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BINOMIAL THEOREM

The Binomial Theorem


THE BINOMIAL THEOREM shows how to
calculate a power of a binomial --
(a + b)n -- without actually multiplying
out.
The Binomial Theorem shows how to
calculate for the binomial coefficient in
the expansion of a b
n

n
a b
n n! nk k
a b
k 0 n k ! k!
The Binomial Theorem
The symbol for a binomial coefficient
is n which is also the same as
n Ck
k
This is read as combination n taken k.
The upper index n is the exponent of the
expansion; the lower index k indicates
which term, starting with k = 0.
The lower index k is the exponent of b.
The Binomial Theorem
The theorem states that the binomial
coefficients are none other than
the combinatorial numbers, nCk .

n n!
n Ck
k k!(n k )!
EXPLORING THE BINOMIAL THEOREM
Example 1.

a) The term a8b4 occurs in the expansion


of what binomial?
b) In that expansion, what number is the
coefficient of a8b4?
EXPLORING THE BINOMIAL THEOREM

Example 2.
Expand (a b)5.

Example 3.
In the expansion of (x y)15, calculate
the coefficients ofx3y12 and x2y13.
EXPLORING THE BINOMIAL THEOREM
Example 4.
Use the binomial theorem to expand (a + b)8.
The first coefficient is always 1. The second is always the
exponent of the expansion.
(a + b)8 = a8 + 8a7b
For the next coefficient, it will be the present coefficient, 8
times the exponent of a in that term , divided by 1 more
then the exponent of b (in the same term).
It will be 87
2

(a + b)8 = a8 + 8a7b + 28a6b2


.and so on.
EXPLORING THE BINOMIAL THEOREM
Example 5.
Write the 5th term in the expansion of (a + b)10.

n 10
n Ck 10 C4
k 4
EXPLORING THE BINOMIAL THEOREM
Example 6.
Expand (x 1)6.

Example 7.
Expand (x + 2)3.
Exercises:
Compute the first four terms of each of the
following.
a) (a + b)15
a15 + 15a14b + 105a13b2 + 455a12b3
b) (x 1)20
x20 20x19 + 190x18 1140x17
Exercises:
Consider the expansion of (x + b)30.
a) What is the exponent of b in the 1st term?
0
b) What is the exponent of b in the 3rd term?
2
c) In the 25th term?
24
d) In the kth term?
k1
e) Write the fourth term, with its coefficient.
4,060x27b3
Exercises:

a) The third term of (a + b)11.


55a9b2
b) The fifth term of (x y)7.
35x3y4
c) The tenth term of (x 1)12.
220x3
Exercises:
a) (a + b)3 =
a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3
b) (a b)3 =
a3 3a2b + 3ab2 b3
c) (x + y)4 =
x4 + 4x3y + 6x2y2 + 4xy3 + y4
d) (x y)4 =
x4 4x3y + 6x2y2 4xy3 + y4
Exercises:
e) (x 1)5 =
x5 5x4 + 10x3 10x2 + 5x 1
f) (x + 2)5 =
x5 + 10x4 + 40x3 + 80x2 + 80x + 32
g) (2x 1)3 =
8x3 12x2 + 6x 1
h) (1 xy)7 =
1 7xy + 21x2y2 35x3y3 + 35x4y4 21x5y5 + 7x6y6 x7y7
http://www.algebra4children.com/Quizzes/Algeb
ra-2-quizzes/binomial-theorem.html
https://www.cliffsnotes.com/study-
guides/algebra/algebra-ii/additional-topics/quiz-
binomial-coefficients-and-the-binomial-theorem
http://www.glencoe.com/sec/math/studytools/c
gi-bin/msgQuiz.php4?isbn=0-07-888482-
9&chapter=11&lesson=6&&headerFile=7
http://worksheets.tutorvista.com/the-binomial-
theorem-worksheet.html
http://www.mathopolis.com/questions/quiz.php
Helpful sites
Khan Academy
https://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra2/po
lynomial-functions/binomial-theorem/e/binomial-
theorem
Exercises:
http://www.regentsprep.org/regents/math/algtrig
/atp4/pracbinomial.htm
http://www.algebralab.org/practice/practice.aspx
?file=Algebra_BinomialExpansion.xml
http://hotmath.com/help/gt/genericalg2/section_
9_5.html
EXERCISES:
Problem 1 :
Write out the expansion of (x + y)6 .
Problem 2 :
Write out the expansion of (x - 5)4 .
Problem 3 :
Write out the expansion of (2x + 7y)3 .
Problem 4 :
Write out the expansion of (1 - x)7 .
Problem 5:
Write out the expansion of (x 2 +3y)4 .
APA
SparkNotes Editors. (n.d.). SparkNote on Binomial Expansion. Retrieved March 7, 2016, from
http://www.sparknotes.com/math/algebra2/binomialexpansion/
ANSWERS
Problem : Write out the expansion of (x + y)6 .
(x + y)6 = x 6 +6x 5 y +15x 4 y 2 +20x 3 y 3 +15x 2 y 4 +6xy 5 + y 6
Problem : Write out the expansion of (x - 5)4 .
(x - 5)4 = x 4 -20x 3 +150x 2 - 500x + 625
Problem : Write out the expansion of (2x + 7y)3 .
(2x + 7y)3 = 8x 3 +84x 2 y + 294xy 2 +343y 3
Problem : Write out the expansion of (1 - x)7 .
(1 - x)7 = 1 - 7x + 21x 2 -35x 3 +35x 4 -21x 5 +7x 6 - x 7
Problem : Write out the expansion of (x 2 +3y)4 .
(x 2 +3y)4 = x 8 +12x 6 y + 54x 4 y 2 +108x 2 y 3 +81y 4