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Sugar (C12H22O11) is the generalized name for

sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many
of which are used in food. They are composed of
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. There are various
types of sugar derived from different sources.
Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and
include glucose (also known as dextrose),
fructose, and galactose. The table or granulated
sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a
disaccharide. (In the body, sucrose hydrolyses
into fructose and glucose.) Other disaccharides
include maltose and lactose. Longer chains of
sugars are called oligosaccharides.
The words origin is the Old Indic rkar, which
firstly designated anything ground or grainy and
was then transferred to the dry, granular mass of
sugar. By the Indian campaign of Alexander the
Great, the Old Indic word entered the Greek
language and became sakcharon where the Latin
term saccharum derived from.
Fruits and vegetables like apple, grapes, banana,
orange, onion, carrot, sugar beets and sugar cane
contains high amount of sugars.

In fact, sugarcane and sugar beets are the major

sources of table sugar.
Archeological evidence tells us that sugarcane was first domesticated
8000 BC in in New Guinea by its inhabitants, who slowly spread their knowledge
across Southeast Asia, southern China, and India.

First historical reference of sugar comes from China, with the mentions
800 BC
of the Indias sugarcane fields in some of their ancient surviving texts.

a Persian military expedition recorded finding sugarcane in that sub-

continent, and later, Alexander the Great also found it there. His
510 BC
Admiral, Nearchos, is recorded as describing "a reed which makes
honey without bees."
Indian manufacturers started making cooled sugar syrup, which was
molded in large flat bowls. This new form of sugar made it not only
500 BC
easier for transport, but its name managed to live until today. It was
called khanda, or on modern day, candy.
Alexander the Great discovers sugar cane, then spread it through
327 BC
Persia and introduces it in Mediterranean
First European contact with the sugar came during the reign of
famous Alexander the Great, when his returning troops from India
300 BC brought back home mysterious honey powder. Even with this
discovery, Europe embraced sugar more than 1 thousand years later
after the end of the Crusades.
Theophrastus described it as "...honey which is in a cane", and
Dioscoredes described it as "...a kind of concentrated honey, called
287 BC
saccharon, found in canes in India and Arabia, like in consistence to
salt, and brittle to be broken between the teeth."
Chinese Emperor Tai Tsung sends a successful scientific mission to
200 BC study sugar manufacturing from sugar cane in India. Asian traders
then bring sugar to the Middle East and westward into Africa.
Indians discovered how to crystallize sugar during the Gupta
350 AD
Even though they could produce large quantities of sugar, majority
of the Indian population preferred honey to sweeten their food. That
changed in 5th century AD when Imperial Guptas found the way to
400 AD
turn sugarcane juice into granulated crystals. This new form of
sugar was much easier to transport, which made it one of the
primary trade ingredients of India.
Buddhist monks who traveled from indie to neighboring countries
500s introduced Sugar to China. Similarly, Indian sailors spread the world of
this new amazing food ingredient across Indian Ocean.

China established its first sugarcane plantations by using knowledge

600 AD
that they learned in India.

The Arabs learn to cultivate sugar cane after conquering Persia, and
spread it to East Africa and southern and eastern Mediterranean.
641 AD Using irrigation, sugar cane is then cultivated in Cyprus, Egypt,
Morocco, Sicily and Spain, resulting in the first major European sugar
When Persians invaded India, Persians learned how to grow sugarcane
642 AD and how to make sugar from it.

710 AD Sugar cane was introduced to Egypt.

First European beet sugar factory was established by Franz Karl

Achard in Germany. This enabled Europe to start producing sugar in
801 AD
vast quantities, making it more popular and accessible.
9th and Arab Agricultural Revolution represents a key point in the history
10th of sugar. It was then when Muslim countries in Middle East and
century Asia adopted sugar production of India, and enabled European
countries to come in contact with this incredible food substance.
11th-13th Sugar returned to Europe to the Crusades, when soldiers brought
century back to Europe mysterious sweet salt. This discovery started the
rise of the Venetian and Mediterranean trading fleets that soon
brought vast amounts of knowledge and new materials to Europe,
kick-starting the era of Renaissance and later period of so-called
Golden Age of Discovery.
Sugar was available in London at "two shillings a pound". This
equates to about US$100 per kilo at today's prices so it was very
much a luxury. 4920.05pesos

By the 1400s, Spanish and Portuguese explorers expanded sugars

1400 presence to the eastern Atlantic as they introduced cane sugar to
the islands off the African coast.

Henry the Navigator introduced cane to Madeira in 1425, while the

Spanish, having eventually subdued the Canary Islands,
introduced sugar cane to them.
In 1493, on his second voyage, Christopher Columbus carried
sugarcane seedlings to the New World, in particular Hispaniola

1500s First sugarcane plantations were formed in Central America.

Early French agronomist Olivier de Serres discovers crystallisable sugar

1600s in beet.
there were 120 sugar refineries operating in Britain. Their combined
output was only 30,000 tons per annum. At this stage sugar was still
a luxury and vast profits were made to the extent that sugar was
called "white gold".
Chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf uses alcohol to extract sugar
from beets, but his methods did not lend themselves to economical
industrial- scale production.

Sugar cane is introduced to the United States when Jesuit

missionaries bring it to New Orleans, Louisiana.
The slave revolt on Santo Domingo leads to the collapse of the sugar
industry. With this, the worlds biggest sugar producer drops out
leading to a tremendous increase in the sugar price.
Until this point, sugar was very expensive and not available to
general population of Europe and Americas. But, spreading of sugar
plantations around the world managed to transform this item into
very popular food ingredient. This move from very expensive to
widely popular product brought great changes in the economic and
social status in the world. Most notably, the need for establishing
numerous plantations in the tropics intensified slave trade of African
slaves, dispersing them all around the world, mostly to North and
Central America.
First European beet sugar factory was established by Franz Karl
1801 Achard in Germany. This enabled Europe to start producing sugar in
vast quantities, making it more popular and accessible.
Partly in response to a British blockade of France that prevented
sugar cane imports from the Caribbean, Benjamin Delessert invents
a sugar extraction process from beets suitable for industrial use in
Saccharin, C7H5NO3S, (benzoic sulfinide) is accidentally invented
1878 by Constantin Fahlberg, a chemist working on coal tar derivatives in
a laboratory at the Johns Hopkins University
Saccharin is an artificial sweetener with
effectively no food energy which is about 300
400 times as sweet as sucrose or table sugar, but
has a bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at
high concentrations. It is used to sweeten
products such as drinks, candies, cookies,
medicines, and toothpaste.
Saccharin has no food energy and no nutritional
value. It is safe to consume for individuals
with diabetes.
Sugar was no longer considered to be only popular, but it was
necessary food ingredient (for the first time normal diet included teas,
19th coffee, jams, candies, chocolates, processed foods, etc.). Slave trade
century peaked in the 1st half of that century, but was reduced after the end of
the American Civil War (18611865).

Richard O. Marshall and Earl R. Kooi invent the production of High

Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS).

Aspartame was accidentally invented by James M. Schlatter, a chemist

1965 working for G.D. Searle & Company.

The FDA grants aspartame approval for restricted use in dry foods, only
1974 to reverse its decision the following year when a psychiatrist claimed it
caused brain damage in animals.

HFCS begins to be rapidly introduced into many processed foods and

1975 soft drinks in the U.S.
1976 Sucralose is invented by scientists from Tate & Lyle

1981 Aspartame again receives FDA approval

1998 The FDA approves sucralose (Splenda), for use in the U.S.

Sugar is commonplace item that is used regularly by everyone.
The history of the sugar industry in the
Philippines pre-dates pre-Spanish colonization. It
is believed that early Arab traders brought from
the Celebes cuttings of sugarcane and planted
them in Mindanao. Later sugar were shipped north
and planted in the Visayas and Luzon. By the time
Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese crossed the
Pacific and discovered for Spain the Philippine
archipelago in 1521 sugarcane plantations were
already extensive in many islands of the country,
particularly in the Visayas.
Fullymature (4-12 feet tall)
Two types:
-Manual -Mechanical
-Animal driven carts
Storedin cane yards
Carried from cane yard to feeding area by:
Conveyer belt
Huge suction truck
It has been estimated (Clarke, 1991) that 1-2%ofthe sucrose in the
cane is lost as a result of washing.
To aid the cane crushing
Cane knives to cut cane into small pieces
Toremove leaves and nodes
Hammer mill Shredder
Cane crushed to break
hard structure
Cells containing juice
are ruptured
No juice extracted
Increase efficiency of
juice extraction
Subjected to crusher
with corrugated
3 roller mills
connected in series:
-Top roller
-Feed roller
-Discharge roller
Extract the juice from
crush cane
Stored in bagasse storage
Used as fuel to generate steam
Steam used for:
-Generating electricity
To remove non-sugars and
-The juice is heated and lime is
added to neutralise the natural
(Sulphur dioxide)
(Carbon dioxide)
- Under sulphitation process, juice is clarified
with lime(CaO) and sulphur dioxide gas

