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Drying

CHE133
Classification of Drying

1. Batch drying- material is inserted into a drying


equipment and stay their for a period of time until
desired drying is achieved.

2. Continuous drying-material is continuously added


and removed from the dryer.
Methods of Drying

1. Air drying

2. Vacuum drying

3. Freeze drying
Vacuum Drying

Moisture evaporate faster at low pressures.

Heat is added indirectly by heated walls.


Freeze Drying
Equipment for Drying

1. Tray dryers

2. Vacuum Shelf Dryers

3. Continuous tunnel dryer

4. Spray dryers
Tray Dryers
Tray Dryers
Materials are spread in trays
from 10 mm to 100 mm
thickness.
Steam heated air is recirculated
thru the material by a fan.
Generally only about 10 to 20%
of the air is fresh(not
recirculated).
After drying the trays are
replaced with new trays
containing new materials.
Vacuum Shelf Dryers

Made of cast iron cabinets


with tightly fitted doors so
that it can be vacuum.

Generally hot water is used to


heat the walls of the cabinets.
Vacuum Shelf Dryers
Generally used for expensive products or heat sensitive products.
Continuous tunnel dryer
Continuous tunnel dryer
Length of a Drying Conveyor
Calculation
One thousand kilogram per hour of a material with
30% moisture content (d.b.) is dried in a belt
conveyor drier with a capacity of 50 kg of bone dry
solid per meter of drier. The total drying time is 5.3
hours. Estimate the length of a the drying conveyor.
A. 74.2 m B. 81.5 m C. 106 m D. 98 m
Spray Dryers
Spray Dryers

Dried milk powder is


generally formed using
spray drying.
Spray dryer

Coffee extract containing 70% water is to be spray


dried using air at 420 K in a 6-m diameter by 6-m
high chamber with centrifugal disc atomizer. The
capacity of the spray drier is _____ lb/hr of feed, if
the final product will have a moisture content of
1%(w.b.) see table 12-36, Perry, 7th ed. Note : this
reference gives an evaporation rate of 3.8 kg/s.
A. 20500 B. 35000 C. 40500 D. 43200
Drying Equipment

5. Rotary dryers

6. Rotary Drum dryers

7. Grain dryers
Rotary dryers
Rotary Drum dryers
Grain dryers
Drying Curve
Drying Rate Curve
Drying Equation 1
-
R is rate of drying. (kg water/hr.m 2)
Type equation here.
Q is weight of bone dry solid. (kg)
A is drying area,m2
W is total moisture content dry basis (db)
(kg water/kg dry solid)
is drying time in hours
Drying Equation 2
W = X + X*

W is total moisture content dry basis (d.b.)


(kg water/kg dry solid)

X is moisture content. (kg water/kg dry solid)

X* is equilibrium moisture content


Drying Equation 3: Constant Rate
of Drying
Sample problem

The critical moisture content of banana is 2%. It


took 4 hours to dry from 20% to 10%. How long will
it take to dry from 20% to 5%?
Drying Equation 3: Falling Rate
Period
sample problem 1

A wet material having a critical moisture content of


15% (d.b.) and an equilibrium moisture content of
3% (d.b.) took 6 hours to dry from 45% (d.b.) to
10%(d.b.). The time it will take to dry to 15%(d.b.) is
A. 4.9 hours
B. 3.9 hours
C. 5.5 hours
D. none of these
Sample Problem 2

The rate of drying at constant rate period is 20


lbs/hr . 400 lbs of dry solid containing 300lbs water
enter the drier. If the critical free moisture is 0.5(d.b.)
and the equilibrium moisture content is 0.05 (d.b.),
the drying time to dry the material to 5%
moisture(w.b.) is
A. 67.5 hours B. 47.5 hours
C. 56.5 hours D. 76.5 hours
Seat work

Wet solid are to be dried from 40% to 10% in 5


hours under constant drying conditions. The critical
moisture content is 20% and the equilibrium
moisture content is 7% . All moisture contents are on
dry basis. The time needed to dry from 15% to 5%
free moisture under the same drying condition is __.
A. 3.42 hours B. 1.846 hours
C. 0.542 hours D. 2.129 hours
Sample Problem 3

Given a solid material containing 120% moisture on


a dry basis, the equivalent moisture content on a wet
basis in percent moisture is
A. 20
B. 54.5
C. 12
D. none of these
Seat work

