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Definition

A magnitude (force, displacement, or acceleration) which oscillates about some specified reference. Where the magnitude is alternately smaller and greater than the reference. Is commonly expressed in term of frequency [ cycles per second ] , and amplitude [ which is the magnitude of the force, displacement, or accelerartion ].

Frequency : the number of complete cycles of oscillation which occur per unit of time. frequency = F = cycles/second = hertz (Hz) Period : the time required to complete one cycle of vibration period = T = 1/F = second Amplitude : is the zero to peak value corresponding to maximum magnitude of a harmonic vibrate time history. Forcing Frequency (fd) : the number of oscillation per unit time of an external force/displacement applied to a system. Natural Frequency (fn) : the number of oscillations that a system will carry out per unit time if displaced from it equilibrium position and allowed to vibrate freely.

Displacement : is a vector quality that specifies the change of position of a body or particle and is usually measured from the mean/equilibrium position. Displacement = x = inches, feet, ..,etc Velocity : is a vector that specifies the time rate of change of displacement with respect to a frame a reference. velocity = v = inches/second Acceleration : is a vector that specifies the time rate of change of velocity with respect to a frame of reference. acceleration = g = inches/sec2

Deflection : the distance a body or spring will move when subjected to a static or dynamic force. Spring Stiffness : a constant which is the ratio of a force increment to a corresponding deflection increment of a spring. Resonance : when the foncing frequency councides with natural frequency of a suspension system. Damping the phenomenon by which energy is dissipated in a vibration system Damping coefficient damping for a material is expressed by its damping coefficient. Critical Damping when it is displaced from its static position and most quickly returns to this initial static position without any over-oscillation. Damping factor ratio which defines amount of damping in system.

Sources

Vibration environment Vehicular and foot traffic Passing trains Air conditioning system Rotating and reciprotating machinery Internal component of certain equipment in systems such as motors, blowers, and fans.

Effects

Electron microscopes ( resolution ) Optical systems Surface Finish Problems on precision grinders Microcircuitries Transmit noises Reducing lifetime of equipment

Mathematical

Tranmissibility

Defined as ratio of dynamic output to dynamic input.

T ! ¨ Id C ¸ 1 ©2 © I .C ¹ ¹ c º ª n ¨ f d2 ©1 2 © fn ª

2 2

¸ ¨ f C ¸ ¹ ©2 d . © f C ¹ ¹ ¹ n c º ª º

2

When damping negligible :

T = max when :

Reduction

The vibration can be reduced or attenuated by an isolator if properly selected. Find the source of vibrating problem and repair.

Isolator material

Elastomeric Spring Combination Spring :

- friction damper - air damping - wire mash damping wool cork fabric glass

Pneumatic System Miscellaneous Type :

Selection

1.

2.

3.

4.

Determine the frequency of disturbing vibration, fd. Determine minimum isolator natural frequency Determine what isolator natural frequency will provide desired level of isolation. Select the appropriate isolator for your application.

Audible noise from electric motor

**Major causes are :
**

torque pulsation : induction and pm machines torque and normal force : double salient structure of switched reluctance motor.

**Williansen expression of torque pulsations:
**

T3k = [In+2 + In-2 - 2 In+ In-Cos (Øn+ - Øn- )]½ pu In+ & In- = per unit value = 1 + 3k harmonic orders n+ = 1 - 3k harmonic orders nthis expression permits the pre eleminary assesment of possible shaft torsional vibration problems.

**Predeminant sound level :
**

At motor powered by PWM at modulating frequency. Sound level not a function of the load but inversely proportional to the motor speed.

Highest levels :

At switched reluctance motors. Related to load torque.

**Panturbation of speed/torque characteristic by harmonic can cause CLOGGING,
**

(failure of an induction motor to run up to normal speed due to a stable operating point, occur at a lower frequency)

Stray capasitance by harmonic cause capasitive currents to flow through the motor bearings.

**Simple Vibration System
**

- One cycle of vibration Movement of the mass through all its positions and back to position where it is ready to repeat the motion. - Period of vibration Time takes to complete one cycle of vibration. - Frequency of vibration The number of these cycles in a given length of time. Usually stated in cycle per minutes (cpm). This is call Hertz(Hz). Ex, machine vibrate at 3600 cpm same as 3600 Hz.

Vibration Indicator

Frequency Displacement Velocity Acceleration Phase angle

Relationships among velocity, acceleration and displacement.

Displacement

Identify how much the object is vibrating. It is usually defined as the maximum distance the object moves (i.e.,its lowest toots highest point) and is labeled peak to peak It is measured in units of - mils peak-to-peak (1 mil=0.001 in.) or - microns peak-to-peak 1 micron=0.001 millimeter)

Velocity

Indicate how fast the object is vibrating. Velocity is highest where object is passing through its position of rest (zero displacement) and zero at the upper and lower maximum-displacement limits. For PM program vibration is good choice When measured,value recorded , its maximum or peak. It is measured in units of - inches per second peak or - millimeters per second peak

Acceleration

It is related to the force which are causing the vibration. Acceleration reaches maximum value as the object reaches its maximum limit of displacement, that is, as it slows down, stops, and starts moving in the opposite direction When measured, value recorded, its maximum or peak It is measured in units of - g peak (1 g = 386 in.per sq.s or 1 g =980 cm/sq.s.)

Phase angle

Schematic representation of phase angle

Used when comparing the motion of vibration part with a fixed reference or comparing two parts of a machine structure vibrating at the same frequency. Or can defined as the angular difference at an given instant between two parts with respect to a complete vibration cycle and is usually expressed in degrees.

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