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MECHANICS

FE1001 Physics I NTU - College of Engineering

1. Units, Physical Quantities

and Vectors

2. Motion Along A Straight Line

3. Motion in 2 or 3 Dimensions

4. Newton¶s Law of Motion

5. Applying Newton¶s Laws

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

7. Potential Energy and Energy Conservation

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

MECHANICS

FE1001 Physics I NTU - College of Engineering

8. Momentum, Impulse, and

Collisions

9. Rotation of Rigid Bodies

10. Dynamics of Rotational

Motion

11. Equilibrium and Elasticity

12. Gravitation

13. Periodic Motion

14. Fluid Mechanics

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Chapter Objectives

Understanding the concept of work in daily lives.

The difference between work and kinetic energy.

The relation of work and energy with varying forces.

Understanding of power.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Chapter Outline

1. Work

2. Work and Kinetic Energy

3. Work and Energy with Varying Forces

4. Power

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.1 Work

Work is any activity that requires muscular or

mental effort.

In physics, the total work done on a particle by all

forces that acts on it equals the change of kinetic

energy.

The relationship holds true even when the forces

acting on the body is not constant.

When a body moves, a constant force acts on it

in the same direction as the displacement .

F

ur

s

r

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.1 Work

We define the work W done by this constant force

under these circumstances as the product of the

force F and the displacement s.

(6.1) W s =

(constant force in direction of straight-line displacement)

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.1 Work

Don¶t confuse W (work) with w (weight) as

they have different quantities.

SI unit of work is in joule.

´ )´ )

1 joule 1 newton 1 meter or 1 J = 1 N m =

For British unit,

1 J = 0.7376 ft lb

1 t lb 1.356 J

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.1 Work

When a person pushes a car at an angle as

shown, the force and the displacement will

have different directions.

Thus we define the work as a product of the

component and the magnitude of the displacement.

J

F

ur

s

r

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.1 Work

When a constant force acts at an angle to the

displacement , the work done by the force is

J

F

ur

s

r

cos (6.2) W s J =

(constant force, straight line displacement)

When Eq. (6.2) is in the form of scalar product of 2

vectors,

(6.3) W F s !

uur ur r

(constant force, straight line displacement)

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.1 Work

Work is a scalar quantity even though it¶s

calculated by using 2 vector quantities

(force and displacement).

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.1 Work done by a constant force

a) Steve exert a steady force of magnitude 210N

(about 47lb) on the stalled car in figure shown as he

pushed it a distance of 18m. The car also has a flat

tire, so to make the car track straight Steve must

push at an angle of 30

o

to the direction of motion.

How much work does Steve do? b) In a helpful

mood, Steve pushes a second stalled car with

steady force The displacement

of the car is How much work

does Steve do in this case?

(160 ) (40 ) . F N i N j =

r

Ö Ö

(14 ) (11 ) . s m i m j = +

r

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.1

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.1 (SOLN)

Identify and Set up

In both part (a) and (b), the target variable is the work

W done by Steve. In each case the force is constant

and the displacement is along a straight line, so we

can use Eq.(6.2) or (6.3). The angle between and

is given explicitly in part (a), so we can apply Eq.(6.2)

directly. In part (b) the angle isn¶t given. So we¶re

better off calculating the scalar product in Eq.(6.3)

form the components of and , as in Eq.(1.21).

F

r

s

r

F

r

s

r

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.1 (SOLN)

Execute

a)From Eq.(6.2),

The components of are F

s

= 160 and F

y

= -40 ,

and the components of are x = 14m and y = 11m.

Hence, using Eqs.(1.21) and (6.3),

3

cos (210 )(18 ) cos30 3.3 10 W Fs J J ! ! r ! v

F

r

s

r

x y

W F s F x F y ! !

r

r

g

(160 )(14 ) ( 40 )(11 ) N m N m = +

3

1.8 10 J ! v

Evaluate

Our results show that 1 joule is a rather small

amount of work.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.1 Work

A constant force can do positive, negative or

zero work depending on then angle between and

the displacement .

When force has component in direction of

displacement, work done is positive.

F

ur

s

r

F

ur

0 90 J r

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.1 Work

When force has component opposite to

displacement, work done is negative.

90 180 J r

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.1 Work

When force is perpendicular to displacement,

work done is zero.

90 J = r

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.1 Work

An object do no work if has no displacement even

when a force is apply on it.

Below is the illustration on positive, zero and

negative work.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.1 Work

Negative work comes from Newton¶s third law of

motion.

When you catch a ball, your hand and ball move

together with the same displacement, .

The work done by the ball on your hand is positive

but the your hand exerts an equal and opposite to

the ball¶s displacement, which is negative.

s

r

H on B B on H

F F !

ur ur

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.1 Work

Always specify what force is doing the work

you are talking about.

For example the work done by lifting a book

is positive but the work done by the

gravitational force on a book is negative, as

downward gravitational force is opposite to

the upward displacement.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.2 Work done by several forces

Farmer Benton hitches his tractor to a sled loaded

with firewood and pulls it a distance of 20m along

level ground. The total weight of sled and load is

14,700 . The tractor exerts a constant 5000- force

at an angle of 36.9

o

above the horizontal, as shown

in figure. There is a 3500- friction force opposing

the sled¶s motion. Find the work done by each force

acting on the sled and the total work done by all the

forces.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.2 Work done by several forces

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.2 (SOLN)

Identify

All of the forces are constant and the displacement is

along a straight line, so we can calculate the work

using the formulas given in this section. We¶ll find the

net work in two ways: (1) by adding together the work

done on the sled by each force and (2) by finding the

amount of work done by the net force on the sled.

We¶ll find the net force using the techniques described

in Chapter 5.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.2 (SOLN)

Set up

As we are working with forces, our first steps are to

draw a FBD showing all of the forces acting on the sled

and to choose a coordinate system.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.2 (SOLN)

Set up

For each of the four forces ± weight, normal force,

force of the tractor, and friction force ± we know the

angle between the displacement (which is in the

positive x-direction) and the force. Hence we can

calculate the work done by each force using Eq.(6.2).

To find the net force, we¶ll add the components of the

four forces. Newton¶s second law tells us that because

the sled¶s motion is purely horizontal, the net force will

have only a horizontal component.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.2 (SOLN)

Execute

The work W

w

done by the weight is zero because its

direction is perpendicular to the displacement. (The

angle between the force of gravity and the

displacement is 90

o

, and the cosine of the angle is

zero.) For the same reason, the work W

n

done by the

normal force is also zero. So W

w

= W

n

= 0. (Incidentally,

the normal force is not equal in magnitude to the

weight; see Example 5.16 of Section 5.3.)

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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The friction force is opposite to the displacement, so

for this force and . The work W

f

done

by the friction force is

Example 6.2 (SOLN)

Execute

That leaves the force Ft exerted by the tractor and the

friction force f. From Eq.(6.2) the work WT done by the

tractor is

cos (5000 )(20 )(0.800) 80, 000 .

T T

W F s N m N m J = = =

80kJ !

f

r

180 J ! r cos 1 J !

cos180 (3500 )(20 )( 1) 70, 000 .

f

W fs ! r ! !

70kJ !

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.2 (SOLN)

Execute

The total work W

tot

done on the sled by all forces is

the algebraic sum of the work done by the individual

forces:

0 0 80 ( 70 )

tot w n T f

W W W W W kJ kJ = + + + = + + +

10kJ =

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.2 (SOLN)

Execute

In the alternative approach, we first find the vector

sum of all the forces (the net force) and then use it to

compute the total work. The vector sum is best found

by using components. From Fig.b,

cos ( ) (5000 ) cos36.9 3500

x T

F F f N N J = + = r

¯

500N =

sin ( )

y T

F F n w J = + +

¯

(5000 )sin36.9 14, 700 N n N = r +

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.2 (SOLN)

Execute

We don¶t really need the second equation; we know

that the y-component of force is perpendicular to the

displacement, so it does not work. Besides, there is

no y-component of acceleration, so has to be

zero anyway. The total work is therefore the work

done by the total x-component:

y

F

§

( ) ( ) (500 )(20 ) 10, 000

tot x

W F s F s N m J = = = =

¯ ¯

r

r

g

10kJ !

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.2 (SOLN)

Evaluate

We get the same result for W

tot

with either method, as

we should.

Note that the net force in the x-direction is not zero,

and the sled must accelerate as it moves. In Section

6.2 we¶ll return to this example and see how to use

the concept of work to explore the sled¶s motion.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.3 Total work when velocity is constant

A electron moves in a straight line toward the east

with a constant speed of 8 x 107 m/s. it has electric,

magnetic, and gravitational forces acting on it.

Calculate the total work done on the electron during

a 1-m displacement.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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The electron moves with constant velocity, so its

acceleration is zero. By Newton¶s second law, the

vector sum of the forces is also zero. Therefore the

total work done by all the forces (equal to the work

done by the vector sum of all the forces) must be

zero. Individual forces may do nonzero work, but

that¶s not what the problems asks for.

Example 6.3 (SOLN)

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

The total work done on a body by external forces

is related to the body¶s displacement, that is, no

change in its position.

But the total work is also related to the changes in

the speed of the body.

For example when a block is sliding on a

frictionless table, the net force causes the speed

to increase and does positive work.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

Again the net force causes the speed to increase

and does positive work, when there is a change of

direction of force.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

When the net force opposes the displacement

and causes the speed to decrease, it does

negative work.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

The net force is zero and does no work, thus the

speed is zero.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

Consider that a mass moving along x-direction

with a constant acceleration, this time speed

changes from to .

The mass undergoes a displacement of .

Using Eq. (2.13),

1

v

2

v

2 1

s x x !

2 2

2 1

2

x

v v a s = +

2 2

2 1

2

x

v v

a

s

=

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

When multiply by and equate to the net

force,

m

x

ma

2 2

2 1

2

x

v v

F ma m

s

= =

2 2

2 1

1 1

(6.4)

2 2

Fs mv mv =

where = total work done by all the forces

acting on the particle,

= kinetic energy,

Fs

tot

W

2

1

2

mv

K

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

Therefore,

2

1

(6.5)

2

K mv !

( definition of kinetic energy)

From Eq. 6.4, it says that the work done by the

net force on a particle equals the change in the

particle¶s kinetic energy:

2 1

(6.6)

tot

W K K K = = A

( work-energy theorem)

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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1. When , , the kinetic energy

increases. The particle is going faster at the end

of the displacement than at the beginning.

2. When , , the kinetic energy

decreases and the speed is less after

displacement.

3. When , , the speed remain

unchanged.

6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

The work-energy theorem gives the following

agreement:

0

tot

W

0

tot

W "

2 1

K K "

2 1

K K

0

tot

W =

2 1

K K =

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

Note that kinetic energy does not tell us about the

direction of motion.

The SI unit of kinetic energy and work is

The British unit is

2 2 2

1 J = 1 N m = 1 (kg m/s ) m = 1 kg m /s

2 2 2

1 ft lb = 1 ft slug ft/s = 1 slug ft /s

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

Problem-solving strategy (Work and Kinetic Energy)

IDENTIFY

1. Use work-energy theorem for a body having

moving to at a different point.

