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# IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 1

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

Forces on a Particle
Line of Action
magnitude
Point of Application

A 50 N
30o

direction
Since the vector has a well defined point of application, it is a
fixed vector, therefore can not be moved without modifications

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 2

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

Commutative P+Q=Q+P
P Q
P
A P+Q
Q A
Q+P
P
A Q
Associative
Q Q
P S
P S Q+S
A +Q A
P
P+Q+S P+Q+S
P+Q+S=(P+Q)+S=P+(Q+S)
04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 3
IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

## Resultant of several concurrent

P forces
Using polygon rule

A P
Q
Q A
S
P+Q+S S

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 4

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

components
Q
Q
F F
A A
P P

Q F
A
P

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 5

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

## Q=60 N Example (Beer & Johnston)

The two forces P and Q act on a bolt A. Determine
o
25
P=40 N their resultant.
A
20o

180-25=155o Q
25o
R

o
P B
A 20
Law of cosines R2=P2+Q2-2PQcosB
R2=(40N)2+(60N)2-2(40N)(60N)cos1550 R=97.73 N
sin A sin B Q sin B 60N sin 155
Law of sines
sin A
Q R R 97.73N
04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 6
IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

Example (cntd.)

## sin A sin B Q sin B 60N sin 155

Law of sines
sin A
Q R R 97.73N

A=15.04o =20o+A=35.04o

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 7

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

## Example (Beer and Johnston)

A A barge is pulled by two tugboats. If
the resultant of the forces exerted
1
B by tugboats is a 25 kN force
30o
directed along the axis of barge,
45o determine the tension in each of the
2 ropes.

C
Using law of sines
T1 T2 25kN

R=25 kN sin 45 sin 30 sin 105
o
45o 30
105o 25kN sin 45
T2 T1 T1 18.30 kN
sin 105
25kN sin 30
T2 12.94 kN
sin 105
04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 8
IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

Rectangular Components
y

F
Fy

x
Fx

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 9

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

y
F
F

F
x

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 10

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

Unit Vectors
y

Magnitude=1 F
Fy=Fyj

j
x
Fx=Fxi
i

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 11

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

## Example (Beer and Johnston)

F=(3.5 kN)i+(7.5kN)j
Determine the magnitude of the force and angle .
A
Fy Fy
tan tan 1

y Fx Fx
Fy=7.5 kN

7.5kN
F tan 1
65.0
3.5kN

x
Fy 7.5kN
A F 8.28kN
Fx=3.5 kN sin sin 65.0

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 12

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

## Additiony of Forces by Summing x and y

20
components
o
F2=80 N F1=150 N Determine the resultant of the
forces on the bolt
30o F2 cos 20o
F1 sin 30o
A x
15o
F4=100 N
F1 cos 30o
-(F2 sin 20o) F4 cos 15o

F3=110 N
-(F4 sin 15o)

## Forces Magnitude, N x Component, N y Component, N

F1 150 +129.9 +75.0 -F3
F2 80 -27.4 +75.2
F3 110 0 -110.0
F4 100 +96.6 -25.9
Rx=199.1 Ry=+14.3

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 13

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

Example (cntd)

R=Rxi+Ryj
R=(199.1N)i+(14.30N)j

Ry=14.30 N R

Rx=199.1 N

Ry
14.30 N
tan 1
tan 1
4.10
Rx 199.1N

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 14

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

Equilibrium of a Particle
When the resultant of all the forces acting on a particle is
zero, the particle is in equilibrium.
y F1=300 N
F4=400 N
30o F2=173.2 N
F4=400 N
F1=300 N
A
x
F2=173.2 N F3=200 N
F3=200 N 30o R=F=0
(Fx)i+ (Fy)j=0
Fx=0 Fy=0

## Fx=300 N -(200 N) sin30o-(400 N) sin 30o=300 N -100 N -200 N = 0

Fy=-173.2 N -(200 N) cos30o+ (400 N) cos 30o=-173.2 N -173.2 N +346.4 N = 0

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 15

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

Free-Body Diagram
A sketch showing the physical conditions of the problem is known as space
diagram.

