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Seminar Presentation


( 1DT14EC407)

Under the guidance of

Mr. Hareesh Kumar
Assistant Professor
Underwater Acoustics is the study of propagation of sound in water &
interaction of mechanical waves that constitute with water & its
Underwater Acoustics is also known as HYDROACOUSTICS
Typical frequencies associated with Underwater Acoustics are 10Hz to
MODEM Is used to transmit and receive data underwater, much as
telephone modems are used to transmit data over phone lines.
Converts digital data into special underwater sound signals.
Literature Survey


B. Benson In this paper they have

Design of a low-cost Ying Li designed an underwater
underwater acoustic modem Brian Faunce acoustic modem starting
Kenneth Domond with the most critical
Don Kimball component from a cost
Literature Survey


In this paper a new acoustic

A low cost and high A. Sanchez modem specifically designed
efficient acoustic modem for B. S. Blanc to underwater sensor
underwater sensor networks C. P. Yuste networks deployment
D. J.J. Serrano focusing on cost and power
Literature Survey


Designing an Adaptive Lingjuan Wu In this paper acoustic

Acoustic Modem for Jennifer Trezzo modem that adapts its data
Underwater Sensor Diba Mirza rate and modulation scheme
Networks Paul Roberts to the channel conditions.
Jules Jaffe
System Requirements
Applications: Voice communication modems and command-and-
control modems technology is much more better than image streaming
Cost: Typically between $5,000 and $50,000 per unit, depending on
the complexity and performance.
Size: The size varies from 0.05 m diameter by 0.1 m in length, to 0.1 m
in diameter by 0.5 m in length.
Power: The power consumption depends on the range and modulation
Data rate: Underwater acoustic modems designed to operate very
reliably in challenging and less challenging environments.
Range: Underwater acoustic modem depends on the operating
frequency of the acoustic modem.
Block Diagram
1) A power unit, which has a battery and a set of DC/DC converters.
2) A processing unit, which usually consists of a small processor and
memory (sometimes, it can be added as an external memory)
3) The physical hydrophone and loudspeaker.
4) Circuitry (used to adapt the digital signals to the processor) and the
analog to digital converter and the digital to analog converter to adapt
changes between the medium and the electric circuit.
The commercial modems use RS-232 or USB port to download some
data stored in the device or to program it. Parameters such as temperate,
depth, water pressure can difficult the data transmission. More
transmission power means more energy consumption. For this reason
network development strategies must be focused on energy efficiency
and should consider the number of wireless links, power requirements,
and fabrication cost.
1. Devices developed by research groups
2.Commercial devices
Modem Modulation CF BW Data rate TX RX Power Idle Power Max
Power cmpn cmpn Distance
Ref[2] FSK 320- 1khz 96bps & 12miliw 24miliw 3microw 100m
10khz 2400bps
Ref[5] BPSK 80Khz n/a 80kbps n/a n/a n/a 50m

Ref[3] FSK 9khz n/a 1900bps n/a n/a n/a 200m

Modem Modulation CF BW Data rate TX RX Power Idle Power Max

Power cmpn cmpn Distance
Modem n/a 9.75khz 4.5khz 2000bps 20w 0.6w 1mw 5000m
Comm n/a 23khz 14khz 480bps 1.8w 0.252w 1.8mw 1000m
Benthos PSK 18khz 5khz 15360bps 20w 0.768w 16.8mw 6000m
Relationship between working
frequency and maximum distance
Software and Simulation
NS2 Network Simulator [4]
NS2 usually assumes a fixed bandwidth used by
layers higher than the propagation and channel model, authors provided
new modules for each network layer.
Aqua Sim Network Simulator [6]
Aqua Sim can simulate the collision behaviors in long delay acoustic
This simulator is able to simulate three-dimensional network
deployment and authors added several protocol definitions to make it
more accurate.
NS2 Simulator
The propagation model in
NS2 is designed to calculate
the signal to noise ratio at
the receiver node. The
ambient noise, attenuation,
underwater absorption.

These are some of them:

Oceanographers use acoustics to control underwater instruments
and acquire the data that they collect remotely.
Monitoring the effects of climate change
Military purposes
Assisted navigation
Accuracy and Efficiency.
It can also be used for underwater telemetry.
Acoustic waves are the single best solution for communicating

Range and depth communication over short distances is quite
Battery power is limited.
Conclusion and Future Work
In this presentation we have studied the types of devices we can
currently find on the market and the main quality requirements
they should present. Devices developed and tested by research
groups have been compared with commercial devices.

As future work, we can perform a new study for comparing the

underwater acoustic communications and the devices used with
this technology and underwater communications based on
electromagnetic waves.
[1] B. Benson et al., Design of a low-cost underwater acoustic modem, IEEE
Embedded System. Sep 2010.
[2] A. Snchez, S. Blanc, P. Yuste, A. Perles, and J. J. Serrano, An ultra-low power and
flexible acoustic modem design to develop energy-efficient underwater sensor
networks June 2012.
[3] L. Wu et al., Designing an adaptive acoustic modem for underwater sensor
networks, IEEE Embedded System. March 2010.
[4] A. F. Harris, III, and M. Zorzi, Modeling the underwater acoustic channel in ns2,
in Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Perform. Eval. Methodol. Tools, Nantes, France, Oct. 2007
[5] N. Nowsheen, C. Benson, and M. Frater, A high data-rate, software dened
underwater acoustic modem, May 2010.
[6] P. Xie et al., Aqua-Sim: An NS-2 based simulator for underwater sensor networks,
in Proc. MTS/IEEE Biloxi-Marine Technol. Future, Global Local Challenges
(OCEANS), Biloxi, MS, USA, Oct. 2009