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Labor and Corporations

CAS 202: Asian Sites, Global Questions II
March 16, 2017

E-Governance and ICTs
• Producing efficient, speedy and transparent governance system
• Consultative systems for the working of government
• Increasing participation from participants, civil society
organizations, corporations, and non-governmental

E-government is divided into three forms:
• government-to-business (G2B),
• government-to-government (G2G),
• and government-to-citizens (G2C)

Internet penetration rates in Asia. Mid-2016. .

.Mobile phone penetration rates in Asia. 2015.

E-participation scores in Asia. 2015 [UN] .

2015 [UN] .E-participation scores in Asia.

The mobile phone is every Filipino’s main accessory. sending an average of 2 billion SMS /day! . and rightfully so.The Philippines is recognized as the TEXT capital of the world.

Philippines • Documenting violations .Mass-media. and social movements • Public Sphere • Mobilizing • Organizing • Gathering Support • Circulating Information 2001 “Coup de Text”. Crowds.

Crowds.Mass-media. and social movements • Public Sphere • Mobilizing • Organizing • Gathering Support • Circulating Information • Documenting violations .

Digitization. privatization and monopolies Private Corporations .

Pirate or Recycled Modernity .

Pirate or Recycled Modernity and ICT access .

and Capitalism . Cities.Films.

Films & Pan-Asianism: Asiawood India – China Productions India – South Korea Film circuits South Korea. China . Hong Kong.

Tunisia. India. Bangladesh. Beirut. Egypt. Pakistan.Films and Imagined Communities Turkey. .

The ICTs are also increasingly enmeshed with governance. There is an increasing privatization of ICT in Asia. 4. and so on]. business. news. 3. communication. The informationalization involves setting up of material networks such as satellite systems and undersea fibre-optic cables that allow for transfer of information [radio. 2. Globalization since the 1980s has been shaped by ‘informationalization’ of manufacturing and service economies [Manuel Castells]. data. What does this mean for access to ICTs. 5. imagining communities. television.1. allowing multinational corporations [both Asian and non-Asian] to own ICT networks [except China and Singapore: state-owned corporations]. and entertainment. and democracy? . cell phones.

In the context of privatization and monopolization of ICTs by the State and Private MNC’s: • What are the avenues for democratising ICTs? • Are piracy and recycled forms of ICTs a form of democracy? .

digitizing land]. .Entrepreneurial State in Asia • A competition amongst not just countries but also regions to attract Foreign Direct Investment and Multi-National Corporations in their regions. TATA Automobile plant moved from • Provision of tax benefits and cheap West Bengal to Gujarat land through land concessions and dispossession. acquiring land. • Provision of infrastructure for setting up industrial networks [investment in ICT. roads.

.− Setting limits on minimum wage in regions to provide cheap and skilled labor. − A strong police and military to control labor protests.

.Lowering the minimum wages below China to attract Foreign Direct Investment.

Corporations and Impact of Labor in Asia Malaysia [Free Trade Zones for Electronics] .

1970s] The modernization of agricultural economies in 1970s towards export- oriented plantation economy.Malaysia [Free Trade Zones for Electronics. .

.Malaysia [Free Trade Zones for Electronics. − 1970s oil crisis pushed US. 1970s] − A shift towards export-oriented industrial growth. Europe and Japan to look for cheaper labor. − Hiring at least 40 percent Malays. − Between 1970-1980 Malaysian government set up 9 Free-Trade- Zones.

6. The “oriental girl’ with nimble fingers for detailed work. Short-term contracts to keep the flow of young women workers.1. Feminization of work. An international division of labor. 3. 2. From peasant workers to industrial workers + autonomous work to capitalist discipline. . Refusal to unionize workers. 4. Reproducing gender and ethnic hierarchies. 5.

Foxconn .

and supply of new and young migrant labor. tax benefits. infrastructure.” 5. Strong control over worker’s organizations and wages to keep production costs low. 3.’ 4. 2. Partnering with education departments to provide interns as ‘free-workers. Provision of cheap land. Providing Foxconn monopoly over investment as well as labor.Attracting Foxconn in China 1. . Opening up new regions for investment “Go west policy.

Reversal in feminization of electronic manufacturing: hiring male workers for around the clock work. Hierarchy in work: constant supervision by line-supervisors. Just in-time production. 2. 5. 3. Specialization of tasks: monotonous and repetitive movements. Exclusion from social networks to avoid lowering productivity. 6. Setting up of dormitories. . by setting daily productivity levels.Capitalist Discipline of Work 1. where laborers live. 4.

Spirit Possession And Suicides .

• What is the role of the state in such a context? • Is it possible to have universal wages in a globalized world? • What is the role of ICTs? . allowing for capital accumulation and economic growth.Graduated Sovereignty Neoliberal state collaborating with private corporations by providing infrastructural support and ensuring law and order.