2. This theorem only used for problems which do

not involve time.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

Problem-solving strategy (Work and Kinetic Energy)

SET UP

1. Choose initial and final position and draw free-

body diagram, showing all forces acting on the

body.

2. Choose a coordinate system.

3. List all the known and unknown quantities,

decide which unknowns are your target

variables.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

Problem-solving strategy (Work and Kinetic Energy)

EXECUTE

1. Calculate the work done by each force.

2. Use Eq. (6.2) and (6.3) if the force is constant

and the displacement is straight line.

3. Check the sign of the work for each force.

4. Add the amounts of work done by each force to

find the total work, . Be careful with signs!

tot

W

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

Problem-solving strategy (Work and Kinetic Energy)

EXECUTE

5. Write expressions for the initial and final kinetic

energies, and .

6. Use to solve for target variables.

1

K

2

K

2 1 tot

W K K =

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

Problem-solving strategy (Work and Kinetic Energy)

EVALUATE

1. Check whether your answer makes any physical

sense.

2. Remember can never be negative.

2

1

2

K mv =

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.4 Using work and energy to calculate speed

Let¶s look again at the sled and the numbers at the

end of Example 6.2. Suppose the initial speed v

1

is

2.0m/s. What is the speed of the sled after it moves

20m?

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.4 (SOLN)

We¶ll use the work-energy

theorem, since we are given

the initial speed v

1

= 2.0m/s and

want to find the final speed v

2

.

Figure shows the FBD from

Example 6.2. The motion is in

the positive x-direction.

Identify and Set up

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.4 (SOLN)

Execute

We already calculated the total work done by all the

forces in Example 6.2, where we found W

tot

= 10kJ.

Hence the kinetic energy of the sled and its load must

increase by 10kJ.

To write expressions for the initial and final kinetic

energies, we need the mass of the sled and load. We

are given that the weight is 14,700 , so the mass is

2

/ (14, 700 )(9.8 / ) 1500 m w g N m s kg = = =

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.4 (SOLN)

Execute

Then the initial kinetic energy K

1

is

2 2 2 2

1 1

1

(1500 )(2.0 / ) 3000 /

2 2

K mv kg m s kg m s ! ! ! g

3000J =

The final kinetic energy K

2

is

Where v

2

is the unknown speed we wan to find.

Equation (6.6) gives

2 2

2 2 2

1 1

(1500 )

2 2

K mv kg v = =

2 1

3000 10, 000 13, 000

tot

K K W J J J ! ! !

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.4 (SOLN)

Execute

Setting these two expressions for K

2

equal,

substituting , and solving for v

2

, we find

2

4.2 / v m s !

The total work is positive, so the kinetic energy

increases ( K

2

> K

1

) and the speed increases ( v

2

> v

1

).This problem can also be done without the work-

energy theorem. We can find the acceleration from

and then use the equations of motion for

constant acceleration to find v

2

.

2 2

1 1 / J kg m s = g

Evaluate

F ma =

¯

r

r

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.4 (SOLN)

Evaluate

´ )

x

5000 cos36.0 3500

a = a

1500

x

F

N N

m kg

r

= =

¯

then

Since the acceleration is along the x-axis,

2

0.333 / m s !

2 2 2 2

2 1

2 (2.0 / ) 2(0.333 / )(20 )

as

v v m s m s m = + = +

2 2

17.3 / m s =

2

4.2 / v m s =

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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This is the same result that we obtained with the work-

energy approach, but there we avoided the

intermediate step on finding the acceleration. You will

find several other examples in this chapter and the

next that can be done without using energy

considerations but that are easier when energy

methods are used. When a problem can be done by

two different methods, doing it by both methods (as

we did in this example) is a very good way to check

your work.

Example 6.4 (SOLN)

Evaluate

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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In a pile driver, a steel hammerhead with mass 200kg

is lifted 3.00m above the top of a vertical I-beam being

driven into the ground. The hammer is then dropped,

driving the I-beam 7.4 cm farther into the ground. The

vertical rails that guide the hammerhead exert a

constant 60-N friction force on the hammerhead. Use

the work-energy theorem to find a) the speed of the

hammerhead just as it hits the I-beam and b) the

average force the hammerhead exerts on the I-beam.

Ignore the effects of the air.

Example 6.5 Force on a hammerhead

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.5 Force on a hammerhead

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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This problem is an ideal candidate for the work-energy

theorem, as it relates a body¶s speed at different

locations and the forces acting on the body. In this

problem there are three positions of interest: point 1,

where the hammerhead starts from the rest; point 2,

where it first contacts the I-beam; and point 3, where

the hammerhead comes to a halt. We have two

unknowns ± the hammerhead¶s speed at point 2, and

the force the I-beam exerts between points 2 and 3 ±

we¶ll apply the work-energy theorem twice: once for

the motion from 1 to 2 and once for the motion from 2

to 3.

Example 6.5 (SOLN)

Identify

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Figure (b) is a FBD showing the

vertical forces on the

hammerhead as it falls from

point 1 to point 2. (because the

displacement is vertical, we

ignore any horizontal forces that

may be present because they

do no work,) For this part of the

motion, our target variable is

the hammerhead¶s speed v

2

.

Example 6.5 (SOLN)

Set up

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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The FBD in Fig. c shows the vertical

forces on the hammerhead during the

motion from point 2 to point 3. In addition

to the forces shown in Fig. B, the I-beam

exerts an upward normal force of

magnitude n on the hammerhead. This

force actually varies as the hammerhead

comes to a halt, but for simplicity we¶ll

treat n as a constant. Hence n represents

the average value of this upward force

during the motion.

Example 6.5 (SOLN)

Set up

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Our target variable for this part of the motion is the

force that the hammerhead exerts on the I-beam: it is

the reaction force to the normal force exerted by the

I-beam, so by Newton¶s third law its magnitude is

also n.

Example 6.5 (SOLN)

Set up

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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Example 6.5 (SOLN)

Execute

a) From point 1 to point 2, the vertical forces are the

downward weight w = mg = (200kg)(9.8m/s

2

) = 1960

and the upward friction force f = 60 . Thus the net

downward force is w ± f = 1900 . The displacement of

the hammerhead from point 1 to point 2 is downward

and equal to s

12

= 3.00m. The total work done on the

hammerhead as it moves from point 1 to point 2 is

then

12

( ) (1900 )(3.00 ) 5700

tot

W w f s m J ! ! !

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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At point 1 the hammerhead is at rest, so its initial

kinetic energy is K

1

zero. Equation (6.6) gives

Example 6.5 (SOLN)

Execute

2

2 1 2

1

0

2

tot

W K K mv ! !

2

2 2(5700 )

7.55 /

200

tot

W J

v m s

m kg

= = =

This is the hammerhead¶s speed at point 2, just as it

hits the beam.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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b) As the hammerhead moves downward between

points 2 and 3, the net downward force acting on it is

w ± f ± n (Fig. C). The total work done on the

hammerhead during this displacement is

Example 6.5 (SOLN)

Execute

23

( )

tot

W w f n s !

The kinetic energy for this part of the motion is K

2

where from part (a) equals 5700J (the total work done

on the hammerhead as it moved from point 1 to point

2).

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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The final kinetic energy is K

3

= 0, since the

hammerhead ends at rest. Then, from the work-

energy theorem,

Example 6.5 (SOLN)

Execute

23 3 2

( )

tot

W w f n s K K = =

3 2

23

( ) K K

n w f

s

=

(0 5700 )

1960 60

0.074

J J

N N

m

=

79, 000N !

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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The downward force that the hammerhead exerts on

the I-beam has this same magnitude, 79,000N (about

9 tons) ± more than 40 times the weight of the

hammerhead.

Example 6.5 (SOLN)

Execute

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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The total change in the hammerhead¶s kinetic energy

during the whole process is zero; a relative small force

does positive work over a large distance, and then a

much larger net force does negative work over a

much smaller distance. The same thing happens if

you speed up your car gradually and then drive it into

a brick wall. The very large force needed to reduce

the kinetic energy to zero over a short distance is

what does the damage to your car ± and possibly to

you.

Example 6.5 (SOLN)

Evaluate

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

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6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

The Meaning of Kinetic Energy

Example 6.5 gives the physical meaning of kinetic

energy.

To accelerate a mass m from rest (zero kinetic

energy) up to speed v, the total work done on it

must equal the change in kinetic energy from zero

to ;

2

1

2

K mv =

0

tot

W K K = =

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

The Meaning of Kinetic Energy

1. Kinetic energy of a particle is equal to the total work

that was done to accelerate if from rest to its present

speed.

2. Kinetic energy of a particle is equal to the total work

that particle can do in the process of being brought to

rest.

Kinetic Energy can be defined in 2 ways as below:

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.6 (SOLN)

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.6 (SOLN)

If you simply use the mathematical definition of the

kinetic energy,

the answer to this problem isn¶t immediately obvious.

The iceboat of mass 2m has greater mass, so you

might guess that the larger iceboat attains a greater

kinetic energy at the finish line. But the smaller

iceboat, of mass m, crosses the finish line with greater

speed, and you might guess that this iceboat has the

greater kinetic energy. How can we decide?

2

1

2

K mv =

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.6 (SOLN)

The correct way to approach this problem is to

remember that the kinetic energy of a particle is just

equal to the total work done to acceleration it from

rest. Both iceboat travel the same distance s, and

only the horizontal force F in the direction of motion

does work on either iceboat. Hence the total work

done between the starting line and the finish line is

the same for each iceboat, W

tot

= F s. At the finish line,

each iceboat has a kinetic energy equal to the work

W

tot

done on it, because each iceboat started from

rest. So both iceboats have the same kinetic energy

at the finish line!

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.6 (SOLN)

You might think this is a µtrick¶ question, but it isn¶t. if

you really understand the physical meanings of

quantities such as kinetic energy, you can solve

problems more easily and with better insight into the

physics.

Notice that we didn¶t need to say anything about how

much time each iceboat took to reach the finish line.

This is because the work-energy theorem makes no

direct reference to time, only to displacement. In fact

the iceboat of mass m takes less time to reach the

finish line than does the larger iceboat of mass 2m; we

leave the calculation to you (Exercise 6.18).

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

Work and Kinetic Energy in Composite Systems

Consider a man standing on frictionless roller

skates on a level surface, facing a rigid wall shown

below.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.2 Work and Kinetic Energy

Work and Kinetic Energy in Composite Systems

There is no vertical displacement, so , , and

do no work.

also do no work as the body does not moves.

The work done by these external forces is zero, but

his kinetic energy can change nonetheless, due to

various part of his body interacting.

w

ur

2

n

uur

1

n

ur

F

ur

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces

When you stretched a spring, the force you exerted is not

constant as the spring is stretched.

To illustrate, suppose a particle moves along x-direction

from point to .

1

x

2

x

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces

To find the work done we divide the total displacement into

small segments , , and so on.

The work done by the force in the total displacement from

to is approximately

a

x (

b

x (

1

x

2

x

....

a a b

W F x F x = A + A +

Therefore the integral of from to :

x

F

1

x

2

x

2

1

(6.7)

x

x

x

W F dx =

¦

(varying x-component of force, straight line

displacement)

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces

On a graph of force as a function of position, the total work done

by the force is represented by the area under the curve between

initial and final positions.

When is constant, Eq. (6.7) becomes

x

F

´ )

2 2

1 1

2 1

x x

x x x

x x

W F dx F dx F x x ! ! !

¦ ¦

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces

The work done by a constant force F in the x-direction as a

particle moves from to is equal to the rectangular area

under the graph of force versus displacement.

1

x

2

x

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces

Thus when we apply the previous concept to a spring

being stretched, we have to apply a force with magnitude

at each end. The following expression is obtained:

(6.8)

x

F kx =

F

(force required to stretch a spring)

where = force constant (or spring constant) of

spring (N/m or lb/ft)

k

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces

The observation that elongation is directly proportional to

force for elongation that are not too great is known as

Hooke¶s law.

The work done by a force when the elongation goes from

zero to a maximum value X is

2

0 0

1

(6.9)

2

X X

x

W F dx kx dx kX = = =

¦ ¦

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces

The area of the shaded triangle also representing the total

work done by the force.

´ )´ )

2

1 1

2 2

W X kX kX = =

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces

If initially the spring is stretched a distance , the work

done to stretched to is

1

x

2

x

2 2

1 1

2 2

2 1

1 1

(6.10)

2 2

x x

x

x x

W F dx kx dx kx kx = = =

¦ ¦

When you applied a force on the spring,

the work done by you is positive.

In contrast, the work that the spring does

on you is given by negative.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.7 Work done on spring scale

A woman weighing 600N steps on a bathroom scale

containing a stiff spring. In equilibrium the spring is

compressed 1.0 cm under her weight. Find the force

constant of the spring and the total work done on it

during the compression.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.7 (SOLN)

In equilibrium the upward force exerted by the spring

balances the downward force of the woman¶s weight.

We¶ll use this principle and Eq. (6.8) to determine the

force constant k, and we¶ll use Eq. (6.10) to calculate

the work Wthat the woman does on the spring to

compress it. We take positive values of x to correspond

to elongation, so that the displacement of the spring

and the force that the woman exerts on it are both

negative.

Identify and Set up

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.7 (SOLN)

With our choice of coordinates, the top of the spring

is displaced by x = -1.0cm = -0.010m and the force the

woman exerts on the spring is F

x

= -600N. Form Eq.

(6.8) the force constant is

Execute

4

600

6.0 10 /

0.010

x

F N

k N m

x m

= = = -

Then, using x

1

= 0 and x

2

= -0,010 m in Eq.(6.10),

2 2

2 1

1 1

2 2

W kx kx =

4 2

1

(6.0 10 / )( 0.010 ) 0 3.0

2

N m m J = - =

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.7 (SOLN)

The applied force and the displacement of the end of

the spring were in the same direction, so the work done

must have been positive - which is just what we found

by calculation. Our arbitrary choice of the positive

direction has no effect on the answer for W. (You can

test this by taking the positive x-direction to correspond

to compression. You¶ll got the same values for k and for

W.)

Evaluate

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces

Work-Energy Theorem for Straight-Line Motion,

Varying Forces

An alternative derivation of the work-energy theorem is to

change the upper and lower limits of integral from to .

We note that the acceleration, a, of a particle can be

expressed in various ways through chain rule

x v

(6.11)

x x x

x x

dv dv dv dx

a v

dt dx dt dx

= =

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces

Work-Energy Theorem for Straight-Line Motion,

Varying Forces

Using this results, Eq. (6.7) tells us that the total work done

by the net force is

2 2 2

1 1 1

(6.12)

x x x

x

tot x x x

x x x

dv

W F dx ma dx mv dx

dx

= = =

¦ ¦ ¦

After cancellation of

dx

2

1

2 2

2 1

1 1

(6.13)

2 2

x

tot x x

x

W mv dv mv mv = =

¦

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces

Work-Energy Theorem for Straight-Line Motion,

Varying Forces

We get the same results as Eq. (6.6) but without the

assumption that the net force F is constant.

Work-energy theorem is still valid even when F varies

during displacement.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.8 Motion with a varying force

An air-track glider of mass 0.100kg is attached to the

end of a horizontal air track by a spring with force

constant 20.0 N/m. initial the spring is un-stretched

and the glider is moving at 1.50 m/s to the right. Find

the maximum distance d that the glider moves to the

right a) if the air track is turned on so that there is no

friction, and b) if the air is turned off so that there is

kinetic friction with coefficient .

0.47

k

Q !

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.8 (SOLN)

The force exerted by the spring is not constant, so we

cannot use the constant-acceleration formulas of

Chapter 2 to solve this problem. Instead, we¶ll use the

work-energy theorem, which involves the distance

moved (our target variable) through the formula for

work.

Identify

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.8 (SOLN)

Figure b and c shows the FBDs

for the glider without friction and

with friction, respectively. We

choose the positive x-direction

to be the right (in the direction

of the glider¶s motion), with x =

0 at the glider¶s initial position

(where the spring is relaxed)

and x = d (the target variable) at

the position where the glider

stops.

Set up

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.8 (SOLN)

In both cases the motion is purely horizontal, so only

the horizontal force work. Note that Eq. (6.10) gives the

work done on the spring as it stretches, but to use the

work-energy theorem we need the work done by the

spring on the glider ± which is the negative of Eq.

(6.10).

Set up

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

a)As the glider moves from x

1

= 0 to x

2

= d, it does an

amount of work on the spring given by Eq.(6.10):

The amount of work that the spring does on the glider

is the negative of this value, or

The spring stretches until the glider comes

instantaneously to rest, so the final kinetic energy K

2

is zero.

