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Deals with energy changes and its flow from one system to another Explains why reactions occur The universe is made up of system (reaction vessel) and surroundings.
They occur by themselves without continuous outside assistance
May continue only as long as it receives some sort of outside assistance
Internal energy, (E Enthalpy, (H Entropy, (S Gibb¶s Free energy, (G (E, (H, (S and (G are state functions STATE FUNCTION Depends only on the final state of the system and not on the path taken by the system.
Internal Energy and Enthalpy
A change which lowers the energy of a system tends to occur spontaneously. (E = Efinal ± Einitial = q + w q is the heat: absorbed (+) or evolved (-) w is the work : done by the system (-), on the system (+) W = - P(V ; (V = Vfinal ± Vinitial Since PV = nRT for gases W = (nRT ; (n = nproducts- nreactants (H = Hproducts ± Hreactants = (E + P (V = qp
Degree of disorder of a system (S = Sfinal ± Sinitial Ssolid < Sliquid < Sgas Spontaneous reactions tend to go towards maximum disorder.
Gibb¶s Free Energy, (G
(G = (H - T(S (G < 0 reaction is spontaneous (G > 0 reaction is non-spontaneous (G = 0 reaction is at equilibrium
Choose the substance with the higher entropy:
Solid CO2(dry ice) and gaseous CO2
Predict the sign of the entropy change :
Sugar is added to a warm cup of coffee. Iodine vapor condenses on a cold surface to form crystals.
Thermodynamic Functions (G = (H - T(S
+ + + + spontaneous at high T spontaneous at low T spontaneous at all T non-spontaneous at all T
The Three Laws of Thermodynamics
First Law Energy of the universe is constant. Second Law The tendency of a system is to go towards maximum disorder. Third law The entropy of a perfectly crystalline solid is zero at 0 K.
Rates of Chemical Reactions
Reactants must collide to form products. Colliding units must be properly oriented Colliding units must have sufficient energy to react. Effective collisions make reactions possible.
Activation energy (Ea)
Minimum energy that must be overcome to produce a chemical reaction.
Transition state (T.S.)
A structure which shows bond breaking and bond formation Corresponds to the highest energy
Factors influencing the rate of chemical reactions
Concentration of reactants The more reactants present, the more frequent collisions, the faster is the reaction. Surface area The greater the surface area exposed, the faster the reaction. Temperature The higher the T, the faster the reaction. Catalyst Accelerates a reaction by providing a pathway of lower activation energy. Not used up in the reaction. Maybe of the same phase or different phase as the reactants.