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Nutrition

Chapter 3

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
After studying this unit
You will be able to:
Identify categories of nutrients and explain their
importance in a healthy diet
Identify the characteristics of a nutritious diet for
healthy adults
Describe diet planning tools available to consumers
and chefs
Identify nutrition trends that affect food service
Understand the effects of storage and preparation
techniques on the nutritional value of food
Appreciate the use of alternative ingredients and
substitutes in developing recipes and menus to
provide guests with nutritious foods

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Nutrition
The science that studies nutrients
(chemical) substances found in food
that nourish the body by promoting
growth, maintenance and repair of
the body and by and facilitating body
functions such as digestion and
metabolism (the chemical reactions
that go on in the body); some
nutrients also provide energy
(calories)

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Six Categories of Nutrients
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Vitamins
Minerals
Water

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Essential Nutrients
Must be provided by food because the
body does not produce them in
sufficient quantities or cannot make
them at all

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Nonessential Nutrients
Healthy, well-nourished bodies can
make them in sufficient quantities to
satisfy their needs

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Macronutrients
Provide calories for energy
Needed in large quantities
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Fats found in animal and plant foods
Proteins
Necessary for manufacturing, maintaining
and repairing body tissue

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Carbohydrates
Simple
Occur in naturally occurring sugars as well as in
sweeteners
Complex
Occur in starch and fiber
Found in fruit, vegetables and cereal grains such
as wheat, barley and oats
Soluble fiber forms a gel in the digestive tract
Insoluble fiber increases fecal bulk

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Lipids
The fats in foods can be classified as
Saturated
Mainly animal foods
Monounsaturated
Primarily plants and plant food
Polyunsaturated
Found in plants and fish
Cholesterol is only found in foods of animal
origin
Trans fats are found in hydrogenated fats

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Proteins
Protein chains consist of amino acids
There are 20 amino acids
9 are essential for healthy adults
Proteins regulate the balance of
water, acids and bases and move
nutrients in and out of cells

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Calories (kcal)
The unit of energy measured by the
amount of heat required to raise
1,000 grams of water one degree
Celsius

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Micronutrients
Needed in smaller amounts
Vitamins
Minerals

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Vitamins
Vital dietary substances needed to
regulate the metabolism and normal
growth and body functions
Fat-soluble
A, D, E and K are found in food containing
fat
Water-soluble
C and the B complex vitamins are not
stored to the extent of fat-soluble vitamins

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Minerals
Cannot be manufactured in the body
Trace minerals
Needed in small amounts
Iron
Major minerals
Needed in relatively larger quantities
Calcium

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Water
The human body is approximately
60% water
Water is necessary for transporting
nutrients and wastes throughout the
body

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Phytochemicals
Non-nutritive components of plant
foods which may be important in
preventing some forms of cancer,
diabetes, Alzheimers, heart disease
and other degenerative diseases

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Federal Regulatory Agencies
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
of the U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services
Protects the nations health against
impure and unsafe foods
U.S. Department of Agriculture
(USDA)
Responsible to make sure that individual
food items are safe, wholesome and
accurately labeled

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Other Federal Agencies
Centers of Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC)
Tracks illnesses, including those caused
by food-borne pathogens
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Basic biological and nutritional research
Department of the Interior
Sets environmental and land use
standards

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Health Organizations
American Heart Association
American Cancer Society
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Food and Drug Administration
U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Anatomy of MyPyramid
Activity
Moderation
Personalization
Proportionality
Variety
Gradual improvement

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
MyPyramid

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Nutrition Labeling
An effort to provide consumers with
greater information about the
nutritional value of foods they
purchase
The FDA requires that most food
products be clearly labeled
All packaged food products must
include the Nutrition Facts Label

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Nutrition Facts Label

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Cooking Healthier Food
Ingredient substitutions
The replacement of one ingredient with
another of presumably similar, although
not necessarily identical, flavor, texture,
appearance and other sensory
characteristics
Ingredient alternatives
Replacement of one ingredient with
another of different flavor, texture,
appearance or other characteristics

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Commonly Substituted Ingredients
Salt
Sugars
Fats

Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
Consumer Concerns about Food
and Nutrition
Tremendous public interest in
nutrition presents a special challenge
to chefs
Chefs should be able to prepare and
serve food that meets the high
standards for health demanded by
some patrons, while maintaining the
flavor and appearance important to
everyone
Labensky, et al. 2007 Pearson Education
On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved