# DIMENSIONAL ENGINEERING

Based on the ASME Y14.5MY14.5M1994 Dimensioning and Tolerancing Standard

INTRODUCTION Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) is an international engineering language that is used on engineering drawings (blue prints) to describe product in three dimensions. GD&T uses a series of internationally recognized symbols rather than words to describe the product. These symbols are applied to the features of a part and provide a very concise and clear definition of design intent. GD&T is a very precise mathematical language that describes the form, orientation and location of part features in zones of tolerance. These zones of tolerance are then described relative to a Cartesian coordinate system. ASME Y14.5M-1994 American national Standards Institute/American Society of Mechanical Engineers

Tolerances of Form

Straightness (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.1)

Flatness (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.2)

Circularity (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.3)

Cylindricity (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.4)

1 (LMC) 25.1 25 25 (MMC) 25.Extreme Variations of Form Allowed By Size Tolerance 25.1 (LMC) 25 (MMC) MMC Perfect Form Boundary 25.1 (LMC) Internal Feature of Size .

Extreme Variations of Form Allowed By Size Tolerance
25 24.9

24.9 (LMC)

25 (MMC)

24.9 (LMC)

MMC Perfect Form Boundary

25 (MMC)

24.9 (LMC)

External Feature of Size

Straightness
(Flat Surfaces)
0.5 0.1

25 +/-0.25

0.1 Tolerance 0.5 Tolerance

Straightness is the condition where an element of a surface or an axis is a straight line

Straightness
(Flat Surfaces)
0.5 Tolerance Zone

25.25 max 24.75 min

0.1 Tolerance Zone

In this example each line element of the surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines separated by the specified tolerance value applied to each view. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the applicable straightness limit.

The straightness tolerance is applied in the view where the elements to be controlled are represented by a straight line

1 Tolerance Zone MMC In this example each longitudinal element of the surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines separated by the specified tolerance value. Any barreling or waisting of the feature must not exceed the size limits of the feature. .Straightness (Surface Elements) 0.1 0.1 Tolerance Zone MMC 0. The feature must be within the limits of size and the boundary of perfect form at MMC.1 Tolerance Zone MMC 0.

Each circular element of the feature must be within the specified limits of size. However.1 Diameter Tolerance Zone MMC Outer Boundary (Max) Outer Boundary = Actual Feature Size + Straightness Tolerance In this example the derived median line of the feature·s actual local size must lie within a tolerance zone defined by a cylinder whose diameter is equal to the specified tolerance value regardless of the feature size.Straightness (RFS) 0. the boundary of perfect form at MMC can be violated up to the maximum outer boundary or virtual condition diameter. .1 0.

the boundary of perfect form at MMC can be violated up to the virtual condition diameter. the diameter of the tolerance cylinder is allowed to increase by an amount equal to the departure from the local MMC size.Straightness (MMC) 15 14.85 (LMC) 0.1 Virtual Condition Virtual Condition = MMC Feature Size + Straightness Tolerance In this example the derived median line of the feature¶s actual local size must lie within a tolerance zone defined by a cylinder whose diameter is equal to the specified tolerance value at MMC. Each circular element of the feature must be within the specified limits of size. . However. As each circular element of the feature departs from MMC.25 Diameter Tolerance Zone 15.1 Diameter Tolerance Zone 15.1 M 15 (MMC) 0.85 0.1 Virtual Condition 14.

25 max In this example the entire surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes separated by the specified tolerance value. Flatness is the condition of a surface having all elements in one plane. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the flatness limit. Flatness must fall within the limits of size.1 25 +/-0. The flatness tolerance must be less than the size tolerance.1 Tolerance Zone 24.75 min 25.Flatness 0.25 0. .1 Tolerance Zone 0.

Circularity is the condition of a surface where all points of the surface intersected by any plane perpendicular to a common axis are equidistant from that axis.Circularity (Roundness) 0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone In this example each circular element of the surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two concentric circles separated by the specified tolerance value. The circularity tolerance must be less than the size tolerance .1 90 0. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the circularity limit.1 90 0.

straightness.1 0. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the cylindricity limit. Cylindricity is a composite control of form which includes circularity (roundness).Cylindricity 0. . and taper of a cylindrical feature. Cylindricity is the condition of a surface of revolution in which all points are equidistant from a common axis.1 Tolerance Zone MMC In this example the entire surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two concentric cylinders separated by the specified tolerance value.

straightness straight perfect form cylindricity angularity flatness tapered profile circularity true position Answer questions #6-10 True or False 6. 7. ____________ and ___________ are individual line or circular element (2-D) controls. The four form controls are ____________. Form controls require a datum reference. . 9. Size limits implicitly control a feature¶s form. and ____________. Circularity can be applied to both ________and _______ cylindrical parts. 3. 10. Form controls do not directly control a feature¶s size. A feature¶s form tolerance must be less than it¶s size tolerance.Form Control Quiz Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. ___________. Flatness controls the orientation of a feature. ________ and ____________are surface (3-D) controls. Rule #1 states that unless otherwise specified a feature of size must have ____________at MMC. 5. 4. 2. ________. 8.

