0 Up votes0 Down votes

1 views55 pagesDesign of Thermal Systems-KLU ME

Aug 31, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PPTX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Design of Thermal Systems-KLU ME

© All Rights Reserved

1 views

Design of Thermal Systems-KLU ME

© All Rights Reserved

- Steve Jobs
- Wheel of Time
- NIV, Holy Bible, eBook
- NIV, Holy Bible, eBook, Red Letter Edition
- Cryptonomicon
- The Woman Who Smashed Codes: A True Story of Love, Spies, and the Unlikely Heroine who Outwitted America's Enemies
- Contagious: Why Things Catch On
- Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling Technology Project
- Everybody Lies: Big Data, New Data, and What the Internet Can Tell Us About Who We Really Are
- Zero to One: Notes on Start-ups, or How to Build the Future
- Console Wars: Sega, Nintendo, and the Battle that Defined a Generation
- Dust: Scarpetta (Book 21)
- Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution
- Crushing It!: How Great Entrepreneurs Build Their Business and Influence—and How You Can, Too
- Make Time: How to Focus on What Matters Every Day
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- Wild Cards

You are on page 1of 55

Dr P Venkateswarlu

Professor

Mechanical Engineering

Modeling

First step in the design of any system is modeling.

Modeling - is the representation of a given system by a

set of equations or by a physical model for

experimentation. Modeling is a cognitive activity.

Normalizing (Nondimensionalizing) - reduces the

number of variables in the equations simplifying the

mathematical or the (physical) experimental modeling

Reynolds No. Re, Prandtl No. Pr are 2 such non-

dimensional variables which combine 7 physical

variables. Very useful in numerical modeling.

Modeling

Model: Model is a substitute for a real system. Model

simplifies and streamlines the work in experiment; lab or

computer. Easy to assemble and to make.

Models we made: Paper boats and airplane (glider) are

made and watched their working and dynamics in water

and air.

Mathematical Models: Mathematical models in the form

of equations represent the physical phenomena and the

interconnections in a system. Computer simulation shifts

the tedious computations in solving the equations to the

computer.

8/31/2017 Department Name 3

Mathematical Modeling

Devices and their behaviors can be described by

words, sketches, physical models, computer

programs, or mathematical models.

Mathematical Model is a representation in

mathematical terms the behavior of devices and

objects

Basic idea behind mathematical modeling is the

dimensional consistency and homogeneity.

Modeling

Informal Modeling:

Types of Models

Categories:

Mathematical Modeling

Conservation principles:

when g =c=0

Mathematical Modeling of Thermal

Systems: Examples

Example 1:Steady State Heat Conduction

i=100 0C, a=30 0C, Ris=0.75 K/W, Rsa= 2.25K/W

----------------------------

Mathematical Modeling of Thermal

Systems: Examples

Example 2:Heating a room(Unsteady)

unsteady

Mathematical Modeling of Thermal

Systems: Examples

Example 4:Building with two rooms

Interpolation & Curve Fitting

Motivation-Finding root of a function. Functions

come from observed data or from physical laws

Interpolation Connect all data points when they are

reliable; linear interpolation. If data has inherent error

or scatter, interpolation has limited purpose. The goal

is to find a and b

Curve fitting is capturing the trend in data by

assigning a single function across the entire range

8/31/2017

Linear Regression (Linear Curve Fitting)

General form: f(x)=ax + b

The one line that provides a

minimum error is the best fit.

Quantifying error: Least squares approach

for minimizing error

8/31/2017

Linear Regression

8/31/2017

Linear Regression

Example 1:

Example 2:

= 4.8515 + 0.3525

Nonlinear Regression

Polynomial Fit: We get the same set of linear

equations which can be solved by Gaussian

elimination or matrix inversion

Exponential Fit: We get nonlinear equations.

Linearize and solve by standard methods. One of the

most common nonlinear models is the exponential

decay or exponential growth model.

= , + , , =1 2

Perform Logarithmic Regression,

Regression

Engineering Examples:

1. Vapor Pressure:

2. Heat Capacity:

3. Thermal Conductivity:

4. Viscosity of Liquid:

6. Sieder-Tate Correlation:

Curve Fitting- Higher Order Polynomials

Nonlinear Regression

Polynomial Curve Fitting:

n+1 equations:

Curve Fitting- Higher Order Polynomials

Polynomial Curve Fitting:

n+1 equations:

Gaussian Elimination

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Steam turbine thermal model for transient operation

(Ph D Thesis of Monika Topel, 2014, KTH Royal

Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden)

Key words- steam turbines, transients, start-up, finite

element model, heat transfer

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Discretized FEM model of a steam turbine:

Objectives:

1. Establish a validated and efficient modeling tool

which can accurately predict the thermal behavior of

steam turbines during transient operation while

being generally applicable in terms of heat transfer

and adaptable in terms of geometry.

