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RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR

REFRIGERATION AND COOLING


Prof. Bob Critoph

WREN Seminar 2012


REQUIREMENTS FOR COOLING IN
REMOTE (and other!) AREAS :

1. Vaccines and medicines


2. Food preservation
3. Air Conditioning

WREN Seminar 2012


SOLAR VACCINE REFRIGERATORS:

- Photovoltaic refrigerators on the


market
- A few sorption machines in use
- Cost from $90 270 / Watt

Acceptable costs for a high value


application

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WREN Seminar 2012
BLM

GASPARD C200

200 litres, 10 kg ice/day

WREN Seminar 2012


REQUIREMENTS FOR COOLING IN
REMOTE AREAS :

1. Vaccines and medicines


2. Food preservation
3. Air Conditioning

WREN Seminar 2012


FOOD PRESERVATION

- Meat, fruits and fish


- Larger loads, 100 1000 kg ice /
day (350 3500 Watts)
- Acceptable cost about $30/Watt
Solar or Biomass heat source

WREN Seminar 2012


REQUIREMENTS FOR COOLING IN
REMOTE AREAS :

1. Vaccines and medicines


2. Food preservation
3. Air Conditioning

WREN Seminar 2012


REQUIREMENTS FOR COOLING IN
REMOTE (and other!) AREAS :

1. Vaccines and medicines


2. Food preservation
3. Air Conditioning
- Typical room load 3.5 kW
- Target cost < $1 / W

WREN Seminar 2012


Basic system scheme

chilled
water

Thermal
driven cooling
heat
process

conditioned
air

heat
storage? storage? room systems?
rejection?

WREN Seminar 2012


SUMMARY :
- Vaccine refrigerators
PVs on market
Sorption may prove lower cost
- Food storage
Big demand, especially for fish
catches
Solar but preferably biomass
powered for lower cost
- Air conditioning
Economic target very difficult to
achieve
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WREN Seminar 2012
2. Available technologies
2.1 Mechanical vapour compression with photovoltaics

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2. Available technologies
2.1 Mechanical vapour compression with photovoltaics

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2. Available technologies
2.1 Mechanical vapour compression with photovoltaics

35 m2 panel
Chilled to 7C

WREN Seminar 2012


2. Available technologies
2.1 Mechanical vapour compression with photovoltaics

WREN Seminar 2012


2. Available technologies
2.1 Mechanical vapour compression with photovoltaics

WREN Seminar 2012


2. Available technologies
2.1 Mechanical vapour compression with photovoltaics

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2. Available technologies
2.2 Continuous absorption cycle Ammonia-Water or LiBr-Water

Thermal
compressor
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2. Available technologies
2.2 Continuous absorption cycle Ammonia-Water or LiBr-Water
NH3 / H2O
Compact Design

Source: Pink
chillii PSC 10

WREN Seminar 2012


2. Available technologies
2.2 Continuous absorption cycle Ammonia-Water or LiBr-Water
H2O / Lithium Bromide
Compact Design

chillii WFC 18
Source: Yazaki

WREN Seminar 2012


WREN Seminar 2012
2. Available technologies
2.3 Intermittent absorption cycles e.g. Ammonia-water

WREN Seminar 2012


WREN Seminar 2012
2. Available technologies
2.4 Platen-Munters diffusion absorption (Electrolux) cycle

University of Applied Science, Stuttgart

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2. Available technologies
2.4 Platen-Munters diffusion absorption (Electrolux) cycle

University of Applied Science, Stuttgart

WREN Seminar 2012


2. Available technologies
2.4 Platen-Munters diffusion absorption (Electrolux) cycle

University of Applied Science, Stuttgart

WREN Seminar 2012


2. Available technologies
2.4 Platen-Munters diffusion absorption (Electrolux) cycle

DACM under test in


Stuttgart

University of Applied Science, Stuttgart

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2. Available technologies
2.5 Desiccant wheels

backup
heater

return
ex-
haust

humidifier cooling
loads
am-
bient
supply

desiccant rotor heat recovery

Source: H-M Henning

WREN Seminar 2012


2. Available technologies 80

2.5 Desiccant wheels


70

60

Temperatur [C]
50

40

30

20

10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

Absolute
absoluteHumidity [g/kg]
Feuchte [g/kg]
backup
heater

return
ex-
haust
humidifier cooling
loads
am-
bient
supply Source: H-M Henning
desiccant rotor heat recovery

WREN Seminar 2012


2. Available technologies
2.5 Desiccant wheels

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2. Available technologies
2.5 Liquid Desiccant Systems

- LiBr or LiCl in solution


- Heat and mass transfer by sprays or falling
films
- Similar thermodynamics and performance to
solid desiccants
- Care must be taken to avoid carry over of
desiccant to air stream

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2. Available technologies
2.5 Liquid Desiccant Systems

Liquid desiccant system schematic

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2. Available technologies
2.5 Liquid Desiccant Systems

Solar Desiccant Regenerator

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2. Available technologies
2.5 Intermittent adsorption cycles

These machines adsorb


refrigerant into a solid as the basis
of a refrigeration cycle.