- Under carbonation process, the raw juice is
heated to about 150 F or 65 to 70C and a
correct amount of lime is added.
Mud from clarifier still contain some residual
Filtered to extract residual juice in Rotary
Vacuum Filters
Juice evaporated to obtain unsaturated
Increase concentration of juice from 15 brix to
65 brix
Juice preheated to around 107-110 C
Multiple Effect Evaporators
Steam for heating 85 C


70 C 55C 40C


2nd effect 3rd effect

Multiple Effect Evaporators
- In a multiple-effect evaporator, water is
boiled in a sequence of vessels, each held at a
lower pressure than the last. Because the boiling
temperature of water decreases as pressure
decreases, the vapor boiled off in one vessel
can be used to heat the next, and only the first
vessel (at the highest pressure) requires an
external source of heat.
Single Effect Evaporator
Single Effect Evaporator
- In a single-effect evaporator , steam
provides energy for vaporization and the vapor
product in condensed and removed from the
Steam used to evaporate juice

1 liter steam to evaporate 4 liter juice

steam temperature 113-130 C at 1st pan and 55 C at
last pan

Each subsequent vessel with decreasing pressure

Last pan being under almost total vacuum

Carried out in single effect high-vacuum boiling
Brix are increased from 65 to 75 by boiling at
60 C

Two steps of crystallization

Using seeding system
- the initial process that occurs in the
formation of a crystal from a solution, a liquid, or a
vapor, in which a small number of ions, atoms, or
molecules become arranged in a pattern
characteristic of a crystalline solid, forming a site
upon which additional particles are deposited as
the crystal grows.
Using seeding system
- Secondary nucleation
-This secondary nucleation requires seeds or
existing crystals to perpetuate crystal growth.
-During crystallization it is necessary to initiate
the formation of sugar crystal, in other words,
the formation of nuclei through the seeding
- This phase of crystallization occurs at lower
super saturation than primary nucleation where
crystal growth is optimal
Massecuite mixture of crystals and mother liquor
(molasses) resulting from crystallization

Molasses or black treacle, is a viscous by-product

of refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.

Transferred to
crystallizer at
Separate sugar from molasses
Centrifuge operates at 100 -1800 rpm
Molasses pass through perforations
(perforation means a hole made by piercing; an
aperture passing through or in something)
Sugar crystals are washed with 85 C
Raw sugar and molasses
Sugar tumbled through
large cylindrical dryers
(tumble to fall down
suddenly and quickly)
Sugar Refined




Mixture of raw sugar with high purity syrup (85%)
called magma
Melts outermost layer of the raw sugar crystal
at 50C
Centrifugation to remove resulting syrup from
melting of the outer layer
Affinated sugar dissolved with hot condense to
concentration of 7 C brix.
Melted at 85 C in batch or continuous melter.
Re-melt may contain some impurities and colorants

1. Partial partially destroy the invert sugar, using
less lime.
2. Complete the goal of complete liming is to
reduce invert sugar as much as possible by adding
an excessive amount of lime.

Colorants remover by decolonization
Two Methods

Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)

- the activated carbon being retained on
50-mesh sieve

Calgon Carbon
- produces GACs with a variety of materials,
methods and degrees of activation to produce
activated to meet and exceed the demands of a
wide array of application
Ion exchange resin
- is a resin or polymer that acts as medium for
ion exchange. It is an insoluble matrix in the form
of small microbeads, usually white or yellowish,
fabricated from an organic polymer substrate.
Sugar syrup evaporated up to super saturation


Centrifugation to obtain
refined sugar crystal
Bucket elevator on conveyer
Hot air for drying
- Fine, medium and bold grains
Storage in go downs
- Cool, dry, moisture and
odor free
Containers opaque, airtight, moisture/ odor proof

Glass canning jars or cans for liquid sugars

- Obtained directly from sugarcane juice without
- Most natural sugar
- Brown in color due to molasses