Example 6.8 (SOLN)

Execute

2 2 2

1 1 1

(0)

2 2 2

W kd k kd ! !

2

1

2

kd

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The initial kinetic energy is , where v

1

= 1.50m/s

is the glider¶s initial speed. Using the work-energy

theorem, we find

Example 6.8 (SOLN)

Execute

2

1

1

2

mv

2 2

1

1 1

0

2 2

kd mv !

The stretched spring subsequently pulls the glider back

to the left so the glider is at rest only instantaneously.

1

0.100

(1.50 / )

20.0 /

m kg

d v m s

k N m

= =

0.106 10.6 m cm = =

So the distance the glider moves is

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.8 (SOLN)

b) If the air is turned off, we must also include the work

done by the constant force of kinetic friction. The

normal force n is equal in magnitude to the weight of

the glider, since the track is horizontal and there are no

other vertical forces. The magnitude of the kinetic

friction force is then . The friction force

is directed opposite to the displacement, so the work

done by friction is

Execute

k k k

f n mg Q Q = =

cos180

fric k k k

W f d f d mgd Q ! r ! !

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.8 (SOLN)

The total work is the sum of W

fric

and the work done by

the spring, . Hence

Execute

2

1

2

kd

2 2

1

1 1

0

2 2

k

mgd kd mv Q =

2 2

1

(0.47)(0.100 )(9.81 / ) (20.0 / )

2

kg m s d N m d

2

1

(0.100 )(1.50 / )

2

kg m s !

2

(10.0 / ) (0.461 ) (0.113 ) 0 N m d N d N m ! g

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.8 (SOLN)

This is a quadratic equation for d. The solutions are

= 0.086 m or -0.132m

We have used d as the symbol for a positive

displacement, so only the positive value of d makes

sense. Thus with friction the glider moves a distance

Execute

2

(0.461 ) (0.461 ) 4(10.0 / )( 0.113 )

2(10.0 / )

N N N m N m

d

N m

s

!

g

0.086 8.6 d m cm = =

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.8 (SOLN)

With friction present, the glider goes a shorter distance

and the spring stretches less, as you might expect.

Again the glider stops instantaneously, and again the

spring force pulls the glider to the left; whether it moves

or not depends on how great the static friction force is.

How large would the coefficient of static friction

have to be to keep the glider form springing back to the

left?

Evaluate

s

Q

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.9 Motion on a curved path I

At a family picnic you are appointed to push your

cousin Throcky in a swing as shown in the figure. His

weight w, the length of the chains is R, and you push

him until the chains make an angle with the vertical.

To do this, you exert a varying horizontal force that

starts at zero and gradually increases just enough so

that he and the swing move very slowly and remain

very nearly in equilibrium. What is the total work done

on Throcky by all forces? What is the work done by the

tension T in the chains? What is the work you do by

exerting the force ? (Neglect the weight of the chains

and seat.)

0

J

F

ur

F

ur

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.9 Motion on a curved path I

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.9 (SOLN)

The motion is along a curve, so we will use Eq. (6.14)

to calculate the work done by the tension force, by the

force , and by the net force. The figure below shows

the free-body diagram as well as the coordinate

system. We have replaced the tension in the two

chains with a single tension T.

Identify and Set up

F

ur

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.9 (SOLN)

Identify and Set up

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.9 (SOLN)

There are two ways to find the total work done during

the motion: (1) by calculating the work done by each

force and then adding the quantities of work together,

and (2) by calculating the work done by the net force.

The second approach is easier as in this situation

Throcky is in equilibrium at every point. Hence the net

force on him is zero and the total work done on him by

all forces is zero.

Execute

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.9 (SOLN)

It¶s also easy to calculate the work done by the chain

tension on Throcky, because the chain tension is

perpendicular to the direction of the motion at all points

along the path. Hence at all points the angle between

the chain tension and the displacement vector is

and the scalar product in Eq. (6.14) is zero. Thus the

chain tension does zero work.

Execute

dl

r

90r

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.9 (SOLN)

To compute the work done by , we need to know

how this force varies with the angle . Throcky is in

equilibrium at every point, so from we get

Execute

F

ur

U

0

x

F =

¯

( sin ) 0 F T U !

and from we find

0

y

F =

¯

´ )

cos 0 T w U + =

By eliminating T from these two equations, we obtain

tan F w U !

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.9 (SOLN)

The point where is applied swings through the arc s.

The arc length s equals the radius R of the circular path

multiplied by the length (in radians), so .

Therefore the displacement corresponding to a

small change of angle has a magnitude

. The work done by is

Execute

F

ur

F

ur

U

s RU !

dU

dl ds RdU ! ! dU

cos W F dl F ds U ! !

¦ ¦

ur r

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.9 (SOLN)

Now we express everything in terms of the varying

angle:

Execute

U

´ ) ´ )

0 0

0

tan cos sin

o

W w R d wR d

U U

U U U U U ! !

¦ ¦

´ )

0

1 cos wR U !

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.9 (SOLN)

If , there is no displacement; in that case,

and , as we should expect. If , then

and . In that case the work you do is the same

as if you had lift Throcky straight up a distance R with a

force equal to his weight w. In fact, the quantity

is the increase in his height above the

ground during the displacement, so for any value of

the work done by force is the change in height

multiplied by the weight. This is an example of a more

general result that we¶ll prove in Section 7.1.

Evaluate

0

0 U =

0

cos 1 U =

0 W =

0

90 U = r

0

cos 0 U =

W wR !