It all started with Faraday in 1821

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2. Available technologies
2.5 Intermittent adsorption cycles

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2. Available technologies
2.5 Intermittent adsorption cycles
190 years later

Mycom Silica-gel water adsorption chiller

WREN Seminar 2012


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Manufacturer Cooling load, type
Mycom 70 kW H20/silica gel
Nishiyodo 105 kW H20/silica gel
Takeshima 176 kW H20/silica gel

WREN Seminar 2012


A two-bed ice-maker system under test in Arizona, May
2010

Cold box

Ice store

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REFRIGERANT REQUIREMENTS:

- HIGH LATENT HEAT PER UNIT VOLUME


- CHEMICAL STABILITY
- PRESSURE BETWEEN 1 AND 5 BAR
- NON POLLUTING

MAIN CONTENDERS:

- WATER
- METHANOL
- AMMONIA

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ADSORBENTS:

- SILICA GEL Low temperature lift

- ZEOLITES Low pore volume,


High temperature lift
- CARBONS High pore volume,
Medium lift

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3.ENERGY EFFICIENCY
COP = COOLING / HEAT INPUT
SOLAR COP = COOLING / SOLAR INPUT

COP SCOP
SIMPLE SORPTION 0.2 0.1
PLATEN MUNTERS 0.1 0.5 0.05 0.25
ADVANCED SORPTION 0.8 0.4
VAOUR COMPRESSION + PV 2.0 0.2
DESSICANT 0.6 0.3

WREN Seminar 2012


3. ENERGY EFFICIENCY
COP = COOLING / HEAT INPUT
SOLAR COP = COOLING / SOLAR INPUT
COP SCOP
SIMPLE SORPTION 0.2 0.1
PLATEN MUNTERS 0.1 0.5 0.05 0.25
ADVANCED SORPTION 0.8 0.4
VAOUR COMPRESSION + PV 2.0 0.2
DESSICANT 0.6 0.3
DOES IT MATTER?
What is lifetime cost in $/kWh?
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Basic thermodynamics
Temperature levels
driving heat solar collector
High
temperature, TH
environment,
e.g. cooling tower

heat rejection
medium
temperature,
usefultemperatue lift TM

DT = TM - TC r
useful cooling air-conditioning
low temperature, system
TC

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Basic thermodynamics

Coefficient of Carnot efficiency


performance COP factor
usefulcooling COP
COP= xCarnot= real
driving
heat COP
ideal

TC TH - TM
ideal=
COP 0.3 xCarnot 0.4
TH TM - TC
Reversible COPideal Typical range of
x Carnot for real
machines:

WREN Seminar 2012


COP of heat driven water chillers
1.80

1.60
2-effect
1.40 absorption
ideal * 0.5
1.20

1.00
COP

0.80

0.60
1-effect
temperature of 0.40 absorption
chilled water:
8C 0.20
adsorption
temperature of 0.00
cooling water: 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150
28C
Hot water inlet [C[

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Thermodynamic analysis

Why doSeminar
WREN different systems
2012
Adaption of technology to climate and
load conditions
climatic
conditions

load cooling
conditions technology

solar
collector

WREN Seminar 2012


chilled
water
chilled water system (e.g.
system (e.g. fan-coil), air
COP / fan-coil), wet cooled
Carnot cooling tower

low exergy
cooling
(e.g. chilled
ceiling)

high T-lift
system in hot
climate (e.g.
ice storage, air
cooled)

WREN Seminar 2012


chilled
water
COP / chilled water system (e.g.
Carnot system (e.g. fan-coil), air
fan-coil), wet cooled
cooling tower

low exergy
cooling
(e.g. chilled
ceiling)

high T-lift
system in hot
climate (e.g.
ice storage, air
cooled)

WREN Seminar 2012


chilled
COP / water
Carnot chilled water system (e.g.
system (e.g. fan-coil), air
fan-coil), wet cooled
cooling tower

low exergy
cooling
(e.g. chilled
ceiling)

high T-lift
system in hot
climate (e.g.
ice storage, air
cooled)