- Have white luster and transparent
- Bleached to remove color and other impurities
Quality of sugar
Grain size and distribution
Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar
product with distinctive brown color due to
presence of molasses. It is either an
unrefined or partially refined soft sugar
consisting of sugar crystal with some
residual molasses content (natural brown
sugar), or it is produced by the addition of
molasses to refined white sugar
(commercial brown sugar)
Brown Sugar is simply white sugar mixed
with molasses. Therefore, brown sugar can hold
its shape like wet sand, while white sugar cannot.
Raw sugar is also generally brown in color and
forms when the juice of sugarcane evaporates.
However, many people refer to brown sugar as
granulated white sugar with molasses added to
Muscovado Sugar called in Khaand in Hindi
language, is a type of partially refined to unrefined
brown sugar with a strong molasses content and
flavor. It has 6.5% molasses

Dark Brown Sugar contains sugar contains 4.5 %


Light Brown Sugar or regular commercial brown

sugar contains up to 10% molasses
Brown sugar is often produced by adding
sugarcane molasses to completely refined white
sugar crystals to more carefully control the ratio of
molasses to sugar crystal and to reduce
manufacturing costs. Brown sugar prepared in this
manner if often mush coarser than its unrefined
equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated
from the crystal by simply washing to reveal the
underlying white sugar crystal; in contrast, with
unrefined brown sugar, washing will reveal
underling crystal which are off-white due to the
inclusion of molasses.
White sugar crystal;
CONTAINS molasses White sugar crystals

CALORIES per 100g 377 387

TASTE Slightly less sweet Sweeter and rich

TEXTURE Moist, Clumpy Dry, grainy

Raw and brown sugar both contain slightly
more minerals that refined white sugar, but only
because they contain molasses. While brown sugar
does give you dab of calcium, potassium, iron, and
magnesium in your sweeter, he amounts are too
small to have any real health benefit, The New York
Times explains. A 1 teaspoon serving of brown
sugar supplies just 0.02 milligrams of iron, for
example a miniscule amount of the daily 8
milligram requirement for men and 18 milligrams
for women of childbearing age.
Although some people claim that brown sugar is
healthier than white sugar, there is very little
difference between the two. Both can be
fattening in large amounts.
From the mid-nineteenth century to the mid-
1970s, sugar was the most important
agricultural export of the Philippines, not only
because of the foreign exchange earned, but
Also because sugar was the basis for the
accumulation of wealth of a significant segment
of the Filipino elite. The principal sugarcane-
growing region is the Western Visayas,
particularly the island of Negros.
The decline of the sugar industry was complicated
by the monopolization that took place during the
martial law period. In 1976, as a reaction to the
precipitous decline in sugar prices, Marcos
established the Philippine Sugar Commission
(Philsucom), placing at the head his close
associate Roberto Benedicto. Philsucom ws given
sole authority to buy and sell sugar, to set prices
paid to planters and millers, and purchase
companies connected to the sugar industry. A
bank was set up in 1978, and the construction of
seven new sugar mills was authorized at a cost of
US$40 million per mill.
According to Bureau of Local Employment (BLE)
data posted in January 2016 on the governments
official job portal, there are 12,400 vacancies for
sugarcane farmers and 100 job openings for
sugarcane grinders

