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SELF- EFFICACY BELIEFS

By: Micah Day


EPFR 515
November 18-
December 2
Have you been here?

Do I really have to finish this assignment?


I already know how to do this.
Do You Believe
IF I BELIEVE IT,
I CAN ACHIEVE IT
What is Self-Efficacy?
Self-Efficacy is defined as, beliefs in ones capabilities to
organize and execute the courses of action required to
produce given attainments.
(Mechida and Schaubroeck, 2011)

Two factors that optimize the strength of self-efficacy.


- Learning a skill

- Performing in a situation
Learning a Skill
The learning of a skill is also known as preparatory
efficacy.

This concept of self-efficacy focuses


on executing and completing tasks.

This differs from ones beliefs about


their general ability to learn, which is
learning efficacy.
Having a negative relationship, self-efficacy and learning
differ among preparatory situations.

Extremely low levels of self-efficacy


Harms the learners motivation to develop skills.
Moderately low levels of self-efficacy
Beneficial during preparatory situations.

Without a high level of learning self-efficacy, individuals are


likely to suffer from a lack of motivation to learn.
SO HAVING
HIGH
SELF-EFFICACY
BELIEFS
=
BEING MORE
MOTIVATED?
NO
Performing in a Situation
Performing in the situations for which development is targeted, is
referred to as performance efficacy.

Performance determines
whether outcome expectations
are satisfactory.

Self-efficacy beliefs are


continually being updated based
on the successes and failures
encountered throughout the
developmental process.
Can you depict between the two?
Given your current task (reading through this PowerPoint),
which type of efficacy are using in completing this task?

A. Preparatory efficacy
B. Performance efficacy
Can you depict between the two?
Given your current task (reading through this PowerPoint),
which type of efficacy are using in completing this task?

A. Preparatory efficacy
B. Performance efficacy
Can you depict between the two?
Scenario:
Hunter is a bright student attending Richwoods high school. Excelling in
math, Hunter was placed into an advanced algebra class. Over zealous in his
mathematical abilities, Hunter received a C on his first exam within his new
algebra class. Upset about his grade, Hunter decides on studying twice as
hard for the next exam. This is an example of which type of self-efficacy?
A. Preparatory
B. Performance
Can you depict between the two?
Scenario:
Hunter is a bright student attending Richwoods high school. Excelling in
math, Hunter was placed into an advanced algebra class. Over zealous in his
mathematical abilities, Hunter received a C on his first exam within his new
algebra class. Upset about his grade, Hunter decides on studying twice as
hard for the next exam. This is an example of which type of self-efficacy?
A. Preparatory
B. Performance
Self-Efficacy is NOT Constant
Bandura stated that an individuals self-efficacy varies over time.

Self-efficacy is specific to a situation and context

The stability of ones efficacy is largely determined by how one has


acquired the belief, the strength of that belief, as well as the strength
of that intervening experience.

Attending numerous leadership seminars, an individual believes


that they are a leader, and supports this belief through interactions
with others.
But how does one acquire such beliefs???
Acquiring Strong Beliefs
Bandura suggested four principles that influence self-efficacy beliefs.
Enactive Mastery Experience
The most influential source of self-efficacy beliefs are mastery
experiences, which provides feedback on learners capabilities.

Looks at learners previous success on a task.


Starts on a simple task and progresses to harder tasks.

2+2=4 >>> 2x + 7 = 11
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bR0eOVzp08M
Verbal Persuasion
Appraisal, feedback, and
positive encouragement from
others are aspects of verbal
persuasion.

Individuals are persuaded


by others that they are
capable of succeeding in
specific tasks.
Physiological State
Individuals monitor feelings of self-efficacy based on
physiological states.

Gut feelings convinces learner of probable success or failure.

Refers to states of arousal, depending on how that feeling was


identified can influence a positive or negative outlook.
Fear = negative outlook
Nervous or anxious = positive outlook
Vicarious Experiences
Learners observe a role model attaining success at a task.

The role model chosen will affect the extent to which the
learner/observer's self-efficacy will be enhanced.

Multiple models are superior to one,


however, it is not wise to choose several
peer models, for this can contribute to
handicapping ones self-efficacy.
Reflect
Do any of the four
principles
influencing self-
efficacy beliefs
relate to you?
How is Self-Efficacy Measured
By the amount of ones certainty about performing a
given task.

Focus on performance capabilities rather than on


personal qualities.

Perceived judgments of how well one will be able to


perform in given situations.
He said I can do this!
I know I can do it!
...
Closely Related Constructs
Linked to self-efficacy, self-efficacy has three closely related
constructs.

Outcome Expectations

Self-Concept

Perceived Control
Self-Efficacy & Outcome Expectations
Incentives are used throughout outcome expectations, and
emphasized throughout the performance segment of self-efficacy.

Incentives, whether positive or negative, influence the level of an


individuals motivation towards a specific task.
Can change ones image or status.
Cause ones perceived self-efficacy to change over time.

Outcome expectations are comprised of three major factors.


Physical affects (pleasure or pain)
Social effects (power, money, approval)
Self-evaluation
Hypothesized by Bandura, self-efficacy plays a
larger role then outcome expectations.
Self-efficacy vs. Outcome Expectations
Shell, Murphy, and Bruning (1989) measured self-efficacy in
terms of perceived capability to perform various reading and
writing activities

Efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancies jointly predicted


32% of the variance in reading achievement.
Perceived efficacy accounting for virtually all the variance.
Only perceived self-efficacy was a significant predictor of writing
achievement.

This study supported Banduras contingent that self-efficacy


plays a larger role than outcome expectancies in motivation.
Self-Efficacy & Self-Concept
Historically, self-concept was defined by phenomenologists (Rogers,
1951) as a global perception of oneself and ones self-esteem reactions to
that self-perception.

Conducive of the latter belief, self-concept is a more general self-


descriptive construct that incorporates many forms of self-knowledge
and self-evaluative feelings.

In other words, if an individual has a positive self-concept, then the


likelihood of them having high self-efficacy is strong.

This global measure of self-belief, however was not found to be related


consistently to students academic performance
Self-Efficacy vs. Self-Concept
Bandura (1997) notes it is possible conceptually to have high
self-efficacy about a capability that one does not particularly
esteem as well as the reverse.

Thus, it was suggested that self-efficacy differs from self-


concept in both its specificity and correspondence to varying
performance tasks and contexts.
Self-Efficacy & Perceived Control
Locus of control refers to general beliefs about the internality
or externality of causality.

Two types of perceived control


Internal locus of control
External locus of control
Self-Efficacy vs. Perceived Control
Smith (1989) found that locus of control measures did not
predict improvements in academic performance.

Smith also found that there were no reductions in anxiety in


highly self-anxious students, undergoing intensive coping skills
training programs.

Self-efficacy scales however did predict such improvements.


Do You Agree?
Self-efficacy is
linked to
self-concept AND
motivation
is merely a
fragment of
self-efficacy
References
Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). 316-323.
Pearson

Hsu, M., Ju, T. L., Yen, C., Chang, C. (2007). Knowledge sharing behavior in
virtual communities: The relationship between trust, self-efficacy, and outcome
expectations. International Journal of Human-Computer Science. 65,153-169.

Mechida, M. & Schaubroeck, J. (2011). The role of self-efficacy beliefs in leader


development. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies. 18(4), 459-468.
DOI: 10.1177/1548051811404419.

Zimmerman, B. (2000). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn.


Contemporary Educational Psychology. 25, 82-91.
DOI:10.1006/ceps.1999.1016.