The amount of water to be removed from 2000


kg/hr of feed to be dried from 110% (d.b.) to 5%
(w.b.) is____ kg/hr.
A. 998
B. 948
C. 451
D. 910
Sample Problem 1
Sample problem 4
Seat work 1
Seat work 3
Figure 9.5-1b
Exercise 9.7.2
The bone-dry sample weight was 3.765 kg dry solid. The top
exposed surface has an area of 0.186 m2. The equilibrium
moisture content is 0.190 kg. The following sample weight was
obtained in the drying test.
Time, h 0.8 1.4 2.2 3.0 4.2
Weight, kg 4.808 4.699 4.554 4.404 4.241
a. Calculate the free moisture content in kg water/kg dry solid for
each time t.
b. Calculate the slopes (Hint: i.e. change in free moisture content
over time. There are 4 slopes).
c. Calculate the rates of drying in kg water/h.m2.
d. Determine the critical moisture content.
e. Estimate the time it will take to dry from 0.10 kg water/kg dry
solid to 0.04 kg water/kg dry solid.
Drying/ChE Calc

What will be the volumetric flow rate (in


ft3/min) of entering air required to
remove 10 lbs of water per hour from
rayon, if the air enters at 80F and 25%
RH and leaves at 170F and 55% RH?
The operating pressure is 14.3 psia.
A. 12 B. 8.6 C. 7.12 D. 13.0
1st order drying equation

The drying rate is proportional to


the moisture content. If half of the
moisture content of a material is
dried in 2 hours, then three fourths
will be dried in 4 hours.
A. true B. false
Continuous dryer
Water balance
Enthalpy balance
Calculation of enthalpies

Cs = 0.24 + 0.45H (in BTU/lbm.R)


=2501KJ/KG
Continuous dryer
Example 9.10-2
Seat work

A continuous countercurrent dryer is being used to dry


453.6 kg dry solid/ h containing 0.04 kg total moisture/kg
dry solid to a value of 0.002 kg total moisture/kg dry
solid. The granular solid enters at 26.7C and is to be
discharged at 62.8C. The dry solid has a heat capacity of
1.465 kJ/kg.K, which is assumed constant. Heating air
enters at 93.3C, having a humidity of 0.010 kg water /kg
dry air and is to leave at 37.8C. Calculate the air flow rate
if the heat losses from the dryer is estimated as 2931 W.

Exercise 2
The bone-dry sample weight was 3.765 kg dry solid. The top exposed
surface has an area of 0.186 m2. The equilibrium moisture content is 0.190
kg. The following sample weight was obtained in the drying test.
Time, h 0.8 1.4 2.2 3.0 4.2
Weight, kg 4.808 4.699 4.554 4.404 4.241
a. Calculate the free moisture content in kg water/kg dry solid for each time t.
b. Calculate the slopes (Hint: i.e. change in free moisture content over time.
There are 4 slopes).
c. Calculate the rates of drying in kg water/h.m2.
d. Determine the critical moisture content.
e. Estimate the time it will take to dry from 0.20 kg water/kg dry solid to 0.04
kg water/kg dry solid.
sterilization

No is the original
number of bacteria.

N is the number of
bacteria after time t of
sterilization.
Decimal reduction time, D
Arrhenius equation
Thermal death time, 12D
sterilization
Derivation of Rc equation
Derivation of Rc equation
The bone-dry sample weight was 3.765 kg dry solid. The top
exposed surface has an area of 0.186 m2. The equilibrium
moisture content is 0.190 kg. The following sample weight was
obtained in the drying test. 20 pts
Time, h 0.8 1.4 2.2 3.0 4.2
Weight, kg 4.808 4.699 4.554 4.404 4.241
a. Calculate the free moisture content in kg water/kg dry solid
for each time t.
b. Calculate the slopes (Hint: i.e. change in free moisture content
over time. There are 4 slopes).
c. Calculate the rates of drying in kg water/h.m2.
d. Determine the critical moisture content.
e. Estimate the time it will take to dry from 0.20 kg water/kg dry
solid to 0.04 kg water/kg dry solid.
Heat of conduction

Heat of convection
Heat of radiation
Rate of drying, R

=

The temperature of the sample surface, Ts is 32.2C and
hc is 62.45 W/m2 K.
Ficks 2nd law of diffusion
Diffusion control drying
Diffusion control drying
Diffusion control drying
Sample problem 6