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Matter : a macro view
The three states of matter :
Solid Visible, tangible, rigid or plastic Liquid Visible, tangible, not rigid nor plastic, fluid Gas Particles can not be seen, intangible, highly compressible, capable of active movement
indefinite shape and indefinite volume The higher the temperature, the faster gas particles move and the larger the volume of space they will occupy. Properties that describe physical behavior of gases:
Amount of gas (usually measured in moles) Volume (Liters or milliliters) Pressure ( atmosphere ; 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 101 kPa) Temperature (Kelvin; K = oC + 273.15)
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
developed in the mid-19th century explains the gas laws.
Gases are made up of tiny, invisible, particles called molecules separated by great distances but are in a constant, random and straight line motion. Gas molecules collide with one another and with the walls of the container. Collisions are elastic: the total energy remains constant Kinetic energy of the gas molecules is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.
Gas molecules may be :
Monoatomic Diatomic Triatomic Tetratomic Pentatomic He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn H2, O2, N2, CO, Cl2 CO2, O3, NO2, SO2 NH3, C2H2, PH3 CH4
Boyle·s Law (Robert Boyle, 1662) For a fixed amount of gas at constant temperature(T), gas volume(V) is inversely proportional to gas pressure (P).
PV = c (constant) P1V1 = P2V2
Charle¶s Law (Jacques Charles, 1787) For a fixed amount of gas at constant P, V is directly proportional to the absolute T.
V/ T = c (constant) V1 V2
T2 T in K
Ideal Gas Equation PV = nRT
R = universal gas constant = 0.08205 L-atm/ mol-K P = atm T=K V=L n = number of moles of the gas n = mass of gas sample molecular mass of the gas
Dalton·s Law of Partial Pressure (John Dalton) The total pressure of a mixture of a gas is the sum of all the partial pressure of the components of the mixture.
PHe = 6 atm
Par= 2 atm
Ptotal= 8 atm
Graham·s Law of Diffusion Light gases move faster than heavy ones. The rates of diffusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular masses and their densities. Rate 1 = (M2)1/2 = (V2)1/2 Rate 2 = (M1)1/2 = (V1)1/2
Avogadro·s Law At fixed T and P, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the amount of gas. One mole of a gas at STP (1 atm, 0oC) occupies a volume of 22.4 L. One mole of a gas contains 6.02 x 1023 molecules.
Practically incompressible Indefinite shape but definite volume Diffuse slowly and evaporate from open containers Properties Surface tension Vapor pressure Viscosity Boiling pt Freezing pt
Surface Tension Energy or work required to increase the surface area of a liquid. Viscosity The resistance to flow. Vapor pressure Pressure exerted by a vapor (gas) with its liquid. Volatile ±high vapor pressure Non-volatile ±low vapor pressure
Interparticle Forces of Attraction
London Dispersion or induced dipole Non-polar molecules (CH4, H2, CO2) Dipole-dipole Polar molecules (H2O, NH3) H-bonding H attached to a highly electronegative atom like F, N, O, Cl, S (H2O, NH3 ) Ionic bonding Cations and anions or electrostatic (NaCl, CaO) Covalent Bonding Network of molecules (silicates, allotropes of C) Metallic Bonding Metals (Cu, Fe, Au)
Definite volumes and shapes Particles are packed against one another Particles vibrate about fixed points Maybe crystalline or amorphous Crystal lattice is due to strong interparticle forces of attraction
Homogenous mixtures Components Solute and solvent Solubility Maximum amount of solute which can dissolve in a given amount of solvent Concentration of solutions Dilute/concentrated Saturated/unsaturated/supersaturated
Factors affecting solubility
Factors affecting solubility
Nature of solute and solvent Like dissolves like Ionic and polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents like H2O Non-polar solutes dissolve in non-polar solvents Surface area Greater surface area means greater solubility Agitation Stirring aids solubility Temperature Generally, solubility of solutes increases with increase in T For gases, increase in T decreases solubility
Types of solutions
S L G S L G G
S S S L L L G
alloys ± steel, brass amalgams - Hg in metal H2 in palladium salt in water gasoline carbonated drinks air