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COMPLEMENTARY , CROSSED

& ULTERIOR TRANSACTION IN


ORGANISATION
Transaction Analysis
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Transactional Analysis (TA) was developed by Eric


Berne, in the 1960's as the fundamental unit of social
interaction.
TA focused on three ego-states and studied of how
people interact with each other (Interpersonally) from
within these states. Structural Analysis studies the
interaction between ones own ego states (
Intra-personally)
In order to understand these transactions, we first
need to talk about Berne's concept of the ego states.
Ego States
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According to
Berne, an ego
state is a
consistent pattern
of feeling and
experience
directly related to
a corresponding
consistent pattern
of behaviour.
Ego States
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The parent is the ego state that contains the


external events that were imposed on a persons
behaviour.
The Child ego state contains all the impulses that
come naturally to a child.
The Adult is organized, adaptable, intelligent, and
functions by testing reality, estimating
probabilities, from Third Position.
Ego States
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Types of Transactions
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Any time when a person communicates it involves


a communication between 2 ego state.
Berne defined 3 main types of transaction
Complementary Transaction
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A complementary transaction occurs when the sender of


the message gets the intended response from the receiver.
For example, an employee makes a mistake and, wanting
some sympathy, apologizes to the boss.
Employee I just dropped the thing when I was almost
done. Now I have to do it all over again.'
Supervisor `It happens to all of us; don't worry about it.'
Generally, complementary transactions result in more
effective communication with fewer hurt feelings and
arguments
Complementary Transaction
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Another Example:
The supervisor behaves on an adult-to-adult level.
Supervisor `please get this order ready for me by two
o'clock.' Employee `I'll have it done before two o' clock,
no problem.'
Crossed Transaction
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Crossed transactions occur when the sender of the


message does not get the expected response from the
receiver.
Employee `I just dropped the

thing when It was almost done. Now I


Have to do it all over again.
Supervisor you are so clumsy.
Crossed Transaction
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From our second example: Supervisor `please get


this order ready for me by two o' clock.' Employee
`Why do I have to do it? Why don't you do it
yourself? I am busy.'
The unexpected response often gets the person
emotional, which causes the communication to
deteriorate further.
Ulterior Transaction
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Ulterior, or hidden, transactions


occur when the words seem to be
coming from one ego state, but in
reality the words or behaviours are
coming from another.
Two messages are conveyed at the
same time. One is social level
message and other is psychological
level message.
Ulterior Transaction
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Example :
If a car salesman says to his customer, "This is our

finest sports car...but maybe too racy for you,"


If the customer Adult hears, the response may be...

"yes, you are right, considering the requirements of


my job.
If the customers Child hears, the response may be "I

will take it. Its just what I want."


Rules of communication
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Rules of communication
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contd..
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