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SPECIAL PENAL LAWS

JOSE ARTURO C. DE CASTRO, J.D., LL.M., J.S.D.

RPC & SPLs

Nature-Based Classification of Crimes Distinguish Mala In Se and Mala Prohibita Cases:

U.S. v. Go Chico, 14 Phil. 128 (1909) Padilla v. Dizon, 158 SCRA 127 (1988) Estrada v. Sandiganbayan, 369 SCRA 394 (2001) Go v. SB, G.R.No. 172602, Sept. 3, 2007 Teves v. COMELEC, G.R.No. 180363, April 28, 2009

RPC & SPLs con’t 1…

Mala Prohibita

Actus Reus

Wrongful Act

Wrong only because the law criminally prohibits the act or omission

Mens Rea

Voluntariness Intelligence Freedom of Action Intent to Perform the Act Criminal Intent not necessary. Good faith not a defense.

RPC & SPLs con’t 2…

Mala In se

Actus Reus

Wrongful Act = Inherently evil

Mens Rea

Voluntariness Intelligence Freedom of Action Intent to Perform the Act

The act intended being inherently evil,criminal or evil intent flows as a matter of course.

Good faith, a defense

RPC & SPLs cont’d 3…

Relationship between RPC and SPLs (Art.10, RPC) Cases:

Sanchez v. People, G.R.No. 179090, June 5, 2009 People v. Saley, 291 SCRA 715 (1998) People v. Simon, 234 SCRA 555 (1994) Ladonga v. People, 451 SCRA 673 (2005) People v. Bustinera, 431 SCRA 284 (2004) Go-Tan v. Tan, 567 SCRA 231 (2008) People v. Velasco, G.R.No. 110592, Jan. 23, 1996

Bouncing Checks Law (B.P. 22)

Rationale/Purpose? Punishable Acts? Malum Prohibitum or Malum In Se? Evidence of knowledge of insufficient funds (§2) Duty of drawee; Prima Facie evidence (§3) Related Issuances:

SC Administrative Circular No. 12-2000 SC Administrative Circular No. 13-2001

Bouncing Checks Law, cont’d 1…

Cases:

Cueme v. People, G.R.No. 133325, June 30, 2000 Lim v. People, 340 SCRA 497 (2000) Nierras v. Dacuycuy, 181 SCRA 1 Ambito v. People, G.R.No. 127327, Feb.13, 2009 Dy v. People, G.R.No. 158312, Nov.14, 2008 Yap v. Cabales, G.R.No. 159186, June 5, 2009 Wong v. CA, G.R.No. 117857, Feb.2, 2001 People v. Gorospe, 157 SCRA 154 Llamado v. CA, 270 SCRA 423 Que v. People, 154 SCRA 160 Sycip Jr. v. CA, G.R.No. 125059, March 17, 2000 Vaca v. CA, G.R.No. 131714, Nov. 1998

Bouncing Checks Law, cont’d 2…

Cabrera v. CA, G.R.No. 150618, July 24, 2003 Svendsen v. People, G.R.No. 175381, Feb. 26, 2008 Magno v. CA, G.R.No. 96132, June 26, 1992 People v. Nitafan, 214 SCRA 79 Tan v. Mendez, G.R.No. 138669, June 6, 2002 Lunaria v. People, G.R.No. 160127, Nov.11, 2008 Lao v. CA, 274 SCRA 572 Tan v. People, G.R.No. 141466, Jan. 19, 2001 Bautista v. CA, 360 SCRA 618 People v. Balasa, G.R.No. 106357, Sept.3, 1998 San Mateo v. People, G.R.No. 200090, March 6, 2013 Dichaves v. Judge Apalit, A.M. MTJ-CC-1274, June 8, 2000 Resterio v. People, G.R.No. 177438, Sept. 24, 2012 King v. People, G.R.No. 131540, Dec.2, 1999

Bouncing Checks Law, cont’d 3…

Compare B.P. 22 with Estafa under Art. 315(2)(d), RPC, as amended by P.D.

818.

Cases:

Castro v. Mendoza, G.R.No. 50173, Sept. 21, 1993 Cajigas v. People, G.R.No. 156541, Feb.23, 2009 People v. Cardenas, G.R.No. 178064, Feb.10, 2009 Dy v. People, G.R.No. 158312, Nov. 14, 2008 Lim v. People, G.R.No. 130038, Sept. 18, 2000 Uy v. CA, G.R.No. 119000, July 28, 1997

PD 1689 (Increasing Penalty for Estafa) Cases:

Guy v. CA, G.R.No. 187919, April 25, 2012 Catiis v. CA, G.R.No. 153979, Feb.6, 2006

Anti-Carnapping Law

Anti-Carnapping Act (RA 10883) Purpose? What is Carnapping? Elements? (Sec.3) What is a Motor Vehicle under RA 10883? Compare with old law (RA 6539, as amended). Cases:

People v. Bustinera, 431 SCRA 254 (2004) People v. Lagat, G.R.No. 187044, Sept. 14, 2011 People v. Nocum, G.R.No. 179041, April 1, 2013 Dimat v. People, G.R.No. 181184, Jan. 25, 2012

Anti-Carnapping Law, cont’d 1…

Other Offenses?

Concealment of Carnapping (Sec.4)

Other Unlawful Acts? Cases:

People v. Tan, G.R.No. 135904, Jan. 21, 2000 People v. Ellasos, G.R.No. 139323, June 6, 2001 People v. Mejia, G.R.Nos. 118940-411, July 7, 1997

Anti-Fencing Law (PD 1612)

Purpose? What is Fencing? Elements? Is it Malum in se or Malum Prohibita? Presumption of Fencing Cases:

Tan v. People, G.R.No. 134298, Aug. 26, 1999 Dimat v. People, G.R.No. 181184, Jan.25, 2012 Dunlao v. CA, G.R.No. 111343, Aug.22, 1996

Arson

History Purpose? Malum in se or Malum prohibitum? Offenses covered:

Arson (§1) Destructive Arson (§2 [1 to 7]) Other Cases of Arson (§3[1 to 6]) Conspiracy to commit Arson (§7)

Aggravating Circumstances in Arson (§§4 &5) Prima Facie Evidence of Arson (§6 [1-7]) What happens to the object of Arson?

Arson cont’d 1…

Cases:

People v. Gutierrez, 258 SCRA 70 (1996) People v. De Leon, G.R.No. 180762, March 4, 2009 People v. Oliva, G.R.No. 122110, Sept. 26, 2000 People v. Omotoy, G.R.No. 112719, Jan. 29, 1997