2. Implement this tool in parametric studies concerning

improvements of the thermal response of steam

turbines during start-up.

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Steam turbine transient thermal model:

The modeling scheme uses COMSOL coupled with MATLAB as

software. The integration of COMSOL allows for flexibility

towards multi-physics studies, while keeping the advantages of

MATLAB related to scripting and algorithm automation. The

overall structure of the model consists of three coupled sub-models:

1. A thermodynamic steam expansion model to calculate the

temperatures and mass flows during operation.

2. A gland steam sealing model to calculate the temperatures

and mass flows in the labyrinths seals.

3. A FE heat conduction model to calculate the metal

temperatures within the turbine.

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Start-up curves

turbine to reach nominal speed and full load.

2. Maintain thermal stresses under a given temperature

dependent limit in critically thick components - stator & rotor

8/31/2017 Department Name Confidential 23

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Steam turbine transient thermal model: MATLAB &

COMSOL

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Thermodynamic Steam Expansion:

1. Energy conversion from heat to electricity occurs.

2. This energy transformation occurs within a turbine stage, which is

composed of a static blade row, denoted as stator, and a rotating

blade row, denoted as rotor.

3. Essentially, the internal energy of the steam is transformed into

kinetic energy, and the latter in turn is transformed into

mechanical work that rotates the turbine shaft

4. Eulers turbomachine equation in which a change in total

enthalpy 0 is equivalent to a change in tangential flow speed

and/or rotational engine speed (Eulers Equation)

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Thermodynamic State of Steam:

1. As the steam expands its

enthalpy and pressure decrease.

2. Figure shows the enthalpy-entropy

diagram of steam expanding from

state 1 to state 2.

3. Also represented in this figure,

are the stagnation states denoted

with 0 and the isentropic states denoted with .

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Gland Steam Sealing:

Sealing glands are located at each end of the shaft, and fulfill two

functions: preventing the leakage of steam and avoiding the ingress

of air through the clearances between the rotating and stationary

parts of the turbine

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Gland Steam Sealing:

The seal constant Cseal can be expressed as a function of geometric

parameters such as the seal diameter , clearance , number of

teeth , tooth pitch and tooth width , see Equation

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Gland Steam Sealing:

Steam expansion in a labyrinth seal is described by the

process of throttling, in which the pressure of the steam

is decreased while keeping the same enthalpy level.

The nature of the flow through the seal as the steam

passes under each constriction is described by a Fanno

line, in which the leaked mass flow is dependent on the

inlet conditions of steam, the outlet pressure and the

seal constant, as shown in Equation.

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Steam expansion:

1. Steam energy transformation occurs within a turbine

stage, which is composed of a static blade row,

denoted as stator, and a rotating blade row, denoted

as rotor.

2. Essentially, the internal energy of the steam is

transformed into kinetic energy, and the latter in turn

is transformed into mechanical work that rotates the

turbine shaft

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Steam Expansion Model:

The off-design isotropic efficiency:

is proportional to pressure

ratio across the unit.

Off-design to design ratio:

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Boundary conditions:

the BCs of the heat conduction model.

2. The mass flow together with the steam

temperatures, help formulate the BC of the live

steam in the blade passage. Furthermore,

3. The steam conductivity is used in the definition of

the material properties of the turbine.

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Heat conduction model:

The complex 3D geometries of the turbine units are

modeled as 2D axisymmetric, a simplification made

possible by the inherently cylindrical geometry of axial

turbines.

Note: Not entirely axisymmetric due to the casing

flanges and piping- still a good approximation.

8/31/2017 Department Name Confidential 33

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Geometric model:

an axisymmetric view of the HPT and LPT units

8/31/2017 Department Name Confidential 34

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Geometric model:

Modular Approach- Three modules

Inlet, blade passage and outlet

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

1. To solve the heat conduction equations by FE model, BCs

must be defined as shown. The BCs are calculated from

empirical heat transfer correlations obtained from various

sources

2. The definition of the heat transfer BCs is a very important

step towards capturing the correct thermal behavior of a

steam turbine.

Three types of BCs in heat transfer:

1. First type of BC consists of fixing the surface temperature.

2. Second type of BC is a fixed heat flux at a surface. Adiabatic

(zero-flux) surfaces have been defined within the turbine at

locations where heat transfer is negligible.