B
C
50o A 30o
Space Diagram

## Choose a significant particle and draw a separate diagram showing that

particle and forces on it. This is the FreeBodydiagram.
TAB
TAC Using law of sines
TAB TAB TAC 736
50o 30 o
40o
736 N sin 60 sin 40 sin 80
80o
736 N 60 o
TAB=647 N
FreeBodyDiagram TAC
TAC=480 N

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 16

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

Analytical Solution
Two unknowns TAB and TAC
Equilibrium Equations
Fx=0 and Fy=0
The system of equations then
Fx 0 TAB cos 50 TAC cos 30 0
Fy 0 TAB sin 50 TAC sin 30 736 N 0

TAB=647 N

TAC=480 N

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 17

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

## Sumary of Solution techniques

equilibrium under three forces
may use force triangle rule
equilibrium under more than three forces
may use force polygon rule
If analytical solution is desired
may use equations of equilibrium

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 18

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

## Example (Beer and Johnston)

B C As a part of the design of a new sailboat, it is desired to
determine the drag force which may be expected at a given
60o 20o
speed. To do so, a model of the proposed hull is placed in a
test channel and three cables are used to keep its bow on
Flow A the centerline of the channel. Dynamometer reading indicate
that for a given speed, the tension is 200 N in cable AB and
E 300 N in cable AE. Determine the drag force exerted on the
hull and the tension in cable AC.
Equilibrium condition
Resultant of the all forces should be zero
20o
R=TAB+TAC+TAE+FD=0
TAC Lets write all the forces in x and y components
TAB=200 N 60o
TAB=-(200 N) sin 60o i+(200 N) cos 60o j
FD TAB=-173.2 i+100 j
TAC= (TAC) sin 20o i+(TAC) cos 20o j
Unknowns; FD, TAC
TAC= 0.342(TAC) i+0.9397(TAC) j
TAE=-(300 N) j
TAE=300 N
FD=FD i

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 19

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

Example (cntd.)
R=TAB+TAC+TAE+FD=0

TAC=213 N

FD=100 N

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 20

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

z y
j
k V

Forces
in
Vyj y
Vzk
Space
z
x
x
Vxi i
V=Vxi+Vyj+Vzk
Vx=Vcosx Vy=Vcos y Vz=V cos z
04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 21
IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

Direction cosines
l= cos x m = cos y n = cos z

V2=Vx2+Vy2+Vz2

l2+m2+n2=1

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 22

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13
z y

B(xB,yB,zB)

V
A(xA,yA,zA) n
V= (xBxA) i + (yByA) j + (zBzA) k

x
V
Unit vector along AB n
V

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 23

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

## Rectangular Coordinates in Space

y y

B B
A
Fy y Fy
F
Fx
O x O x
D
Fh Fz Fh
C E C
Fy=F cosy Fx = Fh cos= F siny cos
z z
Fh=F siny Fz = Fh sin= F siny sin

F F F F
x
2
y
2
z
2

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 24

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

Problems

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 25

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

y
Problem 1-(Meriam and Kraige)
F=1800 N
4 The 1800 N force F is applied at the end of the I-
A beam. Express F as a vector using the unit
3
vectors i and j.
x

## Fy= -1800 N 4/5 = -1440 N

F = Fx i+ Fy j = -1080 i -1440 j N

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 26

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

## L Problem 2-(Meriam and Kraige)

The ratio of the lift force L to the drag force D
for the simple airfoil is L/D = 10. If the lift
force on a short section of the airfoil is 50 N,
C D compute the magnitude of the resultant force
R and the angle which it makes with the
horizontal.
Air flow
L= 50 N

tan = 50/5

C = tan-110 =84.3o
D=5 N

F = (502+52)0.50 = 50.2 N

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 27

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

## Problem 3-(Meriam and Kraige)

y
The gusset plate is subjected to the two forces
shown. Replace them by two equivalent force, Fx in
the x-direction and Fa in the a direction. Determine
A x the magnitudes of Fx and Fa.
10o
800 N From the law of cosines
900 N
25o 45o a R2=8002+9002-2(800)(900) cos75
R=1040 N
A From the law of sines
800 N
10o
R 900 900 sin 75 1 900 sin 75
o
10 sin 1 sin 56.7
sin 75 sin R 1040
R
65o Fx A
25o 1040 Fx
45 o
66.7 o
Fx 544 N
900 N 113.3 o
sin 45 sin 21.7
o
45
1040 N
Fa 21.7 o
1040 Fa
Fa 1351 N
sin 45 sin 113.3

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 28

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

## Problem 4-(Meriam and Kraige)

A The guy cables AB and AC are
attached to the top of the
transmission tower. The tension in
40 m

## cable AC is 8 kN. Determine the

required tension T in cable AB
B such that the net effect of the two
cable tensions is a downward force
20 m