According to SRA data, raw sugar
production in MY 2014/15 reached 2.15 MMT
down 15 percent from 2.54 MMT the previous
year, mainly due to the extended dry weather
conditions caused by the El Nino and a delay in
peak harvest and milling periods, as well a
change in data recording caused
by the shift in the USDA Market Year from
September/August to November/December.
Traditionally peak sugar milling season is in
November and December. However, due to recent
climactic changes, there has been a marked shift in
the peak harvest period to January and February,
which has resulted in a significant drop in MY
2014/15 production and the 2015/16 forecast of
The island of Negros continues to account for
the majority (57 percent) of domestic sugar
production; followed by Luzon with 14 percent;
Mindanao, 19 percent; Panay, 6 percent; and Eastern
Visayas, 4 percent. Roughly 90 percent of total
Philippine production comes primarily from four
major sugar planter federations and three major
miller associations.
There are about 27 sugar mills, running at about
60% capacity and 14 sugar refiners at about 73
percent capacity utilization. According to SRA,
there are about 65,000 sugarcane farmers in the
country and increasing due to the
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program. Of
these, 80 percent have landholdings less than five
hectares in size and less than one percent have
farms greater than 100 hectares.
Being a plantation crop, farms of more than 100
hectares have an average productivity of 7.34
MT/ha, while smaller farms of less than 5 hectares
have an average productivity of 5.03 MT/ha.
According to SRA, the sugar industry contributes
about P87 billion to the national economy in, with
more than 700,000 workers and 5 million of their
Source: Philippine Sugar Regulatory Administration
In the Philippines, consumption is typically
measured by monitoring sugar withdrawals from
the mills by traders and industrial users (as mills
are the main holders of the countrys stocks).
Based on SRA figures, MY 2014/15 dropped to
2.152 MMT (from 2.268 MMT the previous year) as
withdrawals slowed down because of tight sugar
supplies and higher prices. Consumption is
expected to return to more regular levels of 2.20
MMT in MY 2015/16 and MY 2016/17. Demand for
sugar is expected to continue rising due to an
expanding food processing sector and a rising
- The largest Philippine
sugar export market is
the United States, as
prices under the U.S.
tariff rate quota system
are normally higher than
world market prices.
Despite domestic prices being well above
world prices most years, the Philippines typically
exports an average of 250,000 tons of sugar per
year as a way to support local producers. Post
forecasts total raw sugar exports for MY 2015/16
will only reach 150,000 MTRV with no exports to
the world market due to tight domestic supplies.
Philippine sugar policy is generally controlled by
the SRA, working closely with various influential industry
stakeholders. Trade and domestic prices are largely
governed by the SRA, a government agency under the
Philippine Department of Agriculture. During the start of
each crop year, the SRA issues a central policy (known as
Sugar Order No. 1) on production and marketing of
sugar for the country, which basically allocates how much
of production goes to the domestic and export markets as
well as for reserves. These orders are adjusted as the
season progresses.
Sugarcane Industry Development Act:

On March 27, 2015, Republic Act No.10659 or

the Sugarcane Industry Development Act was
signed into law. The Act promotes and supports the
competitiveness of the sugarcane industry by
providing P2 billion for infrastructure support
programs, research and development, socialized
credit, grants to block farms and scholarship grants.
The enactment of the Sugarcane Industry
Development Act comes as the full implementation
of the ASEAN Economic Integration goes underway
in 2015. Majority of the activities and programs to
be funded by the Sugarcane Industry Act are to be
implemented after elections in May 2016.
Sugar Industry Roadmap:
The Philippine Department of Agriculture (DA)
aims to make the countrys sugar industry globally
competitive in time for the full implementation of AFTA
through programs such as the Sugar Industry Roadmap.
This program will promote block farming or the
operational consolidation of small farms to take
advantage of plantation scale production. Under the
convergence initiative, DA will engage other
government agencies to finance and support the
industrys priority programs. The program also aims to
develop a strategically-diversified sugarcane industry
that produces raw, refined and specialty sugar
(muscovado), ethanol (potable and fuel), other sugar
by-products, and power.
Instant energy - Sugar is a source of instant
energy. It has a high calorie content that will give
your body energy. When sugar goes into our
blood, it gets converted into glucose which is the
simplest form of sugar. Then the glucose is
absorbed by the cells of the body and produces
Skin health - Sugars glycolic acid can be very
helpful in maintaining the health and look of your
skin. Using it can help elimination blemishes and
restoring the balance in the skins oils.
Low blood pressure - Having sugar can raise your
blood pressure immediately. Sugar can help when
you are about to have a black out due to low blood
Sugar for your brain - Brain cannot function without
sugar. Cut off sugar supply to the brain can cause
For diabetics - Diabetics have a fluctuating sugar
level. when the blood sugar level goes down, raw
sugar can help to revive itself.
Sugar causes deposition of Fat in the liver - Eating
a lot of added sugar (fructose) can cause
deposition of fat in the liver and lead to Non-
Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
Sugar harms your cholesterol and triglycerides -
Consuming a large part of calories as fructose
can lead to serious adverse effects on vlood
markers in as little as 10 weeks.
Sugar causes insulin resistance - Excess fructose
consumption can lead to insulin resistance, a
stepping stone towards obesity and diabetes
What is the safe amount of sugar to eat per
Men: 150 calories per day (37.5 grams or 9
Women: 100 calories per day (25 grams or 6