3) .6.6.6.5M-1994 .2) Perpendicularity (ASME Y14.Tolerances of Orientation Angularity (ASME Y14.6.6.4) Parallelism (ASME Y14.6.5M-1994 .5M-1994 .

5 min 20.5 max 30 o 30 o A 0. . within the specified tolerance zone. Angularity is the condition of the planar feature surface at a specified angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference plane.3 Wide Tolerance Zone The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented at the specified angle to the datum reference plane.3 Wide Tolerance Zone A 0.3 A 30 o A 19.5 0.Angularity (Feature Surface to Datum Surface) 20 +/-0.

Angularity (Feature Axis to Datum Surface) NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS 0. A Angularity is the condition of the feature axis at a specified angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference plane.3 Circular Tolerance Zone 60 o A The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature. within the specified tolerance zone.3 Circular Tolerance Zone 0.3 A 0. oriented at the specified angle to the datum reference plane. .

3 Circular Tolerance Zone Datum Axis A The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature. Angularity is the condition of the feature axis at a specified angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference axis.3 Circular Tolerance Zone 45 o 0.Angularity (Feature Axis to Datum Axis) NOTE: Feature axis must lie within tolerance zone cylinder 0. within the specified tolerance zone. oriented at the specified angle to the datum reference axis. .3 A NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS A 0.

A Perpendicularity is the condition of the planar feature surface at a right angle to the datum reference plane.3 Wide Tolerance Zone 0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone A The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented perpendicular to the datum reference plane. within the specified tolerance zone.Perpendicularity (Feature Surface to Datum Surface) 0.3 A A 0. .

3 Circular Tolerance Zone 0. Perpendicularity is the condition of the feature axis at a right angle to the datum reference plane. within the specified tolerance zone. .3 C The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature.3 Diameter Tolerance Zone NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS 0.Perpendicularity (Feature Axis to Datum Surface) 0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone C 0. oriented perpendicular to the datum reference plane.

Perpendicularity is the condition of the feature axis at a right angle to the datum reference axis.Perpendicularity (Feature Axis to Datum Axis) NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS 0. . within the specified tolerance zone.3 Wide Tolerance Zone Datum Axis A The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented perpendicular to the datum reference axis.3 A A 0.

5 A 0.3 A 25 +/-0. .Parallelism (Feature Surface to Datum Surface) 0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone 25.3 Wide Tolerance Zone 0.5 max 24.5 min A The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented parallel to the datum reference plane. A Parallelism is the condition of the planar feature surface equidistant at all points from the datum reference plane. within the specified tolerance zone.

. A Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant along its length from the datum reference plane.3 A 0.Parallelism (Feature Axis to Datum Surface) NOTE: The specified tolerance does not apply to the orientation of the feature axis in this direction NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS 0. within the specified tolerance zone.3 Wide Tolerance Zone A The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented parallel to the datum reference plane.

3 Circular Tolerance Zone B A The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature. within the specified tolerance zone.Parallelism (Feature Axis to Datum Surfaces) 0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone B NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS 0. oriented parallel to the datum reference planes. A Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant along its length from the two datum reference planes. .3 Circular Tolerance Zone 0.3 A B 0.

1 Circular Tolerance Zone Datum Axis A Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant along its length from the datum reference axis. within the specified tolerance zone. .1 Circular Tolerance Zone 0. NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS 0. oriented parallel to the datum reference axis.1 A A 0.Parallelism (Feature Axis to Datum Axis) The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature.

A _______________ is always required when applying any of the orientation controls. Orientation tolerance zones can be cylindrical. ___________. Orientation tolerances indirectly control a feature¶s form. The three orientation controls are __________. . 7. ________________ is the appropriate geometric tolerance when controlling the orientation of a feature at right angles to a datum reference. To apply an angularity tolerance the desired angle must be indicated as a basic dimension. