MODULE 6 WXSMGLMSQIXV
stoy key ah¶ ma tree
deals with the quantities of materials consumed and produced in chemical reactions Atomic masses based on the assignment : 12C = 12 amu amu ± atomic mass units THE MOLE one mole = 6.022 x 1023 atoms, molecules, ions or formula units 6.022 x 1023 is the Avogadro¶s number
Sum of all the atomic masses in a chemical entity Expressed in amu
Also traditionally termed as molecular weight Expressed in grams/mole The formula mass and molar mass are numerically equal. Compound H2 CH4 Na2O Formula Mass 2(1.008) = 2.016 amu 12.01 + 4(1.008) = 16.042 amu 2(22.99) + 16.00 = 61.98 amu Molar mass 2.016 g/mol 16.042 g/mol 61.98 g/mol
1 mole of H2 1 mole of O
2.016 g of H2 16.99 g of O
6.02 x 1023 molecules of H2 6.02 x 1023 atoms of O
How many molecules of H2 are present in 25.0 g of H2? 25.0 g H2 x 1 mol H2 x 2.016 g H2 = 7.46 x 1024 molecules of H2 6.02 x 1023 molecules of H2 1 mol of H2
Percent composition of compounds
% by mass of each element in a compound The % by mass of each element in a given compound will always be the same. % mass = mass of the element in 1 mole of the compound mass of one mole of the compound What are the mass % C and %H in C2H5OH? Molar mass of C2H5OH = 2 (12.01) + 6 (1.008) + 16.00 = 46.068 g/mol 2 (12.01) g C %C= x 100 = 52.24% 46.068 g of C2H5OH %H= 6 (1.008) g H x 100 = 13.13% 46.068 g of C2H5OH
Simplest whole number ratio of the elements in a compound.
True formula of the compound
compound glucose water table salt benzene
true formula C6H12O6 H2O NaCl C6H6
empirical formula CH2O H2O NaCl CH
PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT!
What are the molar masses of the ff: CCl4, C6H12O6, MgSO4 Calculate for the number of moles of H2O, the number of molecules of H2O and the number of O atoms in 25.5 g of H2O.
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS/MATTER When substances react, matter is neither created nor destroyed
CH4 g) + 2 O2 (g)
CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)
one molecule two molecules
one molecule two molecules
Balancing chemical reactions
The kind and number of elements on the reactant side should be equal to the kind and number of atoms on the product side. Subscripts of the elements in a given compound can not be changed. Simplest whole number coefficients should be used as much as possible. Balance the reaction : N2 + H 2
N2+ 3H2 2NH3 Reactant side : 2N, 6H Product side : 2N, 6H
Stoichiometric calculations involving chemical equations
Balance the given reaction. Convert known masses of substance to moles. Set-up appropriate mole ratios according to the balanced equation. Calculate the number of moles of the desired reactant or product. Calculate from moles to grams, molecules or desired quantity.
GRAMS OF REACTANT
MOLES OF REACTANT
GRAMS OF PRODUCT
MOLES OF PRODUCT
Calculate the mass of water, the number of molecules of carbon dioxide produced when 50.25 g of CH4 undergoes combustion.
Balanced reaction: CH4(g) + 2O2(g) p CO2(g) + 2H2O Mole ratio : 1 CH4: 2O2:1CO2:2H2O Molar masses: CH4 = 16.042 g/mol , H2O = 18.006 g/mol Moles of CH4 = 50.25 g CH4 x 1 mole of CH4 = 3.132 moles 16.042 g of CH4
Mass of H2O = 3.132 mol CH4 x 2 mol H2O x 18.006 g H2O 1 mol CH4 = 112.8 g H2O Molecules of CO2= 3.132 mol CH4 x 1mol CO2 x 6.02 x 1023 molecules 1 mol CH4 = 1.886 x 1024 molecules of CO2 mol CO2 mol H2O
Reactant/reagent completely used up in the reaction
Again«practice makes perfect!
Calculate for the mass of H2O and the number of molecules of H2O that can be obtained when 20.75 g of H2 reacts with excess O2. H2 + O2 p H2O (unbalanced)