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POLARISATION

Submited To- Presented By-


Resp.Talib Sir Abhishek Verma[14EI02]
Dinesh Singh[14EI12]
CONTENTS
POLARISED AND UNPOLARISED LIGHT
POLARISATION
A. BY REFLECTION B. BY REFRACTION
NICOL PRISM
PLANE , CIRCULARLY AND ELLIPTICALLY POLARISED
LIGHT
OPTICAL ACTIVITY
SPECIFIC ROTATION
Polarized Light Un-polarized Light

Polarization is simply defined as a Un-polarized light is the light we


type of orientation of oscillations in generally see daily. Any source
a wave. Polarization of a wave of light generated as photons
describes the direction of oscillation have random directions of
of a wave with respect to the oscillations with respect to the
direction of propagation; therefore,
only transverse waves display direction of propagation. Un-
polarization. The oscillation of polarized light has intensity
particles in a longitudinal wave is components at every direction,
always in the direction of at all times. If un-polarized light
propagation; therefore, they do not is sent through a polarizer,
display polarization. polarized light can be obtained.
Polarisation By Reflection
Polarisation By
Refraction
Polarization can also occur by the refraction of light.
Refraction occurs when a beam of light passes from one
material into another material. At the surface of the two
materials, the path of the beam changes its direction. The
refracted beam acquires some degree of polarization. Most
often, the polarization occurs in a plane perpendicular to the
surface. The polarization of refracted light is often
demonstrated in a Physics class using a unique crystal that
serves as a double-refracting crystal. Iceland Spar, a rather
rare form of the mineral calcite, refracts incident light into
two different paths. The light is split into two beams upon
entering the crystal. Subsequently, if an object is viewed by
looking through an Iceland Spar crystal, two images will be
seen. The two images are the result of the double refraction
of light. Both refracted light beams are polarized - one in a
direction parallel to the surface and the other in a direction
perpendicular to the surface.
Nicol Prism
A device for producing plane-polarized light, consisting of two
pieces of optically clear calcite or Iceland spar cemented together
with Canada balsam in the shape of a prism.
Linear Polarization
A plane electromagnetic wave is said to be linearly polarized. The
transverse electric field wave is accompanied by a magnetic field
wave as illustrated.
Circular Polarization
Circularly polarized light consists of two perpendicular
electromagnetic plane waves of equal amplitude and 90 difference
in phase. The light illustrated is right- circularly polarized.
Elliptical Polarization
Elliptically polarized light consists of two perpendicular waves of
unequal amplitude which differ in phase by 90. The illustration
shows right- elliptically polarized light.
Optical Activ ity
Optical activity is the ability of a chiral molecule to rotate the plane
of plane-polairsed light, measured using a polarimeter.
When light passes through a sample that can rotate plane polarised
light, the light appears to dim because it no longer passes straight
through the polarising filters. The amount of rotation is quantified as
the number of degrees that the analysing lens must be rotated by so
that it appears as if no dimming of the light has occurred.
Specific Rotation
For an optically active substance, defined by
[] = /l,
where is the angle through which plane polarized light is rotated by
a solution of mass concentration and path length l. Here is the
Celsius temperature and the wavelength of the light at which the
measurement is carried out.