3. Third type of BC corresponds to convection with a moving

fluid. This condition is the most common in the current

model and is defined on all the surfaces exposed to steam, be

it gland steam or live steam and convection to the ambient air

4. When turbine is idle, neat vacuum conditions exist inside,

only surface to surface radiation from rotor to stator occurs

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Boundary conditions:

unit geometries

8/31/2017 Department Name Confidential 38

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

BC-Bearing oil temperature:

1. The bearing surfaces of the shaft are subject to the first type of

BC, in which the outer surface of the shaft is considered as

isothermal and exposed to the lubrication oil temperature.

2. The temperature of the oil is considered increasing dependent

on the rotational speed.

3. Two temperature levels were assumed for the bearing oil,

corresponding to the lower and upper limits reached by the oil

during standby and operation, respectively.

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Boundary conditions:

1. The gland steam sealing model calculates the thermal properties

of the gland steam by accounting for the mode of operation of

the turbine,

2. Convection to gland steam: The corresponding HTCs were

calculated using the equation below, where is the height of the

expanding chamber and the radial clearance.

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Insulation & ambient convection:

1. Conduction through the insulation and convection to ambient

air are combined in their thermal resistances to formulate the

HTC corresponding to this BC.

2. Equation below shows the HTC for the surfaces covered with

insulation, where is the thickness of the insulation layer,

its thermal conductivity and is the external natural

convection heat transfer coefficient.

3. The value of the latter is chosen to be 8 W/m2K in accordance

with the recommended value from for natural convection from

a hot surface inside a building.

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Friction & Ventilation Losses:

1. Losses due to friction and ventilation take place in the blades

and discs of the turbine

2. Energy dissipated due to friction is proportional to the steam

density , the square of the disc diameter and the cube of the

circular speed and as shown

3. Friction work is also dependent on an empirical friction factor

fr which is defined by geometric parameters of the disc and the

rotational Reynolds number as shown

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Ventilation Losses:

1. Similar to friction, ventilation work is also proportional to

density, the cube of the circular speed and a blade aspect

coefficient, as shown This energy dissipation, also known as

windage losses, occurs in the blade passages of the turbine

instead of the discs.

2. When the turbine is partially loaded, a group of blade passages

along the circumference of the disc will be filled with stagnant

steam. Owing to the rotation of the disc, the steam filling these

passages is subject to centrifugal forces and moves

from the roots to the tips of moving blades

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Ventilation Losses:

1. The appearance of a vortex zone across the blade produces an

increase in steam and blade metal temperatures

2. This effect is a characteristic of the last stage blade (LSB) of a

turbine given the dependency of Equation on blade length

3. This relation is only valid in case of low volumetric flow

through the steam turbine blading.

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Turbine transients-thermal stress & fatigue:

is the mean linear expansion coefficient,

is the traverse expansion coefficient,

is the mean integral temperature and

is the initial temperature

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Thermal Stress & Fatigue

1. Differential thermal expansion

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Solar Steam Turbine- Geometric modeling:

1. A SST-700RH steam turbine, currently employed in

several parabolic trough CSPPs, was used as the

reference turbine in this work.

2. This 50MW turbine includes a reheat system, and is

thus made of HPT and LPT units; both units were

considered in the performed studies.

3. The geometric modeling methods were the modular

approach and the continuous approach based on

previous work performed in KTH

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Model Validation on Solar Steam Turbine-

Geometric modeling:

1. A SST-700RH steam turbine, currently employed in

several parabolic trough CSPPs, was used as the

reference turbine in this work.

2. This 50MW turbine includes a reheat system, and is

thus made of HPT and LPT units; both units were

considered in the performed studies.

3. The geometric modeling methods were the modular

approach and the continuous approach based on

previous work performed in KTH

8/31/2017 Department Name Confidential 48

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Geometric modeling-modular vs continuous geometry:

1. It is not simple to access information on the entire shape &

specs making the continuous approach inflexible and

cumbersome to adapt to new geometries.

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Temperature distribution:

Modular and continuous approaches maintain the same

temperature ranges with the maximum and minimum located at

analogous positions. Comparing each module with the

corresponding area in the continuous geometry it can be seen

that the overall distribution of temperatures within the turbines

is well captured.

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Measured Data - 96 Hours: Steam Pressure &

Temperature

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Comparison of simulated data with measured data for

HPT stage:

Numerical Model of a Thermal System

Comparison of simulated data with measured data for

LPT stage:

Numerical Model of a System

Relative errors:

Numerical Model of a System

Relative errors: Large degree of agreement with respect to the

measured data in spite of the different detail levels.

