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By,

N Venkata Srinath,
1st Year MS Power Systems.
Bio-Gas
Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the
biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence
of oxygen.

This is produced by anaerobic decomposition of bio-


mass.
How Bio-gas is alternative/renewable
The increased consumption of energy all over the
world has led to a drastic increase to the rates of all
carbon based fuels.

A finite(Non renewable) sources that will not be able


to meet the increasing fuel needs in the world.

Fossil fuels emitting excessive carbon dioxide and


other gases, they increase the global warming in the
world.
One of the alternative as well as renewable source of
energy is Bio-Gas.
Evaluation

1630-Von Helmont first observed about an


inflammable gas emanating from decaying organic
matter.

But, major exposure was from the World War II when


people faced scarcity of fossil fuel.
Block diagram of Bio-gas Production

Methane(40-70)%

CO2 (30-60), H2-


Input Digester 1%, N2 -0.5%, CO-
1%, O2- 1%, H2S- 1%

Slurry
Input
Bio-Mass

Animal-waste Agro-waste Night soil


Dung Crop Residue
Slaughterhouse Vegetable Waste
Poultry-Casting Catering Waste
Dead Bodies Food processing Waste
The above inputs either sole or in combination are
mixed with water and fed into a digester.

Digester: A biogas digester, also known as a methane


digester, is an equipment which can turn organic waste
into usable fuel.

The biogas digester relies on bacterial decomposition


of biomass.
Digester Types
Fixed-dome plants
Floating-drum plants
Balloon plants
Horizontal plants
Earth-pit plants
Ferro cement plants
Fixed-dome plants
Characteristics
The costs of a fixed-dome biogas plant are relatively
low.

It is simple as no moving parts exist.

Here are also no rusting steel parts and hence a long


life of the plant (20 years or more) can be expected.

The plant is constructed underground, protecting it


from physical damage and saving space.

There wont be much external temperature effect.


Floating-drum plants

A floating-drum plant consists of a cylindrical or dome-shaped


digester and a moving, floating gas-holder, or drum

If biogas is produced, the drum moves up, if gas is consumed,


the gas-holder sinks back.
Digestion Process
Bio-Chemical process.
Anaerobic decomposition.
Digestion Process
Bio-Chemical process: Here, micro organisms are
involved in the chemical reaction.
Digestion Process
Bio-Chemical process: Here, micro organisms are
involved in the chemical reaction.
Anaerobic decomposition: A process in which organic
matter is broke down into simple compounds in the
absence of oxygen.

Anaerobic decomposition

Acidification Methanogenesis
Acidification: In this, acidic bacteria dismantle the
complex organic molecules into peptides, glycerol,
alcohol and the simpler sugars.

Methanogenesis: In this process, methane producing


bacteria gets activated and produce methane gas by
utilizing the products obtained from acidification.
Anaerobic digestion will occur best within a pH range
of 6.8 to 8.0. and temperature range of 32-350C
More acidic or basic mixtures will ferment at a lower
speed.
The introduction of raw material will often lower the
pH (make the mixture more acidic).
Digestion will stop or slow dramatically until the
bacteria have absorbed the acids.
A high pH(Basic in nature) will encourage the
production of acidic carbon dioxide to neutralize the
mixture again.
Output
Methane(40-70)%
CO2 (30-60)%
O2- - 1%
CO - 1%
H2S -1%
N2 -0.5%

By- product: Slurry( N-1.4%,P-1%,K-0.8%.)


Applications
Power Generation: Biogas can be used to operate a
dual fuel engine and can replace up to 80% of diesel.

Biogas can be used for cooking.

Gas lamps can be fueled by biogas.


Advantages
Eco friendly energy production.
Smaller biogas production units can support lightning
and cooking.
Visible improvement in rural hygiene.
Environmental benefits on a global scale: Biogas plants
significantly lower the greenhouse effects on the
earth's atmosphere.
Protects the earth's natural resources.
Conversion of natural organic waste into Bio-fertilizer.
Disadvantages
The main disadvantage is the loss of the organic waste for
compost or fertilizer.

Very limited in the quantity of electricity it can produce on


the global scale .

There is little or no control on the rate of gas production,


although the gas can, to some extent be stored and used as
required.
Technical Details
Size of plant Quantity of cattle No. of cattle Estimated cost
dung required heads required
daily
1 cubic meters 25 kg 2-3 Rs.7,000/-
2 cubic meters* 50 kg 4-6 Rs.9,000/-
3 cubic meters 75 kg 7-9 Rs.10,500/-
4 cubic meters 100 kg 10-12 Rs.12,500/-
6 cubic meters 150 kg 14-16 Rs. 15,000/-

*A biogas plant of 2 cum capacity is sufficient for providing cooking fuel


to a family of 4 members.
Indian Scenario
In India its experimentation started in 1940.

The importance of energy was brought into sharp


focus since the 1970s oil shortage which escalated the
prices of conventional energy. Since then attention has
shifted to alternative sources of energy.

The Central Sector Scheme on National Biogas


Program, which mainly caters to setting up of family
type biogas plants, has been under implementation
since 1981-82.
The Municipal Corporation of Delhi is planning to
install a 1-MW bio-gas power plant on a public-private
partnership basis at the Ghogha Dairy complex in
North Delhi
Central Subsidy :
Capacity of the General (Rs.) SC/ST/Small Additional for
Biogas plant farmers (Rs.) attaching toilet
(Cum) (Rs.)
1 2100 2800 500

2 to 6 2700 3500 500