´ )

0

1 cos R U

F

ur

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.10 Motion on a curved path II

In example 6.9 the infinitesimal vector displacement

shown in the figure has a magnitude of ds, an x-

component of , and a y-component of .

Hence we can write . Use this

expression and Eq. (6.14) to calculate the work done

during the motion by the chain tension, by the force of

gravity, and by the force . F

ur

cos ds U sin ds U

$

cos sin dl ids jds U U !

r

$

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.10 (SOLN)

Using the same free-body from Example 6.9. The only

difference is that we calculate the scalar product in Eq.

(6.14) by using Eq. (1.21) for the scalar product in

terms of components.

Identify and Set up

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.10 (SOLN)

From the free-body diagram, we can write the three

forces in terms of unit vector:

Execute

´ )

$

sin cos T i T jT U U = +

ur

$

$

´ )

w j w =

ur

$

F jF !

ur

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.10 (SOLN)

To use Eq. (6.14), we must calculate the scalar product

of each of these forces with . Using Eq. (1.21),

Execute

dl

r

´ )´ ) ´ )´ )

sin cos cos sin 0 T dl T ds T ds U U U U = + =

ur r

´ )´ )

sin sin w dl w ds w ds U U = =

ur r

´ )

cos cos F dl F ds F ds U U ! !

ur r

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.10 (SOLN)

Since , the integral of this quantity is zero and

the work done by the chain tension is zero (just as we

found in Example 6.9). Using as in Example

6.9, the work done by the force of gravity is

Execute

0 T dl !

ur r

ds dU =

´ )

0

0

sin sin w dl w Rd wR d

U

U U U U = =

¦ ¦ ¦

ur r

´ )

0

1 cos wR U !

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.10 (SOLN)

The work done by gravity is negative because gravity

pull down while Throcky moves upward. Finally, the

work done by the force is the integral

, which we calculated in Example

6.9; the answer is .

Execute

F

ur

cos F dl F ds U !

¦ ¦

ur r

´ )

0

1 cos wR U +

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.10 (SOLN)

As a check on our answers, note that the sun of all

three quantities of work is zero. This is just what we

concluded in Example 6.9 using the work-energy

theorem.

The method of components is often the most

convenient way to calculate scalar products. Use it

when it will make your life easier!

Evaluate

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces

Suppose a particle moves from to along a curve

as shown,

F

ur

Work-Energy Theorem for Motion Along a Curve

where we let

= one of the many infinitesimal vector displacement

(which is tangent to the path of direction).

= force a a typical point along the point.

= the angle between and at this point.

F

ur

dl

r

dl

r

J

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The small element of work done on the

particle during the displacement may be

written as

6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces

When we break down the force into components,

Work-Energy Theorem for Motion Along a Curve

dl

r

dW

cos dw F dl F dl F dl J ! ! !

P

ur r

where is the component of in the

direction parallel to .

cos F F J =

P

F

ur

dl

r

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces

The total work done by on the particle as it

moves from to is then

Work-Energy Theorem for Motion Along a Curve

F

ur

1

P

2

P

2 2 2

1 1 1

cos (6.14)

P P P

P P P

W F dl F dl F dl J ! ! !

¦ ¦ ¦

P

ur r

(work done on a curved path)

The force contributing to the work is the

component of force parallel to the displacement,

.

cos F F J !

P

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Forces

Note that does work on the particle, the

component perpendicular to the path,

, has no effect on the particle¶s speed; it¶s only

acts to change the particle¶s speed.

The integral in Eq. (6.14) is called a line integral.

We usually express the line integral in terms of

some scalar variable.

Work-Energy Theorem for Motion Along a Curve

F

P

sin F F J

B

!

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.4 Power

In normal term, the word ³power´ is often relate to ³energy´

or ³force´.

In physics, power is the time rate at which work is done.

Like work and energy, power is a scalar quantity.

Average power, , is defined when a quantity of work

is done during a time interval .

av

P

W ( t (

(6.15)

av

W

P

t

A

=

A

(average power)

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

6.4 Power

When the rate of work done is not constant, we can define

it as instantaneous power, P.

0

lim (6.16)

t

W dW

P

t dt ( p

(

! !

(

(instantaneous power)

SI unit is watt (W).

3

6

1 W = 1 J/s

1 kW = 10 W

1 MW = 10 W

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

For British unit, it is expressed as foot-pound per

second ( ).

A larger unit is called horsepower (hp).

6.4 Power

For usual commercial unit of electrical energy, we use

kilowatt-hour (kWh).

The kilowatt-hour is a unit of work or energy, not power.

ft lb/s

1 hp = 550 ft lb/s = 33,000 ft lb/min

1 hp = 746 W = 0.746 kW

´ )

´ )

3 6

1 kWh = 10 J/s 3600 s = 3.6 10 J = 3.6 J v

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

In mechanics we can express power in terms of

force and velocity.

Suppose that a force acts on a body while it

undergoes a vector displacement .

If is the component of tangent to the path

(parallel to ), then the work done by the force is

, and the average power is

6.4 Power

F

ur

s

r

F

P

F

ur

s A

r

W F s A = A

P

(6.18)

av av

F s

s

P F F v

t t

(

(

! ! !

( (

P

P P

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Instantaneous power P is the limit of this

expression :

6.4 Power

0 t ( p

(6.18) P F v !

P

where = magnitude of the instantaneous velocity.

v

We can also express Eq. (6.18) in terms of scalar

product:

(6.19) P F v !

ur r

(instantaneous rate at which force does work on

a particle)

F

ur

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.11 Force and Power

Each of the 2 jet engines on a Boeing 767 airliner

develops a thrust (a forward force on the airplane) of

197,000 N (44,300 lb). When the airplane is flying at

250 m/s (900 km/h, or roughly 560 mi/h), what

horsepower each engine develop?