- Lecture 2Uploaded byDenis Dantas
- Steam TurbinesUploaded byVinoth Kumar
- BAB 5 InterpolasiUploaded byWahyu Setiawan Curva North
- Chapter3 ConvertedUploaded byAngel Paguay
- Curtis TurbineUploaded byDivya Prakash Srivastava
- 31 1 Plynml ApproxUploaded byEbookcraze
- Tomos_Roberts.pdfUploaded byNUrul Aqilah Mus
- 8 Probability, Statistics and Interpolation.pdfUploaded byAugusto De La Cruz Camayo
- interpolation.pdfUploaded byHarshavardhan Reddy
- Finite Element Analysis Convergence h qUploaded byBREAKZIONSMASHJEWCOM
- InterpolationUploaded byAjay Singh
- Numerical Analysis NotesUploaded byBurakcan Guvenir
- Numerical AnalysisUploaded byNure Alam
- l304_2Uploaded byFaisal Rahman
- sdarticleUploaded byRajib Chowdhury
- BU-05-VD-305-MA-DSH-3301-002,01Uploaded bydavoudian
- labcalcsUploaded bybighead3158
- Impulse and Reaction TurbinesUploaded byHani Kartika
- Chap11(Proc Expand)Uploaded bysmhabbas
- Mws Gen Dif Txt DiscreteUploaded bysteal88
- Finding and Fixing Leakage Within Combined HP-IP Steam Turbines_ Part IIUploaded bysevero97
- HTLABQUESTIONSUploaded bybalakce
- Full ReportUploaded bysomya1987
- Main Engine Turbines PptUploaded byHashem Mohamed Hashem
- Sampling—50 Years After ShannonUploaded byhoeelin8256
- [Quentin_R._Skrabec_Jr.]_George_Westinghouse__Gent(z-lib.org).epubUploaded byeeklşeke kelekşlek
- Numerical Recipes in C-Second Edition (1992)_ indiceUploaded byAnonymous ORNqy5
- Lecture Notes1 30Uploaded byapi-3716660
- ME-B.pdfUploaded byjovio
- Ultra CriticalUploaded byJeff Noche

- Energy Conversions Involved in Producing ElectricityUploaded byKatie
- Rotordynamic Forces Due to Turbine Tip Leakage (Part1-Blade Scale Effects)Uploaded byjaypalla
- Hydrotest Pressure Vs Design Pressure.docxUploaded byHenryOdoh
- Impulse Turbine Questions g3Uploaded byVipulKukkar
- Evaluating Complex Inlet Distortion With a Parallel Compressor Model Part 1Uploaded byLam Trinh Nguyen
- CE6451_FMM 2017-18Uploaded byrajmeha
- Cerm IndexUploaded byAnonymous hESJop
- Syllabus - B.E. Mechanical - 2009 RegulationUploaded byshivakumar
- NAMMIACA_000051Uploaded bygangadhark196
- Bhilwara BSL Thermal Power Plant Summer Training PptUploaded bylokeshmotwani
- Fluid Mechanics Chapter 7Uploaded byzezinzeze
- startup turbine.pdfUploaded byBambang Rukamdo
- ME6404 Thermal EngineeringUploaded byjohnpratheesh
- Dbase 1- EnergyUploaded byPankaj Yadav
- B_Tech_ Mechanical Engg_ KUK 3rd Year Syllabus 18-02-17Uploaded byЅџмгт Жҹмдл
- 72-00-00_5.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 298xlo3uU
- Fluid Mechanics - Reciprocating Pump Test Rig, Centrifugal Pump Test Rig (2 H.P. ), 5 HP Centrifugal Pump Test Rig and Air Flow Bench (Pitot Tube_Anemometer) Manufacturer & Exporter From Roorkee, IndiaUploaded byMukesh Kumar
- PWV6Uploaded byTony Apps
- PG Power Plant Design Engineering (PG Diploma)Uploaded byRamasamy Jayaraman
- m250 Lessons LearnedUploaded byEstevam
- 215267572-v2500-Fam-NewUploaded byTango Sierra
- Investigation on Prominent Flow Instability-Related Hydraulic Phenomena in Reversible Pump TurbinesUploaded byDr. Binama Maxime
- chapter-07.pdfUploaded byIgor
- es4001Uploaded byΔημήτρης Αντωνιάδης
- Chief Engineer Steam Exam FinalUploaded byDarrion Howell
- turbo machinesUploaded byratchagaraja
- Cwc Technical Design Final DocUploaded byBala Chandar
- Design of regenerative pumpUploaded byAndres Cardona Mercado
- 148_07-01-29_ISAIF8-00117[1]Uploaded bysaeedsanaie
- Propulsion QBUploaded byraja

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.