# ©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

MECHANICS
FE1001 Physics I NTU - College of Engineering
1. Units, Physical Quantities
and Vectors
2. Motion Along A Straight Line
3. Motion in 2 or 3 Dimensions
4. Newton¶s Law of Motion
5. Applying Newton¶s Laws
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
7. Potential Energy and Energy Conservation
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
MECHANICS
FE1001 Physics I NTU - College of Engineering
8. Momentum, Impulse, and
Collisions
9. Rotation of Rigid Bodies
10. Dynamics of Rotational
Motion
11. Equilibrium and Elasticity
12. Gravitation
13. Periodic Motion
14. Fluid Mechanics
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Chapter Objectives
 Understanding the concept of work in daily lives.
 The difference between work and kinetic energy.
 The relation of work and energy with varying forces.
 Understanding of power.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Chapter Outline
1. Work
2. Work and Kinetic Energy
3. Work and Energy with Varying Forces
4. Power
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.1 Work
 Work is any activity that requires muscular or
mental effort.
 In physics, the total work done on a particle by all
forces that acts on it equals the change of kinetic
energy.
 The relationship holds true even when the forces
acting on the body is not constant.
 When a body moves, a constant force acts on it
in the same direction as the displacement .
F
ur
s
r
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.1 Work
 We define the work W done by this constant force
under these circumstances as the product of the
force F and the displacement s.
(6.1) W s =
(constant force in direction of straight-line displacement)
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.1 Work
 Don¶t confuse W (work) with w (weight) as
they have different quantities.
 SI unit of work is in joule.
´ )´ )
1 joule 1 newton 1 meter or 1 J = 1 N m =
 For British unit,
1 J = 0.7376 ft lb
1 t lb 1.356 J
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.1 Work
 When a person pushes a car at an angle as
shown, the force and the displacement will
have different directions.
 Thus we define the work as a product of the
component and the magnitude of the displacement.
J
F
ur
s
r
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.1 Work
 When a constant force acts at an angle to the
displacement , the work done by the force is
J
F
ur
s
r
cos (6.2) W s J =
(constant force, straight line displacement)
 When Eq. (6.2) is in the form of scalar product of 2
vectors,
(6.3) W F s !
uur ur r
(constant force, straight line displacement)
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.1 Work
 Work is a scalar quantity even though it¶s
calculated by using 2 vector quantities
(force and displacement).
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.1 Work done by a constant force
a) Steve exert a steady force of magnitude 210N
(about 47lb) on the stalled car in figure shown as he
pushed it a distance of 18m. The car also has a flat
tire, so to make the car track straight Steve must
push at an angle of 30
o
to the direction of motion.
How much work does Steve do? b) In a helpful
mood, Steve pushes a second stalled car with
of the car is How much work
does Steve do in this case?
(160 ) (40 ) . F N i N j =
r
Ö Ö
(14 ) (11 ) . s m i m j = +
r
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.1
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.1 (SOLN)
Identify and Set up
In both part (a) and (b), the target variable is the work
W done by Steve. In each case the force is constant
and the displacement is along a straight line, so we
can use Eq.(6.2) or (6.3). The angle between and
is given explicitly in part (a), so we can apply Eq.(6.2)
directly. In part (b) the angle isn¶t given. So we¶re
better off calculating the scalar product in Eq.(6.3)
form the components of and , as in Eq.(1.21).
F
r
s
r
F
r
s
r
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.1 (SOLN)
Execute
a)From Eq.(6.2),
The components of are F
s
= 160 and F
y
= -40 ,
and the components of are x = 14m and y = 11m.
Hence, using Eqs.(1.21) and (6.3),
3
cos (210 )(18 ) cos30 3.3 10 W Fs J J ! ! r ! v
F
r
s
r
x y
W F s F x F y ! !
r
r
g
(160 )(14 ) ( 40 )(11 ) N m N m = +
3
1.8 10 J ! v
Evaluate
Our results show that 1 joule is a rather small
amount of work.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.1 Work
 A constant force can do positive, negative or
zero work depending on then angle between and
the displacement .
 When force has component in direction of
displacement, work done is positive.
F
ur
s
r
F
ur
0 90 J r
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.1 Work
 When force has component opposite to
displacement, work done is negative.
90 180 J r
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.1 Work
 When force is perpendicular to displacement,
work done is zero.
90 J = r
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.1 Work
 An object do no work if has no displacement even
when a force is apply on it.
 Below is the illustration on positive, zero and
negative work.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.1 Work
 Negative work comes from Newton¶s third law of
motion.
 When you catch a ball, your hand and ball move
together with the same displacement, .
 The work done by the ball on your hand is positive
but the your hand exerts an equal and opposite to
the ball¶s displacement, which is negative.
s
r
H on B B on H
F F !
ur ur
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.1 Work
 Always specify what force is doing the work
 For example the work done by lifting a book
is positive but the work done by the
gravitational force on a book is negative, as
downward gravitational force is opposite to
the upward displacement.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.2 Work done by several forces
Farmer Benton hitches his tractor to a sled loaded
with firewood and pulls it a distance of 20m along
level ground. The total weight of sled and load is
14,700 . The tractor exerts a constant 5000- force
at an angle of 36.9
o
above the horizontal, as shown
in figure. There is a 3500- friction force opposing
the sled¶s motion. Find the work done by each force
acting on the sled and the total work done by all the
forces.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.2 Work done by several forces
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.2 (SOLN)
Identify
All of the forces are constant and the displacement is
along a straight line, so we can calculate the work
using the formulas given in this section. We¶ll find the
net work in two ways: (1) by adding together the work
done on the sled by each force and (2) by finding the
amount of work done by the net force on the sled.
