Society

OBJECTIVES
1. Define Society 2. Discuss Gerhard Lenski·s Theory of Sociocultural Evolution 3. Examine how Karl Marx see society evolve due to Conflict 4. Look into Max Weber·s Rationalization of Society 5. Discuss Society and Function as asserted by Emile Durkheim 6. Compare and Contrast the Four Visions of Society

Society
Society refers to people who interact together and share a culture 

A society is a body of humans generally seen as a community or group of humans- or other organisms of a single species - that is outlined by the bounds of cultural identity, social solidarity, functional interdependence, or sociality. More broadly, a society is an economic, social or industrial infrastructure, made up of a varied multitude of individuals. Members of a society may be from different ethnic groups. A society may be a particular ethnic group, such as the Saxons ; a nation state, such as Bhutan; a broader cultural group, such as a Western society or even a social organism such as an ant colony.

Society
Society refers to people who interact together and share a culture 

The word society may also refer to an organized voluntary association of people for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes. Sociology is the study of society and social behavior.

THEORIES OF SOCIETY
PROPONENT GERHARD & JEAN LENSKI KARL MARX THEORY Sociocultural Evolution Technology Class Conflict Capitalists (Bourgeoisie) vs Proletariat (Working Class) Rationalization of Society From Tradition to Rationality Division of Labor From Mechanical to Organic Solidarity

MAX WEBER

EMILE DURKHEIM

THEORIES OF SOCIETY
PROPONENT THEORY

GERHARD AND JEAN LENSKI KARL MARX

Sociocultural Evolution Technology Class Conflict Capitalists (Bourgeoisie) vs Proletariat (Working Class) Rationalization of Society From Tradition to Rationality Division of Labor From Mechanical to Organic Solidarity

MAX WEBER

EMILE DURKHEIM

1. SOCIOCULTURAL EVOLUTION: LENSKI
SOCIETY TECHNOLOGY*

1. HUNTING & GATHERING 2. HORTICULTURAL & PASTORAL 3. AGRARIAN 4. INDUSTRIAL 5. POST INDUSTRIAL

Primitive tools, Spear, bow and arrow, stone knife Hand tools, Hoe and Digging Stick Animal-drawn Plows Large machinery driven by water and steam boilers Information based Computers and Other electronic devices

2. CLASS CONFLICT: KARL MARX

CONFLICT AND HISTORY
TYPES OF SOCIETY 1. HUNTING & GATHERING CHARACTERISTIC No Conflict: COMMUNISM, a system by which people share roughly equally in the production of food and other material goods

2. HORTICULTURAL & PASTORAL 3. AGRARIAN 4. INDUSTRIAL

Conflict: Masters Vs Slaves Conflict: Nobles Vs Serfs Conflict: Bourgeoisie Vs Proletariat BOURGEOISIE (capitalists) people who own factories in pursuit of profits PROLETARIAT (working class) people who sell their productive labor for wages

CLASS CONFLICT
y SOCIAL CONFLICT ² struggle between segments of society over

valued resources. y CLASS CONFLICT (or Class Struggle) ² conflict over the distribution of society·s wealth and power; the engine of history
ALIENATION, the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness FALSE CONSCIOUSNESS, explanations of social problems as the shortcomings of individuals rather than the flaws of society CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS, workers recognition of themselves as a class unified in opposition to capitalists and ultimately capitalism itself REVOLUTION The only way out of the trap of capitalism is to remake society.

3. RATIONALIZATION OF SOCIETY: MAX WEBER

y Rationalization of society ² the historical change from tradition to

rationality as the dominant mode of thought or idea
PRE-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES TRADITIONAL, sentiments and beliefs passed from generation to generation INDUSTRIAL-CAPITALIST OR MODERN SOCIETIES RATIONAL, deliberate, matter-of fact calculation of the most efficient means to accomplish a particular task Bureaucracy arose along with capitalism as an expression of the rationality that shapes the modern society

4. DIVISION OF LABOR:EMILE DURKHEIM
DIVISION OF LABOR ² specialization of economic activity
PRE-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES MECHANICAL SOLIDARITY social bonds based on common sentiments and shared moral value that are strong among members of pre-industrial societies INDUSTRIAL-CAPITALIST or MODERN SOCIETIES ORGANIC SOLIDARITY social bonds based on specialization and interdependence that are strong among members of industrial societies ANOMIE, a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals (likeness) (differences)

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful