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Contents

Introduction
Definitions of OB
Historical evolution of
OB as a discipline
Contributing disciplines
to the OB field

1 Organizational Behavior
Introduction
Organizations need to develop their interpersonal or
people skills for being effective.
Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates
the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on
behavior within an organization, then applies that
knowledge to make organizations work more effectively.
Robbins (2003)
OB concentrates on how to
Improve productivity
Reduce absenteeism and turnover
Increase employee citizenship
Increase employee job satisfaction

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The field of organizational behavior takes extracts from
the behavioral science disciplines like psychology, social
psychology, and cultural anthropology.
Some basic ideas included in OB are personality theory,
attitudes and values, motivation and learning,
interpersonal behavior, group dynamics, leadership and
teamwork, organizational structure and design, decision-
making, power, conflict and negotiation.

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Learning Objectives

After this unit, you will be able to understand-----

Historical evolution of OB as a discipline

Contributing disciplines to the OB field

4 Organizational Behavior
Definitions of OB
Organizations are defined as social arrangements,
constructed by people, who can also change them.
----Buchanan and Huczynski (1997)
Organizations are a system of cooperative activities -
and their coordination requires something intangible
and personal that is largely a matter of personal
relationships.
---- Barnard (1938)
OB is concerned with the study of the structure,
functioning and performance of organizations, and the
behavior of groups and individuals within them.
---- Pugh (1971)
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OB is about----
1. the study of human behavior, attitudes and performance within
an organizational setting;
2. drawing on theory, methods and principles from such
disciplines---
3. as psychology, sociology, and cultural anthropology to learn
about individual perception, values, learning capabilities, and
actions
4. while working with groups and within the total organization;
5. analyzing the external environments effect on the organization
6. and its human resources, missions, objectives and strategies.

Organizational behavior is defines as The understanding,


prediction and management of human behavior in organizations.
Fred Luthans

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Contd.
From the above definitions, OB can be seen as----
A way of thinking
An interdisciplinary field
Having a distinctly humanistic outlook
Performance oriented
Seeing the external environment as critical
Using scientific method
Having an application orientation

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Levels of Analysis

Wood (1997) suggested that different levels of


analysis can be applied when judging the importance
of an organizational issue. He proposed eight
levels----
Individual
Team
Inter-group
Organizational
Inter-organizational
Societal
International
Global

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Historical Evolution of OB as a
Discipline
Many people have contributed to the growth of OB.
Some important contributions are-
A) Early Theorists
1. Adam Smiths contribution
In the Wealth of Nations published in 1776, Adam
Smith stated that organizations and society would
benefit if they practice division of labor.
Division of labor increased productivity by improving
workers skills and expertise and by saving time.

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2. Work of Charles Babbage

He added some more advantages to the list of


advantages of division of labor proposed by Adam Smith:
It decreases the time needed to learn a job.
It reduces wastage of material during the learning
process.
Improves skill levels.
It matches peoples skills and physical abilities with
specific tasks.

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B) The Classical Era

Classical era covers the period from 1900 to


mid 1930s.
The main contributors during this period were
Frederick Taylor
Henri Fayol
Max Weber
Mary Parker Follet
Chester Barnard

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1.Frederick Taylor
His main focus was on finding one best way of doing a job.
He gave importance on selecting the right people for the right
job and train them to do the job in one best way.
His scientific principles of management highlighted the
following principles
Shift all responsibility for the organizational work from worker to
manager.
Use scientific methods to find the most efficient way of doing work.
Select the best person to do the job.
Train the worker to do the work effectively.
Observe the performance of workers to make sure that proper work
methods are used and correct results are obtained.

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2.Henri Fayol
He was a mining engineer and a manager by profession.
He defined the nature and working patterns of twentieth century
organizations in his book, General and Industrial Management,
published in 1916.
In this book 14 principles of management are defined. They are----
1. Division of work Tasks should be divided among employees.
2. Authority and responsibility Authority is the right to give orders.
It should match with responsibility.
3. Discipline It is necessary for proper functioning of business.
4. Unity of command An employee should receive orders from one
superior only.
5. Unity of direction Activities related to a single objective should
be coordinated by a single plan.
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6. Subordinates of individual interest to general interest Individual
or group goals must not take priority over business goals.
7. Remuneration of personnel It should be fair, encourage effort
and there should be no overpayment.
8. Centralization The extent of centralization of power of issuing
orders at the top depends on size of the organization and the
skills of its personnel.
9. Scalar chain (line of authority) Flow of communication should
be up and down the line of authority.
10. Order Material and personnel should be at proper place.
11. Equity People should be treated with kindness and justice.
12. Stability of tenure of personnel Quick turnover of people should
be avoided because it takes time to develop expertise.
13. Initiative Employees should be encouraged to take initiatives.
14. Esprit de corps All efforts should be made to maintain peace
and harmony within the organization.

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3.Max Weber

His theory is also known as bureaucratic theory in management.


He described an ideal kind of organization and called it bureaucracy.
The features of Webers bureaucratic structure are-------
Areas of authority should be clearly specified.
Organizations follow principle of hierarchy where subordinates follow
instructions of superiors but have a right to appeal.
Abstract rules guide decisions and actions.
Officials are selected on the basis of technical qualifications.
Employment by the organization is a career.

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C) The Human Relations Movement

1. Mary Parker Follet------


The view that people are important to the world of
business was given by Mary Parker Follet. With this the
concept of human relations movement started.
Follet believed that organizations should be based on
collectivism (group ethics) rather than individualism.
The managers task was to coordinate group efforts.
Managers and workers should be like partners.

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2. Chester Barnard

Barnard believed that organizations consist of people


who have interacting social relationships.
He believed that organizations can be successful if
they cooperate with various stakeholders such as
employees, customers, investors, suppliers, etc.
He emphasized on the need for development of skills
and motivation of employees for the success of
organization.

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3. Elton Mayo

He is known as the founder of human relations movement.


He is also known for his research including the Hawthorne Studies
and his book The Social Problems of an Industrialized Civilization
(1933).
The research conducted under the Hawthorne Studies showed the
importance of groups in affecting the behavior of individuals at work.
He found that work satisfaction depended on the social relationship
of the workgroup.
Physical conditions and financial incentives have very low
motivational value.
He concluded that performance depends on both social issues and
job content.

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4. Dale Carnegie
His book How to Win Friends and Influence People is
used by management experts even today.
He believed that to succeed, an organization should
win the cooperation of its people.
He advised------
Make others feel important by appreciating their efforts.
Try to make a good impression.
Win people by being sympathetic and never telling that they
are wrong.
Change people by praising their good qualities.

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5. Abraham Maslow

He proposed the need hierarchy theory (physiological,


safety, social, esteem and self actualization needs).
Each step in the hierarchy must be satisfied before
moving on to the next step.
After a need is satisfied, it does not motivate an
individual.
The final goal of human existence is self actualization.
Managers who accepted this theory tried to change
organization and management practices to reduce
hurdles that prevent employees from reaching self
actualization.
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Maslows
Hierarchy Self Be where you want to be
of Needs
Esteem Need for respect from others

Social Need to be in a group, be loved

Need for stability and consistency


Safety

Physiological Basic needs like food, water


6. Douglas McGregor
He gave two statements about human nature Theory X and
Theory Y.
Theory X put forward a negative view of people stating that this
category has
Little ambition
Dislike work
Want to avoid responsibility
Need close supervision at work
Theory Y put forward a positive view of people stating that this
category has
Self direction
Take responsibility
Consider work as a natural activity
McGregor believed that managers should give freedom to their
subordinates to utilize their creativity and potential.

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D) Behavioral Science Theorists
1. B.F. Skinner-
His research on classical and operant conditioning
and behavior modification affected the design of
organizations training programs and reward systems.
According to Skinner, behavior depends on results.
He stated that people show a desired behavior only if
they are rewarded for it.
A behavior is not repeated if an individual is not
rewarded or punished for it.

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2.David McClelland

His work has helped organizations to match people


with jobs and in redesigning jobs for high achievers to
motivate them.

For example, people who have received achievement


training in India, work for longer hours, initiate more
new business ventures, make greater investments in
productive assets as compared to people who did not
receive such training.

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3.Fred Fiedler
His work in the field of leadership has a big
contribution to the growth of OB as a discipline.

He highlighted the situational aspects of leadership


and tried to develop a complete theory of leadership
behavior.

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4.Frederick Herzberg
He tried to find answer to
the question: What
individuals want from their Hygiene Factors Motivational Factors
jobs?
By his study, he reached a
conclusion that people
preferred jobs that provided Company policies Achievement
recognition, achievement, Quality of supervision Career advancement
responsibility and growth.
Relations with others Personal growth
Only hygiene factors were
not sufficient to motivate Personal life Job interest
people at workplace. Rate of pay Recognition
This work is important in OB Job security Responsibility
because it helped in Working conditions
enriching jobs and the
quality of work life in
modern organizations.
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E) OB in Present Times
Only a single theory cannot improve
organizational functioning and effectiveness.
Therefore a contingency approach is
suggested.
Today, the focus is on understanding the
situational factors and how they affect a
behavior pattern of individuals.

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Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field
Organizational behavior is a behavioral science that takes
contributions from various behavioral disciplines like----
Psychology
Sociology
Social psychology
Anthropology
Political science

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Psychology
It is the science that tries to measure, explain and change the
behavior of humans and other animals.
Early industrial or organizational psychologists were
concerned with problems of tiredness, boredom and other
factors that affect performance.
But now, they are concerned with learning, perception,
personality, training, leadership effectiveness, etc.
Sociology
It is the study of the social system in which the individual lives.
It studies people with respect to their colleagues.
Sociologists make an important contribution to OB through
their study of group behavior in organizations.

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Social Psychology
It mixes the concepts of psychology and sociology.
It focuses on influence of people on one another.
Anthropology
It is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
Anthropologists work on culture and environments.
They help in understanding differences in fundamental values, attitudes and
behavior of people in different countries and different organizations.
Political Science
It studies behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment.
It focuses on areas like conflict, intra-organizational politics and power.

30 Organizational Behavior
Motivation and Job Satisfaction
Why is this important?
Are you tired of unmotivated, uninterested, and inept workers?
One-third to one-half your life is spent at work!!
Theories of Motivation
Content Theories: Focus on the importance of the work (e.g.,
challenges and responsibilities)
Specific needs that motivate human behavior
Process Theories: Deal with the cognitive processes used in
making decisions about our work
Content Theories
Achievement Motivation Theory: David McClelland.
Emphasizes need to accomplish something. Linked to successful
managers
Favor environment where they can assume responsibility
Take calculated risks and set attainable goals
Need continuing recognition and feedback
Managers high in achievement motivation show more respect for
subordinates and use more participatory systems
Need Hierarchy Theory
Abraham Maslow: proposed that we have a hierarchy of
needs. Once one is fulfilled we can move on to the next
Physiological
Safety
Belonging and Love
Esteem
Self-Actualization
ERG Theory
Alderfer
Similar to Maslow. We have needs, but in this case they are
not hierarchically arranged
Satisfying a need may increase its strength
Existence Needs
Relatedness Needs
Growth Needs
Motivator-Hygiene (Two Factor)
Theory
Motivator Needs: internal to work itself. If conditions are
met, job satisfaction occurs
Job enrichment: expand a job to give employee a greater role in
planning, performing, and evaluating their work
Hygiene Needs: Features of work environment. If not met,
job dissatisfaction occurs
Job Characteristics Theory

If employees have a high need for growth, specific job


characteristics lead to psychological conditions that lead to
increased motivation, performance, and satisfaction.
Skill variety
Unity of a job
Task significance
Autonomy
Feedback
Process Theories
Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE) Theory: people
will work hard if they expect their effort to lead to reward
Importance of outcome determines its strength as a
motivator supported by research
Equity Theory
Motivation is influenced by how fairly we feel we are treated
at work
Benevolent Workers: martyrs. Feel guilt when rewarded
Equity Workers: Sensitive to fairness. Normal
Entitled Workers
Goal-Setting Theory
Idea that our primary motivation on the job is defined in
terms of our desire to achieve a particular goal
Research shows that having goals leads to better performance
than not having goals
Specific goals are more motivating than general
Moderately difficult goals are most motivating
High Performance Cycle
Expands on Goal Setting Theory
Specific, attainable goals influenced by
Moderators (commitment to goal, self-efficacy, task
difficulty, feedback) and
Mediating Mechanisms (universal task strategies such as
direction of attention, effort and persistence)
Job Satisfaction
Overall measures of satisfaction may be too broad: current
measures address different facets of job satisfaction
Overall job satisfaction rate has remained the same for over 50
years
Rates are much lower for government workers
When people say they are satisfied, they often mean they are not
dissatisfied!!
Personal Characteristics and Job
Satisfaction

Age: in general, increases with age


Malcontents have stopped working
Older workers have greater chance of fulfillment
Gender: inconclusive results
Race: whites are happier
Cognitive Ability: slight negative relationship between level of
education and satisfaction
Personal Characteristics, Cont.
Use of Skills
Job Congruence
Personality: less alienation and internal locus of control lead
to higher satisfaction
Occupational Level: the higher the status level the greater the
satisfaction
Low Satisfaction and Job Behavior
Absenteeism: any given day 16-20% of workers miss work.
Costs businesses $30 billion dollars a year
Younger have higher absence rates
Rates are influenced by economic conditions
Turnover: Not always a bad thing!
Functional Turnover: when bad workers leave
Dysfunctional Turnover
LEADERSHIP & SUPERVISION
LEADERSHIP
Leadership
Leadership involves qualities related to a person's character
and behaviors, as well as roles within a group or organization.
It requires that a person have the ability to guide and
influence another person, group, or both to think in a certain
way, achieve common goals, or provide inspiration for
change. Marquis and Huston (2003) state that leaders:
Often do not have delegated authority, but obtain
their power through other means, such as influence.
Have a wider variety of roles than do managers.
May not be part of the formal organization.
Leadership Styles

Autocratic
Democratic
Laissez-faire
Situational
Autocratic Leadership
A leadership style characterized by specific instructions to
employees regarding what, how, and when work should be
done.

Micro-management style
The leader plans, organizes, controls, and
coordinates.
Emphasis is on getting the job done without
regard for input from others.
Autocratic Leadership (cont.)
Advantages
Efficiency
Employees know the managers expectations.
Disadvantages
Discourages employees from thinking about process
improvements
Employee dissatisfaction
Decline in worker performance
Does not prepare employees for promotion or possible
advancement
Autocratic Leadership (cont.)
When to use the autocratic
style
During an emergency
Managing temporary
employees
Managing new
employees
Democratic Leadership
A leadership style characterized by encouragement for
employees to share in the decision-making and problem-
solving processes.

General management style


Considers everyones viewpoint in
decision making
Utilizes team concept in goal setting
Democratic Leadership (cont.)
Advantages
Employees actively involved in decision making
Higher employee morale
Stronger employee commitment to established
goals
Disadvantages
Time consuming
Not everyone likes to participate in decision
making.
Democratic Leadership (cont.)
When to use the democratic
style
Managing employees who are
committed to their jobs
Managing employees who are
interested in more
responsibility
Managing experienced and
well-trained employees
Laissez-faire Leadership
A leadership style in which minimal direction and
supervision is given to workers.