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.11 (SOLN)

The thrust is in the direction of motion, so in Eq.

(6.18) is just equal to the thrust. Our target variable is

the instantaneous power P.

Identify and Set up

s

F

Execute

At , each engine develops power P given

by Eq. (6.18):

250 m/s v =

´ )

´ )

5 7

1.97 10 N 250 m/s 4.93 10 W

s

P F v ! ! v ! v

´ )

7

1 hp

4.93 10 W 66, 000 hp

746 W

= - =

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.11 (SOLN)

The speed of modern airliners is directly related to the

power of their engines. The largest engines on

propeller-driven airliners of the 1950s developed about

3400 hp , and these airliners had maximum

speeds of about 660 km/h (370 mi/h). The power of

each of the engines of a Boeing 767 is nearly 20 times

greater, enabling it to fly at about 900 km/h (560 mi/h)

and to carry a much heavier load.

Evaluate

´ )

6

2.5 10 W v

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.11 (SOLN)

What if the engine are running at maximum thrust while

the airliner is at rest on the ground (with brakes held)?

Because , the engines develop zero power. Force

and power are not the same thing!

Evaluate

0 v =

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.12 Force and Power

As part of a charity fund-raising drive, a Chicago

marathon runner with mass 50.0 kg runs up the stair to

the stairs to the top of the 443 m tall tower. To lift

herself to the top in 15.0 min, what must be her

average power output in watts? In kilowatts? In

horsepower?

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.12 (SOLN)

We¶ll treat runner as a particle of mass m. we can

calculate her average power output in two ways: (1) by

first determining how much work she must do and then

dividing by the elapsed time, as in Eq. (6.15) or (2) by

calculating the average upward force she must exert

(in the direction of the climb) and multiplying it by her

upward velocity, as in Eq (6.17).

Identify and Set up

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.12 (SOLN)

As in Example 6.9, lifting a mass m against gravity

requires an amount of work equal to the weight mg

multiplied by the height h it is lifted. Hence the work

she must do is

Execute

´ )

´ )

´ )

2

50.0 kg 9.80 m/s 443 m W mgh ! !

The time is 15.0 min = 900 s, so from Eq. (6.15) the

average power is

5

2.17 10 J

241 kW=0.323 hp

900 s

av

P

v

! !

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.12 (SOLN)

Let¶s try the calculation again using the alternative

approach with Eq. (6.17). The force exerted is vertical,

and the average vertical component of velocity is

, so the average power is

Execute

´ ) ´ )

433 m / 900 s 0.492 m/s =

´ )

av av av

P F v mg v ! !

P

´ )

´ )

2

50.0 kg 9.80 m/s =

which is the same result as before.

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 6.12 (SOLN)

In fact the runner¶s total power output will be several

times greater than we have calculated. The reason is

that the runner isn¶t really a particle but a collection of

parts that exert forces on each other and do work, such

as the work done to inhale and exhale and to make her

arms and legs swing. What we¶ve calculated is only the

part of her power output that goes into lifting her to the

top of the building.

Evaluate

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

When a constant force acts on a particle that

undergoes a straight-line displacement , the work

done by the force on the particle is defined to be

the scalar product of and .

The unit of work in SI units is 1 joule = 1 newton-

meter (1 J = 1 N·m) . Work is a scalar quantity; it

has an algebraic sign (positive or negative) but no

direction in space.

Concept Summary

F

ur

F

ur

s

r

s

r

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The kinetic energy K of a particle equals the

amount of work required to accelerate the particle

from rest to speed v. It is also equal to the amount

of work the particle can do in the process of being

brought to rest. Kinetic energy is a scalar quantity

that has no direction in space; it is always positive

or zero. Its units are the same as the units of work:

Concept Summary

2 2

1 J = 1 N m = 1 kg m /s

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

When forces act on a particle while it undergoes a

displacement, the particle¶s kinetic energy changes

by an amount equal to the total work done on the

particle by all the forces. This relations, called the

work-energy theorem, is valid whether the forces

are constant or varying and whether the particle

moves along a straight line or curved path. It is

applicable only to the bodies that can be treated as

a particle.

Concept Summary

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

When a force varies during a straight-line

displacement, the work done by the force is given

by an integral in Eq. (6.7).

If the particle follows a curved path, then the work

done by a force is given by an integral that

involves the angle between the force and the

displacement. This expression is valid even if the

force magnitude and the angle vary during the

displacement.

Concept Summary

U

F

ur

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Power is the time rate of doing work. The average

power is the amount of work done in time

divided by that time. The instantaneous power is

the limit of the average power as goes to zero.

When a force acts on a particle moving with a

velocity , the instantaneous power (rate at which

the force does work) is the scalar product of and

. Like work and kinetic energy, power is a scalar

quantity. The SI unit of power is 1 watt = 1

joule/second (1 W = 1 J/s).

Concept Summary

F

ur

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Key Equations

cos W F s Fs J = =

ur r

angle between and (6.2), (6.3) F s J !

ur r

2

1

(6.5)

2

K mv !

2 1

(6.6)

tot

W K K =

2

1

(6.7)

x

x

x

W F dx =

¦

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Key Equations

2 2

1 1

cos

P P

P P

W F dl F dl J = =

¦ ¦

P

2

1

(6.14)

P

P

F dl !

¦

ur r

6. Work and Kinetic Energy

©2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Key Equations

(6.15)

av

W

P

t

A

=

A

0

lim (6.16)

W dW

P

t dt (p

(

! !

(

(6.19) P F v !

ur r

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