50%,
and 100% of his initial investment amount.
SYSTEMATIC AND NONSYSTEMATIC RISK
Can be eliminated by diversification

Nonsystematic
Risk

Total Risk

Systematic
Risk
RETURN-GENERATING MODELS

Estimate of
Expected
Return- Return
Generating
Model
Different
Factors
GENERAL FORMULA FOR RETURN-
GENERATING MODELS
All models contain return
Factor weights or factor on the market portfolio as

E Ri R f ij E Fj i1 E Rm R f ij E Fj
k k

j 1 j 2

Risk factors
THE MARKET MODEL

E Ri R f i E Rm R f Single-index model

The difference between

Ri R f i Rm R f ei
expected returns and realized
returns is attributable to an
error term, ei.

The market model: the intercept, i, and

slope coefficient, i, can be estimated by
Ri i i Rm ei using historical security and market
returns. Note i = Rf(1 i).
CALCULATION AND INTERPRETATION OF
BETA

Cov Ri , Rm i ,m i m i ,m i
i
m 2
m 2
m
0.026250 0.70 0.25 0.15 0.70 0.25
i 1.17
0.02250 0.02250 0.15

Markets Assets Assets

Return Beta Return
EXHIBIT 6-6 BETA ESTIMATION USING A PLOT
OF SECURITY AND MARKET RETURNS
Ri

Slope = [Beta]

Rm
Market Return
CAPITAL ASSET PRICING MODEL (CAPM)
Beta is the primary
determinant of expected return

E Ri R f i E Rm R f
E Ri 3% 1.5 9% 3% 12.0%
E Ri 3% 1.0 9% 3% 9.0%
E Ri 3% 0.5 9% 3% 6.0%
E Ri 3% 0.0 9% 3% 3.0%
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE CAPM
Investors are risk-averse, utility-maximizing, rational
individuals.
Markets are frictionless, including no transaction costs or
taxes.

Investors are price takers.

EXHIBIT 6-7 THE SECURITY MARKET LINE
(SML)
E(Ri)

SML

The SML is a
Expected Return

graphical
M
E(Rm) i = m representation
of the CAPM.

Rf Slope = Rm Rf

1.0

Beta
PORTFOLIO BETA
Portfolio beta is the weighted sum of the betas of the
component securities:
N
p wii (0.40 1.50) (0.60 1.20) 1.32
i 1

The portfolios expected return given by the CAPM is:

E R p R f p E Rm R f
E R p 3% 1.32 9% 3% 10.92%
APPLICATIONS OF THE CAPM

Estimates of
Expected
Return

CAPM
Applications

Security Performance
Selection Appraisal
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: SHARPE RATIO
AND TREYNOR RATIO

Sharpe Focus on Rp R f
Ratio total risk Sharpe ratio
p

Treynor Focus on Rp R f
systematic Treynor ratio
Ratio risk p
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: M-
SQUARED (M2)

Sharpe Ratio
Identical rankings
Expressed in
percentage terms

m
M Rp R f
2
Rm R f
p
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: JENSENS
ALPHA

Subtract risk-
Estimate portfolio Determine risk- adjusted return
beta adjusted return from actual
return

p R p R f p Rm R f
EXHIBIT 6-8 MEASURES OF PORTFOLIO
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

Manager Ri i i E(Ri) Sharpe Treynor M2 i

Ratio Ratio
X 10.0% 20.0% 1.10 9.6% 0.35 0.064 0.65% 0.40%
Y 11.0 10.0 0.70 7.2 0.80 0.114 9.20 3.80
Z 12.0 25.0 0.60 6.6 0.36 0.150 0.84 5.40
M 9.0 19.0 1.00 9.0 0.32 0.060 0.00 0.00
Rf 3.0 0.0 0.00 3.0 0.00
EXHIBIT 6-11 THE SECURITY
CHARACTERISTIC LINE (SCL)
Ri Rf

Excess
Excess Security Return

Returns

[Beta]

Jensens Rm Rf
Excess Market Return
Alpha
EXHIBIT 6-12 SECURITY SELECTION
USING SML

Undervalued
Ri

C ( = 20%, = 1.2)
Return on Investment

SML

Overvalued
15
%
A ( = 11%, = 0.5)
B ( = 12%, = 1.0)

Rf = 5%

= 1.0

Beta
DECOMPOSITION OF TOTAL RISK FOR A
SINGLE-INDEX MODEL
R i R f i R m R f e i

i2 i2 m2 ei2 2Cov R m , e i i2 m2 ei2

Zero
EXHIBIT 6-13 DIVERSIFICATION WITH
NUMBER OF STOCKS

Non-Systematic Variance

Total
Variance

Variance
Variance of Market Portfolio

Systematic Variance

1 5 10 20 30
Number of Stocks
WHAT SHOULD THE RELATIVE WEIGHT
OF SECURITIES IN THE PORTFOLIO BE?

Greater Non-
Higher Alpha
Systematic Risk
Higher Weight
Lower Weight

i
Information ratio 2
ei
LIMITATIONS OF THE CAPM

Single-factor model
Theoretical Single-period model

Market portfolio
Proxy for a market portfolio
Practical Estimation of beta
Poor predictor of returns
Homogeneity in investor expectations
EXTENSIONS TO THE CAPM:
ARBITRAGE PRICING THEORY (APT)

Factor 1

E R p RF 1 p ,1 K p,K

Sensitivity of the
Portfolio to Factor 1
FOUR-FACTOR MODEL

Value
Anomaly

Size
Anomaly
SUMMARY

Portfolio risk and return

Optimal risky portfolio and the capital market line
(CML)
Return-generating models and the market model
Systematic and non-systematic risk
Capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and the
security market line (SML)
Performance measures
Arbitrage pricing theory (APT) and factor models