Open management style


Management shares information
Team (or individual employee) is
completely responsible for the
workload.
Laissez-faire Leadership (cont.)
Advantages
Easy management style to administer
Complete empowerment for employees
Disadvantages
Poor decision making may result.
Some employees do not perform well without
direction and supervision.
Laissez-faire Leadership (cont.)
When to use laissez-faire
Managing experienced,
well-trained, and highly-
motivated workers
Managing home-based
employees, outside
salespersons
Situational Leadership
Leadership characterized by shifts in management style as
appropriate for individual employees.

The management
style applied
depends on the
needs of each
employee.
Situational Leadership (cont.)
Advantages
Management style personalized for each
employee
Improved communication
High employee morale
Improved production
Disadvantages
Time consuming
Difficult to manage
Situational Leadership (cont.)
When to use situational
management
Highly experienced manager
Manager highly skilled in human
relations
Employees with range of needs
for supervision
Supervision
The Art & Craft of Supervision

The Art The Craft

Interpersonal Technical
and Conceptual Skills
Skills
Making the Transition
Find out what management expects of you.
Establish your authority.
Get to know your operation.
Get to know your people.
Communicate your expectations.
DON'T DO IT!
Playing favorites.
Doing the work. Let your employees be the technical workers.
Being emotional.
Lying your way out of things.
Trying to be "One of the Gang."
Taking credit for your employee's successes.
Blaming management for problems.
Selling out your employees.
Refusing to make a proper commitment to the job.
Neglecting to grow into the job.
Qualities of Supervisors
Goal oriented
Bottom line oriented
Communicates and enforces standards
Initiative seeks opportunities to solve problems
Skillful use of influence
Communicates confidence
in people
Qualities of Supervisors (continued)
Interpersonal sensitivity
Develops and coaches others
Gives performance feedback
Collaboration and team building
Conceptual skills and systematic
problem solving
Concern for image and
reputation
Supervisor Definition
Supervisor has its roots in Latin, where it means Looks
Over

Super which means Very Good and Vision which means


Detailed Focus.
What Is Supervision?
Supervision is the first level of management in an
organization

Supervisors do not do operative work, but see that it is


accomplished through the effort of others
Who are Supervisors?
A supervisor is the manager who serves as the link between
operative employees and all other managers
Five Attitudes for Successful
Supervision
I'm
A member of management
Responsible for the performance of my entire team
Easy to work for
Easy to get along with
Able to forgive myself for mistakes
The Functions of Supervision
Determining how well the work is being
done compared to what was planned

Directing & channeling


employee behavior

Obtaining & developing


good people

Distributing the work & arranging


it so that it flows smoothly

Determining the most effective


means for achieving the work
The Functions of Supervision
3 types of skills required of supervisors:
Technical:
Knowledge about machines, processes, and methods of production
Human relations:
Knowledge about human behavior and the ability to work well with
people
Administrative:
Knowledge about the organization and how it works
Skills & Levels of Management
What Factors Affect Behavior?
Policies
Peer group
Media
Difference of ethics taught and ethics observed
External influences
Family
Religious
Cultural
Political
Supervisors Responsibility
Know and understand values of the department,
subordinates, self.

Demonstrate integrity.

Instruct, monitor, correct behaviors in subordinates.


Ethics In The Workplace
Employees ideas of what is acceptable and not acceptable are
based on the supervisors actions
The supervisors failure to take corrective action in certain
situations can also affect the behavior of the employees
Areas Requiring Ethical Conduct
Loyalty
Supervisors who are viewed as being interested only in themselves and their
future will have difficulty in getting the full cooperation of employees
Human relations
This category centers on the supervisors concept of fairness, particularly in
the treatment of subordinates
Overt personal actions
This category includes the supervisors behavior within the company and
how they handle themselves in the community
Dealing with Dishonest Employees
A. Dealing with dishonest subordinates
1. Recognize the problem, get the facts, and document the case
2. Confront the employee
3. Follow the established disciplinary system
B. Dealing with dishonest peers or other managers
1. You may not be able to deal directly with the problem
2. In most cases, report your suspicions and findings to your boss and let them
confront those involved
C. Whistle blowing
1. Whistle blower places himself or herself at risk