## C at point A. Determine the

magnitude R of this downward
50 m 40 m force

## This time lets use another approach. Since the

8 kN resultant force is downward the sum of
horizontal components of the two forces should
R
50 40
TAB 8 0 TAB 5.68 N
64 72.1
The magnitude of R 40 60
R 5.68 8 10.21 N
64 72.1
04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 29
IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13

## Problem 5-(Beer and Johnston)

500 mm 1375 mm
Two cables are tied together at C and loaded as
A shown. Determine the tension in AC and BC.
B
1200 mm

## C Lets draw the Free Body Diagram (FBD) at C

y
1600 kg TBC
TAC

x
C
W=1600*9.81=15700N

## Writing Equilibrium Equations

500 1375
Fx=0 TAC TCB 0
1300 1825
Fy=0 1200 1200
TAC TCB 15700 0
1300 1825
TAC=12470 N

TCB=6370 N
04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 30
IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13
y Problem 6-(Beer and Johnston)
A precast-concrete wall section is temporarily held by
m
C
.5 the cables shown. Knowing that tension is 4200 N in
13
cable AB and 6000 N in cable AC, determine the
4m magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces
x exerted by cables AB and AC on stake A.
D Coordinates of points A, B and C
B A (8, -4, -5.5) B (0, 0, 0) C (0, 0, -13.5)
A
AB=(0-8) i + (0-(-4)) j + (0-(-5.5)) k = -8 i + 4 j + 5.5 k
z

5.5 m

AB 8 4 2 5.52 10.50
2
8m
8i 4 j 5.5k
n AB 0.762i 0.381j 0.524k
10.50
FAB 4200 0.762i 0.381j 0.524k N
AC=(0-8) i + (0-(-4)) j + (-13.5-(-5.5)) k = -8 i + 4 j - 8 k
AC 8 2
4 2 8
2
12.00F 6000 0.667i 0.333j 0.667k N
AC
8i 4 j 8k
n AC 0.667i 0.333j 0.667k
12.00
04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 31
IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13
y Problem 6-(Beer and Johnston)
A precast-concrete wall section is temporarily held by
m
C
.5 the cables shown. Knowing that tension is 4200 N in
13
cable AB and 6000 N in cable AC, determine the
4m magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces
x exerted by cables AB and AC on stake A.
D
B FAB 4200 0.762i 0.381j 0.524k N
A
FAC 6000 0.667i 0.333j 0.667k N
z 5.5 m

8m R = FAB + FAC

## R =(-3200-4002) i +(1600+1998) j + (2201-4002) k = -7200 i + 3600 j - 1800 k

R = 8250 N
y
Direction cosines

x
z

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 32

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13
y Problem 7-(Beer and Johnston)
Lets draw FBD first
C 700 mm FAC
450 mm
O FAB
D 600 mm

650 mm B x
z
A
1125
mm
W
Unknowns : FAD, FAC and W
Coordinates of points A, B, C and D
A crate is supported by A (0, -1125, 0) B (700, 0, 0) C (0, 0, -600) D (-650, 0,450)
three cables as shown. AB=((700-0)i+(0-(-1125))j+0k=700i+1125j+0k
Determine the weight W 2 2 0.5
AB=(700 +1125 ) =1325
of the crate knowing that
the tension in cable AB is nAB=(700i+1125j+0k)/1325=0.5283i+0.8491j
4620 N.
FAB=4620(0.5283i+0.8491j) N

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 33

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13
y Problem 7-(Beer and Johnston)
Coordinates of points A, B, C and D
C 700 mm A (0, -1125, 0) B (700, 0, 0) C (0, 0, -600) D (-650, 0,450)
450 mm
O AC=(0i+(0-(-1125))j+(-600-0)k=0i+1125j-600k
D 600 mm

650 mm B x AC=(6002+11252)0.5=1275
z 1125 nAC=(0i+1125j-600k)/1275=0.8824j-0.4706k
A mm
FAC=FAC(0.8824j-0.4706k) N

W=-W j

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 34

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13
y Problem 7-(Beer and Johnston)

C 700 mm

450 mm
O
D 600 mm

z 1125
A mm

## -0.4706 FAC+0.3273*5160=0 FAC= 3590 N

3922+3170+4225-W = 0 W= 11320 N

## 04.09.17 Dr. Engin Akta 35

IZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture AR231 Fall12/13
y Problem 8-(Beer and Johnston)

D
600 mm

C
200 mm
A
x
200 mm

B
200 mm 400 mm

z
A 16 kg triangular plate is
supported by three wires
as shown. Determine the
tension in each wire .