We¶ll find the net force using the techniques described
in Chapter 5.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.2 (SOLN)
Set up
As we are working with forces, our first steps are to
draw a FBD showing all of the forces acting on the sled
and to choose a coordinate system.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.2 (SOLN)
Set up
For each of the four forces ± weight, normal force,
force of the tractor, and friction force ± we know the
angle between the displacement (which is in the
positive x-direction) and the force. Hence we can
calculate the work done by each force using Eq.(6.2).
To find the net force, we¶ll add the components of the
four forces. Newton¶s second law tells us that because
the sled¶s motion is purely horizontal, the net force will
have only a horizontal component.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.2 (SOLN)
Execute
The work W
w
done by the weight is zero because its
direction is perpendicular to the displacement. (The
angle between the force of gravity and the
displacement is 90
o
, and the cosine of the angle is
zero.) For the same reason, the work W
n
done by the
normal force is also zero. So W
w
= W
n
= 0. (Incidentally,
the normal force is not equal in magnitude to the
weight; see Example 5.16 of Section 5.3.)
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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The friction force is opposite to the displacement, so
for this force and . The work W
f
done
by the friction force is
Example 6.2 (SOLN)
Execute
That leaves the force Ft exerted by the tractor and the
friction force f. From Eq.(6.2) the work WT done by the
tractor is
cos (5000 )(20 )(0.800) 80, 000 .
T T
W F s N m N m J = = =
80kJ !
f
r
180 J ! r cos 1 J !
cos180 (3500 )(20 )( 1) 70, 000 .
f
W fs ! r ! !
70kJ !
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.2 (SOLN)
Execute
The total work W
tot
done on the sled by all forces is
the algebraic sum of the work done by the individual
forces:
0 0 80 ( 70 )
tot w n T f
W W W W W kJ kJ = + + + = + + +
10kJ =
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.2 (SOLN)
Execute
In the alternative approach, we first find the vector
sum of all the forces (the net force) and then use it to
compute the total work. The vector sum is best found
by using components. From Fig.b,
cos ( ) (5000 ) cos36.9 3500
x T
F F f N N J = + = r
¯
500N =
sin ( )
y T
F F n w J = + +
¯
(5000 )sin36.9 14, 700 N n N = r +
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.2 (SOLN)
Execute
We don¶t really need the second equation; we know
that the y-component of force is perpendicular to the
displacement, so it does not work. Besides, there is
no y-component of acceleration, so has to be
zero anyway. The total work is therefore the work
done by the total x-component:
y
F
§
( ) ( ) (500 )(20 ) 10, 000
tot x
W F s F s N m J = = = =
¯ ¯
r
r
g
10kJ !
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.2 (SOLN)
Evaluate
We get the same result for W
tot
with either method, as
we should.
Note that the net force in the x-direction is not zero,
and the sled must accelerate as it moves. In Section
the concept of work to explore the sled¶s motion.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.3 Total work when velocity is constant
A electron moves in a straight line toward the east
with a constant speed of 8 x 107 m/s. it has electric,
magnetic, and gravitational forces acting on it.
Calculate the total work done on the electron during
a 1-m displacement.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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The electron moves with constant velocity, so its
acceleration is zero. By Newton¶s second law, the
vector sum of the forces is also zero. Therefore the
total work done by all the forces (equal to the work
done by the vector sum of all the forces) must be
zero. Individual forces may do nonzero work, but
that¶s not what the problems asks for.
Example 6.3 (SOLN)
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
 The total work done on a body by external forces
is related to the body¶s displacement, that is, no
change in its position.
 But the total work is also related to the changes in
the speed of the body.
 For example when a block is sliding on a
frictionless table, the net force causes the speed
to increase and does positive work.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
 Again the net force causes the speed to increase
and does positive work, when there is a change of
direction of force.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
 When the net force opposes the displacement
and causes the speed to decrease, it does
negative work.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
 The net force is zero and does no work, thus the
speed is zero.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
 Consider that a mass moving along x-direction
with a constant acceleration, this time speed
changes from to .
 The mass undergoes a displacement of .
 Using Eq. (2.13),
1
v
2
v
2 1
s x x !
2 2
2 1
2
x
v v a s = +
2 2
2 1
2
x
v v
a
s

=
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
 When multiply by and equate to the net
force,
m
x
ma
2 2
2 1
2
x
v v
F ma m
s

= =
2 2
2 1
1 1
(6.4)
2 2
Fs mv mv =
where = total work done by all the forces
acting on the particle,
= kinetic energy,
Fs
tot
W
2
1
2
mv
K
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
 Therefore,
2
1
(6.5)
2
K mv !
( definition of kinetic energy)
 From Eq. 6.4, it says that the work done by the
net force on a particle equals the change in the
particle¶s kinetic energy:
2 1
(6.6)
tot
W K K K = = A
( work-energy theorem)
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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1. When , , the kinetic energy
increases. The particle is going faster at the end
of the displacement than at the beginning.
2. When , , the kinetic energy
decreases and the speed is less after
displacement.
3. When , , the speed remain
unchanged.
6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
 The work-energy theorem gives the following
agreement:
0
tot
W
0
tot
W "
2 1
K K "
2 1
K K
0
tot
W =
2 1
K K =
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
 Note that kinetic energy does not tell us about the
direction of motion.
 The SI unit of kinetic energy and work is
 The British unit is
2 2 2
1 J = 1 N m = 1 (kg m/s ) m = 1 kg m /s
2 2 2
1 ft lb = 1 ft slug ft/s = 1 slug ft /s
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
Problem-solving strategy (Work and Kinetic Energy)
 IDENTIFY
1. Use work-energy theorem for a body having
moving to at a different point.
2. This theorem only used for problems which do
not involve time.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
Problem-solving strategy (Work and Kinetic Energy)
 SET UP
1. Choose initial and final position and draw free-
body diagram, showing all forces acting on the
body.
2. Choose a coordinate system.
3. List all the known and unknown quantities,
decide which unknowns are your target
variables.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
Problem-solving strategy (Work and Kinetic Energy)
 EXECUTE
1. Calculate the work done by each force.
2. Use Eq. (6.2) and (6.3) if the force is constant
and the displacement is straight line.
3. Check the sign of the work for each force.
4. Add the amounts of work done by each force to
find the total work, . Be careful with signs!
tot
W
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
Problem-solving strategy (Work and Kinetic Energy)
 EXECUTE
5. Write expressions for the initial and final kinetic
energies, and .
6. Use to solve for target variables.
1
K
2
K
2 1 tot
W K K =
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
Problem-solving strategy (Work and Kinetic Energy)
 EVALUATE
sense.
2. Remember can never be negative.
2
1
2
K mv =
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.4 Using work and energy to calculate speed
Let¶s look again at the sled and the numbers at the
end of Example 6.2. Suppose the initial speed v
1
is
2.0m/s. What is the speed of the sled after it moves
20m?
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.4 (SOLN)
We¶ll use the work-energy
theorem, since we are given
the initial speed v
1
= 2.0m/s and
want to find the final speed v
2
.
Figure shows the FBD from
Example 6.2. The motion is in
the positive x-direction.
Identify and Set up
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.4 (SOLN)
Execute
We already calculated the total work done by all the
forces in Example 6.2, where we found W
tot
= 10kJ.
Hence the kinetic energy of the sled and its load must
increase by 10kJ.
To write expressions for the initial and final kinetic
energies, we need the mass of the sled and load. We
are given that the weight is 14,700 , so the mass is
2
/ (14, 700 )(9.8 / ) 1500 m w g N m s kg = = =
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.4 (SOLN)
Execute
Then the initial kinetic energy K
1
is
2 2 2 2
1 1
1
(1500 )(2.0 / ) 3000 /
2 2
K mv kg m s kg m s ! ! ! g
3000J =
The final kinetic energy K
2
is
Where v
2
is the unknown speed we wan to find.
Equation (6.6) gives
2 2
2 2 2
1 1
(1500 )
2 2
K mv kg v = =
2 1
3000 10, 000 13, 000
tot
K K W J J J ! ! !
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.4 (SOLN)
Execute
Setting these two expressions for K
2
equal,
substituting , and solving for v
2
, we find
2
4.2 / v m s !
The total work is positive, so the kinetic energy
increases ( K
2
> K
1
) and the speed increases ( v
2
> v
1
).This problem can also be done without the work-
energy theorem. We can find the acceleration from
and then use the equations of motion for
constant acceleration to find v
2
.
2 2
1 1 / J kg m s = g
Evaluate
F ma =
¯
r
r
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.4 (SOLN)
Evaluate
´ )
x
5000 cos36.0 3500
a = a
1500
x
F
N N
m kg
r
= =
¯
then
Since the acceleration is along the x-axis,
2
0.333 / m s !
2 2 2 2
2 1
2 (2.0 / ) 2(0.333 / )(20 )
as
v v m s m s m = + = +
2 2
17.3 / m s =
2
4.2 / v m s =
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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This is the same result that we obtained with the work-
energy approach, but there we avoided the
intermediate step on finding the acceleration. You will
find several other examples in this chapter and the
next that can be done without using energy
considerations but that are easier when energy
methods are used. When a problem can be done by
two different methods, doing it by both methods (as
we did in this example) is a very good way to check
Example 6.4 (SOLN)
Evaluate
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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In a pile driver, a steel hammerhead with mass 200kg
is lifted 3.00m above the top of a vertical I-beam being
driven into the ground. The hammer is then dropped,
driving the I-beam 7.4 cm farther into the ground. The
vertical rails that guide the hammerhead exert a
constant 60-N friction force on the hammerhead. Use
the work-energy theorem to find a) the speed of the
hammerhead just as it hits the I-beam and b) the
average force the hammerhead exerts on the I-beam.
Ignore the effects of the air.
Example 6.5 Force on a hammerhead
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.5 Force on a hammerhead
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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This problem is an ideal candidate for the work-energy
theorem, as it relates a body¶s speed at different
locations and the forces acting on the body. In this
problem there are three positions of interest: point 1,
where the hammerhead starts from the rest; point 2,
where it first contacts the I-beam; and point 3, where
the hammerhead comes to a halt. We have two
unknowns ± the hammerhead¶s speed at point 2, and
the force the I-beam exerts between points 2 and 3 ±
we¶ll apply the work-energy theorem twice: once for
the motion from 1 to 2 and once for the motion from 2
to 3.
Example 6.5 (SOLN)
Identify
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Figure (b) is a FBD showing the
vertical forces on the
point 1 to point 2. (because the
displacement is vertical, we
ignore any horizontal forces that
may be present because they
do no work,) For this part of the
motion, our target variable is
2
.
Example 6.5 (SOLN)
Set up
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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The FBD in Fig. c shows the vertical
forces on the hammerhead during the
motion from point 2 to point 3. In addition
to the forces shown in Fig. B, the I-beam
exerts an upward normal force of
magnitude n on the hammerhead. This
force actually varies as the hammerhead
comes to a halt, but for simplicity we¶ll
treat n as a constant. Hence n represents
the average value of this upward force
during the motion.
Example 6.5 (SOLN)
Set up
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Our target variable for this part of the motion is the
force that the hammerhead exerts on the I-beam: it is
the reaction force to the normal force exerted by the
I-beam, so by Newton¶s third law its magnitude is
also n.
Example 6.5 (SOLN)
Set up
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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Example 6.5 (SOLN)
Execute
a) From point 1 to point 2, the vertical forces are the
downward weight w = mg = (200kg)(9.8m/s
2
) = 1960
and the upward friction force f = 60 . Thus the net
downward force is w ± f = 1900 . The displacement of
the hammerhead from point 1 to point 2 is downward
and equal to s
12
= 3.00m. The total work done on the
hammerhead as it moves from point 1 to point 2 is
then
12
( ) (1900 )(3.00 ) 5700
tot
W w f s m J ! ! !
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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At point 1 the hammerhead is at rest, so its initial
kinetic energy is K
1
zero. Equation (6.6) gives
Example 6.5 (SOLN)
Execute
2
2 1 2
1
0
2
tot
W K K mv ! !
2
2 2(5700 )
7.55 /
200
tot
W J
v m s
m kg
= = =
This is the hammerhead¶s speed at point 2, just as it
hits the beam.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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b) As the hammerhead moves downward between
points 2 and 3, the net downward force acting on it is
w ± f ± n (Fig. C). The total work done on the
Example 6.5 (SOLN)
Execute
23
( )
tot
W w f n s !
The kinetic energy for this part of the motion is K
2
where from part (a) equals 5700J (the total work done
on the hammerhead as it moved from point 1 to point
2).
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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The final kinetic energy is K
3
= 0, since the
hammerhead ends at rest. Then, from the work-
energy theorem,
Example 6.5 (SOLN)
Execute
23 3 2
( )
tot
W w f n s K K = =
3 2
23
( ) K K
n w f
s

=
(0 5700 )
1960 60
0.074
J J
N N
m

=
79, 000N !
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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The downward force that the hammerhead exerts on
the I-beam has this same magnitude, 79,000N (about
9 tons) ± more than 40 times the weight of the
Example 6.5 (SOLN)
Execute
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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The total change in the hammerhead¶s kinetic energy
during the whole process is zero; a relative small force
does positive work over a large distance, and then a
much larger net force does negative work over a
much smaller distance. The same thing happens if
a brick wall. The very large force needed to reduce
the kinetic energy to zero over a short distance is
what does the damage to your car ± and possibly to
you.
Example 6.5 (SOLN)
Evaluate
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
The Meaning of Kinetic Energy
 Example 6.5 gives the physical meaning of kinetic
energy.
 To accelerate a mass m from rest (zero kinetic
energy) up to speed v, the total work done on it
must equal the change in kinetic energy from zero
to ;
2
1
2
K mv =
0
tot
W K K = =
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
The Meaning of Kinetic Energy
1. Kinetic energy of a particle is equal to the total work
that was done to accelerate if from rest to its present
speed.
2. Kinetic energy of a particle is equal to the total work
that particle can do in the process of being brought to
rest.
Kinetic Energy can be defined in 2 ways as below:
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.6 (SOLN)
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.6 (SOLN)
If you simply use the mathematical definition of the
kinetic energy,
the answer to this problem isn¶t immediately obvious.
The iceboat of mass 2m has greater mass, so you
might guess that the larger iceboat attains a greater
kinetic energy at the finish line. But the smaller
iceboat, of mass m, crosses the finish line with greater
speed, and you might guess that this iceboat has the
greater kinetic energy. How can we decide?
2
1
2
K mv =
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.6 (SOLN)
The correct way to approach this problem is to
remember that the kinetic energy of a particle is just
equal to the total work done to acceleration it from
rest. Both iceboat travel the same distance s, and
only the horizontal force F in the direction of motion
does work on either iceboat. Hence the total work
done between the starting line and the finish line is
the same for each iceboat, W
tot
= F s. At the finish line,
each iceboat has a kinetic energy equal to the work
W
tot
done on it, because each iceboat started from
rest. So both iceboats have the same kinetic energy
at the finish line!
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.6 (SOLN)
You might think this is a µtrick¶ question, but it isn¶t. if
you really understand the physical meanings of
quantities such as kinetic energy, you can solve
problems more easily and with better insight into the
physics.
Notice that we didn¶t need to say anything about how
much time each iceboat took to reach the finish line.
This is because the work-energy theorem makes no
direct reference to time, only to displacement. In fact
the iceboat of mass m takes less time to reach the
finish line than does the larger iceboat of mass 2m; we
leave the calculation to you (Exercise 6.18).
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
Work and Kinetic Energy in Composite Systems
 Consider a man standing on frictionless roller
skates on a level surface, facing a rigid wall shown
below.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy
Work and Kinetic Energy in Composite Systems
 There is no vertical displacement, so , , and
do no work.
 also do no work as the body does not moves.
 The work done by these external forces is zero, but
his kinetic energy can change nonetheless, due to
various part of his body interacting.
w
ur
2
n
uur
1
n
ur
F
ur
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces
 When you stretched a spring, the force you exerted is not
constant as the spring is stretched.
 To illustrate, suppose a particle moves along x-direction
from point to .
1
x
2
x
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces
 To find the work done we divide the total displacement into
small segments , , and so on.
 The work done by the force in the total displacement from
to is approximately
a
x (
b
x (
1
x
2
x
....
a a b
W F x F x = A + A +
 Therefore the integral of from to :
x
F
1
x
2
x
2
1
(6.7)
x
x
x
W F dx =
¦
(varying x-component of force, straight line
displacement)
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces
 On a graph of force as a function of position, the total work done
by the force is represented by the area under the curve between
initial and final positions.
 When is constant, Eq. (6.7) becomes
x
F
´ )
2 2
1 1
2 1
x x
x x x
x x
W F dx F dx F x x ! ! !
¦ ¦
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces
 The work done by a constant force F in the x-direction as a
particle moves from to is equal to the rectangular area
under the graph of force versus displacement.
1
x
2
x
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
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6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces
 Thus when we apply the previous concept to a spring
being stretched, we have to apply a force with magnitude
at each end. The following expression is obtained:
(6.8)
x
F kx =
F
(force required to stretch a spring)
where = force constant (or spring constant) of
spring (N/m or lb/ft)
k
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces
 The observation that elongation is directly proportional to
force for elongation that are not too great is known as
Hooke¶s law.
 The work done by a force when the elongation goes from
zero to a maximum value X is
2
0 0
1
(6.9)
2
X X
x
W F dx kx dx kX = = =
¦ ¦
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces
 The area of the shaded triangle also representing the total
work done by the force.
´ )´ )
2
1 1
2 2
W X kX kX = =
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces
 If initially the spring is stretched a distance , the work
done to stretched to is
1
x
2
x
2 2
1 1
2 2
2 1
1 1
(6.10)
2 2
x x
x
x x
W F dx kx dx kx kx = = =
¦ ¦
 When you applied a force on the spring,
the work done by you is positive.
 In contrast, the work that the spring does
on you is given by negative.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.7 Work done on spring scale
A woman weighing 600N steps on a bathroom scale
containing a stiff spring. In equilibrium the spring is
compressed 1.0 cm under her weight. Find the force
constant of the spring and the total work done on it
during the compression.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.7 (SOLN)
In equilibrium the upward force exerted by the spring
balances the downward force of the woman¶s weight.
We¶ll use this principle and Eq. (6.8) to determine the
force constant k, and we¶ll use Eq. (6.10) to calculate
the work Wthat the woman does on the spring to
compress it. We take positive values of x to correspond
to elongation, so that the displacement of the spring
and the force that the woman exerts on it are both
negative.
Identify and Set up
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.7 (SOLN)
With our choice of coordinates, the top of the spring
is displaced by x = -1.0cm = -0.010m and the force the
woman exerts on the spring is F
x
= -600N. Form Eq.
(6.8) the force constant is
Execute
4
600
6.0 10 /
0.010
x
F N
k N m
x m

= = = -

Then, using x
1
= 0 and x
2
= -0,010 m in Eq.(6.10),
2 2
2 1
1 1
2 2
W kx kx =
4 2
1
(6.0 10 / )( 0.010 ) 0 3.0
2
N m m J = - =
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.7 (SOLN)
The applied force and the displacement of the end of
the spring were in the same direction, so the work done
must have been positive - which is just what we found
by calculation. Our arbitrary choice of the positive
direction has no effect on the answer for W. (You can
test this by taking the positive x-direction to correspond
to compression. You¶ll got the same values for k and for
W.)
Evaluate
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces
Work-Energy Theorem for Straight-Line Motion,
Varying Forces
 An alternative derivation of the work-energy theorem is to
change the upper and lower limits of integral from to .
 We note that the acceleration, a, of a particle can be
expressed in various ways through chain rule
x v
(6.11)
x x x
x x
dv dv dv dx
a v
dt dx dt dx
= =
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces
Work-Energy Theorem for Straight-Line Motion,
Varying Forces
 Using this results, Eq. (6.7) tells us that the total work done
by the net force is
2 2 2
1 1 1
(6.12)
x x x
x
tot x x x
x x x
dv
W F dx ma dx mv dx
dx
= = =
¦ ¦ ¦
 After cancellation of
dx
2
1
2 2
2 1
1 1
(6.13)
2 2
x
tot x x
x
W mv dv mv mv = =
¦
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces
Work-Energy Theorem for Straight-Line Motion,
Varying Forces
 We get the same results as Eq. (6.6) but without the
assumption that the net force F is constant.
 Work-energy theorem is still valid even when F varies
during displacement.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.8 Motion with a varying force
An air-track glider of mass 0.100kg is attached to the
end of a horizontal air track by a spring with force
constant 20.0 N/m. initial the spring is un-stretched
and the glider is moving at 1.50 m/s to the right. Find
the maximum distance d that the glider moves to the
right a) if the air track is turned on so that there is no
friction, and b) if the air is turned off so that there is
kinetic friction with coefficient .
0.47
k
Q !
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.8 (SOLN)
The force exerted by the spring is not constant, so we
cannot use the constant-acceleration formulas of
Chapter 2 to solve this problem. Instead, we¶ll use the
work-energy theorem, which involves the distance
moved (our target variable) through the formula for
work.
Identify
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.8 (SOLN)
Figure b and c shows the FBDs
for the glider without friction and
with friction, respectively. We
choose the positive x-direction
to be the right (in the direction
of the glider¶s motion), with x =
0 at the glider¶s initial position
(where the spring is relaxed)
and x = d (the target variable) at
the position where the glider
stops.
Set up
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.8 (SOLN)
In both cases the motion is purely horizontal, so only
the horizontal force work. Note that Eq. (6.10) gives the
work done on the spring as it stretches, but to use the
work-energy theorem we need the work done by the
spring on the glider ± which is the negative of Eq.
(6.10).
Set up
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
a)As the glider moves from x
1
= 0 to x
2
= d, it does an
amount of work on the spring given by Eq.(6.10):
The amount of work that the spring does on the glider
is the negative of this value, or
The spring stretches until the glider comes
instantaneously to rest, so the final kinetic energy K
2
is zero.
Example 6.8 (SOLN)
Execute
2 2 2
1 1 1
(0)
2 2 2
W kd k kd ! !
2
1
2
kd
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
The initial kinetic energy is , where v
1
= 1.50m/s
is the glider¶s initial speed. Using the work-energy
theorem, we find
Example 6.8 (SOLN)
Execute
2
1
1
2
mv
2 2
1
1 1
0
2 2
kd mv !
The stretched spring subsequently pulls the glider back
to the left so the glider is at rest only instantaneously.
1
0.100
(1.50 / )
20.0 /
m kg
d v m s
k N m
= =
0.106 10.6 m cm = =
So the distance the glider moves is
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.8 (SOLN)
b) If the air is turned off, we must also include the work
done by the constant force of kinetic friction. The
normal force n is equal in magnitude to the weight of
the glider, since the track is horizontal and there are no
other vertical forces. The magnitude of the kinetic
friction force is then . The friction force
is directed opposite to the displacement, so the work
done by friction is
Execute
k k k
f n mg Q Q = =
cos180
fric k k k
W f d f d mgd Q ! r ! !
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.8 (SOLN)
The total work is the sum of W
fric
and the work done by
the spring, . Hence
Execute
2
1
2
kd
2 2
1
1 1
0
2 2
k
mgd kd mv Q =
2 2
1
(0.47)(0.100 )(9.81 / ) (20.0 / )
2
kg m s d N m d
2
1
(0.100 )(1.50 / )
2
kg m s !
2
(10.0 / ) (0.461 ) (0.113 ) 0 N m d N d N m ! g
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.8 (SOLN)
This is a quadratic equation for d. The solutions are
= 0.086 m or -0.132m
We have used d as the symbol for a positive
displacement, so only the positive value of d makes
sense. Thus with friction the glider moves a distance
Execute
2
(0.461 ) (0.461 ) 4(10.0 / )( 0.113 )
2(10.0 / )
N N N m N m
d
N m
s
!
g
0.086 8.6 d m cm = =
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.8 (SOLN)
With friction present, the glider goes a shorter distance
and the spring stretches less, as you might expect.
Again the glider stops instantaneously, and again the
spring force pulls the glider to the left; whether it moves
or not depends on how great the static friction force is.
How large would the coefficient of static friction
have to be to keep the glider form springing back to the
left?
Evaluate
s
Q
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.9 Motion on a curved path I
At a family picnic you are appointed to push your
cousin Throcky in a swing as shown in the figure. His
weight w, the length of the chains is R, and you push
him until the chains make an angle with the vertical.
To do this, you exert a varying horizontal force that
starts at zero and gradually increases just enough so
that he and the swing move very slowly and remain
very nearly in equilibrium. What is the total work done
on Throcky by all forces? What is the work done by the
tension T in the chains? What is the work you do by
exerting the force ? (Neglect the weight of the chains
and seat.)
0
J
F
ur
F
ur
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.9 Motion on a curved path I
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.9 (SOLN)
The motion is along a curve, so we will use Eq. (6.14)
to calculate the work done by the tension force, by the
force , and by the net force. The figure below shows
the free-body diagram as well as the coordinate
system. We have replaced the tension in the two
chains with a single tension T.
Identify and Set up
F
ur
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.9 (SOLN)
Identify and Set up
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.9 (SOLN)
There are two ways to find the total work done during
the motion: (1) by calculating the work done by each
force and then adding the quantities of work together,
and (2) by calculating the work done by the net force.
The second approach is easier as in this situation
Throcky is in equilibrium at every point. Hence the net
force on him is zero and the total work done on him by
all forces is zero.
Execute
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.9 (SOLN)
It¶s also easy to calculate the work done by the chain
tension on Throcky, because the chain tension is
perpendicular to the direction of the motion at all points
along the path. Hence at all points the angle between
the chain tension and the displacement vector is
and the scalar product in Eq. (6.14) is zero. Thus the
chain tension does zero work.
Execute
dl
r
90r
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.9 (SOLN)
To compute the work done by , we need to know
how this force varies with the angle . Throcky is in
equilibrium at every point, so from we get
Execute
F
ur
U
0
x
F =
¯
( sin ) 0 F T U !
and from we find
0
y
F =
¯
´ )
cos 0 T w U + =
By eliminating T from these two equations, we obtain
tan F w U !
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.9 (SOLN)
The point where is applied swings through the arc s.
The arc length s equals the radius R of the circular path
multiplied by the length (in radians), so .
Therefore the displacement corresponding to a
small change of angle has a magnitude
. The work done by is
Execute
F
ur
F
ur
U
s RU !
dU
dl ds RdU ! ! dU
cos W F dl F ds U ! !
¦ ¦
ur r
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.9 (SOLN)
Now we express everything in terms of the varying
angle:
Execute
U
´ ) ´ )
0 0
0
tan cos sin
o
W w R d wR d
U U
U U U U U ! !
¦ ¦
´ )
0
1 cos wR U !
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.9 (SOLN)
If , there is no displacement; in that case,
and , as we should expect. If , then
and . In that case the work you do is the same
as if you had lift Throcky straight up a distance R with a
force equal to his weight w. In fact, the quantity
is the increase in his height above the
ground during the displacement, so for any value of
the work done by force is the change in height
multiplied by the weight. This is an example of a more
general result that we¶ll prove in Section 7.1.
Evaluate
0
0 U =
0
cos 1 U =
0 W =
0
90 U = r
0
cos 0 U =
W wR !
´ )
0
1 cos R U
F
ur
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.10 Motion on a curved path II
In example 6.9 the infinitesimal vector displacement
shown in the figure has a magnitude of ds, an x-
component of , and a y-component of .
Hence we can write . Use this
expression and Eq. (6.14) to calculate the work done
during the motion by the chain tension, by the force of
gravity, and by the force . F
ur
cos ds U sin ds U
\$
cos sin dl ids jds U U !
r
\$
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.10 (SOLN)
Using the same free-body from Example 6.9. The only
difference is that we calculate the scalar product in Eq.
(6.14) by using Eq. (1.21) for the scalar product in
terms of components.
Identify and Set up
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.10 (SOLN)
From the free-body diagram, we can write the three
forces in terms of unit vector:
Execute
´ )
\$
sin cos T i T jT U U = +
ur
\$
\$
´ )
w j w =
ur
\$
F jF !
ur
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.10 (SOLN)
To use Eq. (6.14), we must calculate the scalar product
of each of these forces with . Using Eq. (1.21),
Execute
dl
r
´ )´ ) ´ )´ )
sin cos cos sin 0 T dl T ds T ds U U U U = + =
ur r
´ )´ )
sin sin w dl w ds w ds U U = =
ur r
´ )
cos cos F dl F ds F ds U U ! !
ur r
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.10 (SOLN)
Since , the integral of this quantity is zero and
the work done by the chain tension is zero (just as we
found in Example 6.9). Using as in Example
6.9, the work done by the force of gravity is
Execute
0 T dl !
ur r
ds dU =
´ )
0
0
sin sin w dl w Rd wR d
U
U U U U = =
¦ ¦ ¦
ur r
´ )
0
1 cos wR U !
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.10 (SOLN)
The work done by gravity is negative because gravity
pull down while Throcky moves upward. Finally, the
work done by the force is the integral
, which we calculated in Example
Execute
F
ur
cos F dl F ds U !
¦ ¦
ur r
´ )
0
1 cos wR U +
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.10 (SOLN)
As a check on our answers, note that the sun of all
three quantities of work is zero. This is just what we
concluded in Example 6.9 using the work-energy
theorem.
The method of components is often the most
convenient way to calculate scalar products. Use it
when it will make your life easier!
Evaluate
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces
 Suppose a particle moves from to along a curve
as shown,
F
ur
Work-Energy Theorem for Motion Along a Curve
where we let
= one of the many infinitesimal vector displacement
(which is tangent to the path of direction).
= force a a typical point along the point.
= the angle between and at this point.
F
ur
dl
r
dl
r
J
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
 The small element of work done on the
particle during the displacement may be
written as
6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces
 When we break down the force into components,
Work-Energy Theorem for Motion Along a Curve
dl
r
dW
cos dw F dl F dl F dl J ! ! !
P
ur r
where is the component of in the
direction parallel to .
cos F F J =
P
F
ur
dl
r
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces
 The total work done by on the particle as it
moves from to is then
Work-Energy Theorem for Motion Along a Curve
F
ur
1
P
2
P
2 2 2
1 1 1
cos (6.14)
P P P
P P P
W F dl F dl F dl J ! ! !
¦ ¦ ¦
P
ur r
(work done on a curved path)
 The force contributing to the work is the
component of force parallel to the displacement,
.
cos F F J !
P
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces
 Note that does work on the particle, the
component perpendicular to the path,
, has no effect on the particle¶s speed; it¶s only
acts to change the particle¶s speed.
 The integral in Eq. (6.14) is called a line integral.
We usually express the line integral in terms of
some scalar variable.
Work-Energy Theorem for Motion Along a Curve
F
P
sin F F J
B
!
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
6.4 Power
 In normal term, the word ³power´ is often relate to ³energy´
or ³force´.
 In physics, power is the time rate at which work is done.
 Like work and energy, power is a scalar quantity.
 Average power, , is defined when a quantity of work
is done during a time interval .
av
P
W ( t (
(6.15)
av
W
P
t
A
=
A
(average power)
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
6.4 Power
 When the rate of work done is not constant, we can define
it as instantaneous power, P.
0
lim (6.16)
t
W dW
P
t dt ( p
(
! !
(
(instantaneous power)
 SI unit is watt (W).
3
6
1 W = 1 J/s
1 kW = 10 W
1 MW = 10 W
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
 For British unit, it is expressed as foot-pound per
second ( ).
 A larger unit is called horsepower (hp).
6.4 Power
 For usual commercial unit of electrical energy, we use
kilowatt-hour (kWh).
 The kilowatt-hour is a unit of work or energy, not power.
ft lb/s
1 hp = 550 ft lb/s = 33,000 ft lb/min
1 hp = 746 W = 0.746 kW
´ )
´ )
3 6
1 kWh = 10 J/s 3600 s = 3.6 10 J = 3.6 J v
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
 In mechanics we can express power in terms of
force and velocity.
 Suppose that a force acts on a body while it
undergoes a vector displacement .
 If is the component of tangent to the path
(parallel to ), then the work done by the force is
, and the average power is
6.4 Power
F
ur
s
r
F
P
F
ur
s A
r
W F s A = A
P
(6.18)
av av
F s
s
P F F v
t t
(
(
! ! !
( (
P
P P
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
 Instantaneous power P is the limit of this
expression :
6.4 Power
0 t ( p
(6.18) P F v !
P
where = magnitude of the instantaneous velocity.
v
 We can also express Eq. (6.18) in terms of scalar
product:
(6.19) P F v !
ur r
(instantaneous rate at which force does work on
a particle)
F
ur
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.11 Force and Power
Each of the 2 jet engines on a Boeing 767 airliner
develops a thrust (a forward force on the airplane) of
197,000 N (44,300 lb). When the airplane is flying at
250 m/s (900 km/h, or roughly 560 mi/h), what
horsepower each engine develop?
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.11 (SOLN)
The thrust is in the direction of motion, so in Eq.
(6.18) is just equal to the thrust. Our target variable is
the instantaneous power P.
Identify and Set up
s
F
Execute
At , each engine develops power P given
by Eq. (6.18):
250 m/s v =
´ )
´ )
5 7
1.97 10 N 250 m/s 4.93 10 W
s
P F v ! ! v ! v
´ )
7
1 hp
4.93 10 W 66, 000 hp
746 W
= - =
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.11 (SOLN)
The speed of modern airliners is directly related to the
power of their engines. The largest engines on
propeller-driven airliners of the 1950s developed about
3400 hp , and these airliners had maximum
speeds of about 660 km/h (370 mi/h). The power of
each of the engines of a Boeing 767 is nearly 20 times
greater, enabling it to fly at about 900 km/h (560 mi/h)
and to carry a much heavier load.
Evaluate
´ )
6
2.5 10 W v
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.11 (SOLN)
What if the engine are running at maximum thrust while
the airliner is at rest on the ground (with brakes held)?
Because , the engines develop zero power. Force
and power are not the same thing!
Evaluate
0 v =
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.12 Force and Power
As part of a charity fund-raising drive, a Chicago
marathon runner with mass 50.0 kg runs up the stair to
the stairs to the top of the 443 m tall tower. To lift
herself to the top in 15.0 min, what must be her
average power output in watts? In kilowatts? In
horsepower?
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.12 (SOLN)
We¶ll treat runner as a particle of mass m. we can
calculate her average power output in two ways: (1) by
first determining how much work she must do and then
dividing by the elapsed time, as in Eq. (6.15) or (2) by
calculating the average upward force she must exert
(in the direction of the climb) and multiplying it by her
upward velocity, as in Eq (6.17).
Identify and Set up
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.12 (SOLN)
As in Example 6.9, lifting a mass m against gravity
requires an amount of work equal to the weight mg
multiplied by the height h it is lifted. Hence the work
she must do is
Execute
´ )
´ )
´ )
2
50.0 kg 9.80 m/s 443 m W mgh ! !
The time is 15.0 min = 900 s, so from Eq. (6.15) the
average power is
5
2.17 10 J
241 kW=0.323 hp
900 s
av
P
v
! !
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.12 (SOLN)
Let¶s try the calculation again using the alternative
approach with Eq. (6.17). The force exerted is vertical,
and the average vertical component of velocity is
, so the average power is
Execute
´ ) ´ )
433 m / 900 s 0.492 m/s =
´ )
av av av
P F v mg v ! !
P
´ )
´ )
2
50.0 kg 9.80 m/s =
which is the same result as before.
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 6.12 (SOLN)
In fact the runner¶s total power output will be several
times greater than we have calculated. The reason is
that the runner isn¶t really a particle but a collection of
parts that exert forces on each other and do work, such
as the work done to inhale and exhale and to make her
arms and legs swing. What we¶ve calculated is only the
part of her power output that goes into lifting her to the
top of the building.
Evaluate
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
 When a constant force acts on a particle that
undergoes a straight-line displacement , the work
done by the force on the particle is defined to be
the scalar product of and .
The unit of work in SI units is 1 joule = 1 newton-
meter (1 J = 1 N·m) . Work is a scalar quantity; it
has an algebraic sign (positive or negative) but no
direction in space.
Concept Summary
F
ur
F
ur
s
r
s
r
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
 The kinetic energy K of a particle equals the
amount of work required to accelerate the particle
from rest to speed v. It is also equal to the amount
of work the particle can do in the process of being
brought to rest. Kinetic energy is a scalar quantity
that has no direction in space; it is always positive
or zero. Its units are the same as the units of work:
Concept Summary
2 2
1 J = 1 N m = 1 kg m /s
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
 When forces act on a particle while it undergoes a
displacement, the particle¶s kinetic energy changes
by an amount equal to the total work done on the
particle by all the forces. This relations, called the
work-energy theorem, is valid whether the forces
are constant or varying and whether the particle
moves along a straight line or curved path. It is
applicable only to the bodies that can be treated as
a particle.
Concept Summary
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
 When a force varies during a straight-line
displacement, the work done by the force is given
by an integral in Eq. (6.7).
 If the particle follows a curved path, then the work
done by a force is given by an integral that
involves the angle between the force and the
displacement. This expression is valid even if the
force magnitude and the angle vary during the
displacement.
Concept Summary
U
F
ur
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
 Power is the time rate of doing work. The average
power is the amount of work done in time
divided by that time. The instantaneous power is
the limit of the average power as goes to zero.
When a force acts on a particle moving with a
velocity , the instantaneous power (rate at which
the force does work) is the scalar product of and
. Like work and kinetic energy, power is a scalar
quantity. The SI unit of power is 1 watt = 1
joule/second (1 W = 1 J/s).
Concept Summary
F
ur
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Key Equations
cos W F s Fs J = =
ur r
angle between and (6.2), (6.3) F s J !
ur r
2
1
(6.5)
2
K mv !
2 1
(6.6)
tot
W K K =
2
1
(6.7)
x
x
x
W F dx =
¦
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Key Equations
2 2
1 1
cos
P P
P P
W F dl F dl J = =
¦ ¦
P
2
1
(6.14)
P
P
F dl !
¦
ur r
6. Work and Kinetic Energy
©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Key Equations
(6.15)
av
W
P
t
A
=
A
0
lim (6.16)
W dW
P
t dt (p
(
! !
(
(6.19) P F v !
ur r