WREN Seminar 2012


COP /
Carnot chilled
water
chilled water system (e.g.
system (e.g. fan-coil), air
fan-coil), wet cooled
cooling tower

low exergy
cooling
(e.g. chilled
ceiling)

high T-lift
system in hot
flat plate collector climate (e.g.
ice storage, air
cooled)

WREN Seminar 2012


Cooling with low driving tempertature

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COP /
Carnot chilled
water
chilled water system (e.g.
system (e.g. fan-coil), air
fan-coil), wet cooled
cooling tower

low exergy
cooling
(e.g. chilled
ceiling)

high T-lift
evacuated tube system in hot
collector climate (e.g.
flat plate collector
ice storage, air
cooled)

WREN Seminar 2012


Fan-coil system single-effect absorption
chiller fan
coils

backup
heater

buffer
storage absorpt.
chiller

WREN Seminar 2012


COP /
Carnot chilled
water
chilled water system (e.g.
system (e.g. fan-coil), air
fan-coil), wet cooled
cooling tower

low exergy
cooling
(e.g. chilled
ceiling)
1-axis tracking
concentrated collector
high T-lift
evacuated tube system in hot
collector climate (e.g.
flat plate collector
ice storage, air
cooled)

WREN Seminar 2012


Fan-coil system double-effect absorption
chiller fan
coils

backup
heater

buffer
storage absorpt.
chiller

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System for hot climate
fan
dry coils
cooling

absorpt.
chiller

ice
storage

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4. Examples of solar air
conditioning installations:

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WREN Seminar
Dessau, Germany 2012
Federal Environmental Agency
Dessau, Germany Federal Environmental Agency

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Dessau, 345m2 evacuated tubes (242 kW)

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Dessau, 345m2 evacuated tubes (242 kW)

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Shanghai, China, solar assisted single stage absorption, 80 kW
180 m2 evacuated tubes

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Fukushima, Japan, solar assisted double effect

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Phitsanulok, Thailand University Energy Park
35kW Single stage absorption, 72 m2 evacuated tubes

WREN Seminar 2012


WREN Seminar 2012
Water chillers - market available
systems
water chillers produce chilled water which can supply any type of
air-conditioning equipment (e.g. air handling units, fan-coils, chilled
ceilings,....)
single-effect absorption many products for cooling power > 100 kW; few
products <100 kW; refrigerant/sorption pair
either water/LiBr or ammonia/water

double-effect several manufacturers; often direct fired


absorption systems; no products <100 kW;
refrigerant/sorption pair in most cases
water/LiBr

adsorption two commercially available systems (Japan);


refrigerant/sorption pair water/silica gel
Sortech and Invensor Germany, Sorption
Energy
jet cycle
tailor-made sytems for large capacities;
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refrigerant water
Summary

Many different technologies market available


for using solar thermal energy for air-
conditioning of buildings
Selection of technology depends on the
specific conditions of load and site
Thermodynamic analysis may help to select
the appropriate concept for given
climate/load conditions

WREN Seminar 2012


Outlook
Increasing importance of heat driven cooling due to
increasing electricity prices and electricity supply
shortages
Potential heat sources: industrial waste heat, heat from co-
generation, district heat, solar thermal energy
Today: mainly large plants for centralized cooling
Near future: thermally driven cooling equipment in the small
power range (about 20 kW and below) ==> new market
segments accessible (e.g. solar combi-systems with
cooling)
Long term: development of heat driven systems to replace
decentralized room air conditioners (e.g. split systems)
remains a challenge

WREN Seminar 2012


Solar Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration
Task 38 in the Solar Heating and Cooling
Programme
Subtask A Subtask B
Pre-engineered systems Custom-made systems
for residential and small for large non-residential
commercial applications buildings and industrial
applications
Subtask C
Modeling and fundamental analysis

Subtask D
Market transfer activities

2006 - 2010
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IEA SHC Task 48
Quality assurance and support measures for
Solar Cooling
http://www.ieashc.org/task48/index.html

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C O N C L U S IO N :
RENEW ABLE ENERGY CAN M EET THE
R E Q U IR E M E N T S F O R C O O L IN G :
V a c c in e s a n d m e d ic in e s
F o o d p r e s e r v a tio n
A ir c o n d it io n in g
A ll o f th e s e c a n b e m a d e c o s t-e ffe c tiv e
P R O V ID E D th e y a r e a p p lie d a p p r o p r ia te ly a n d
d e s ig n e d w e ll.

WREN Seminar 2012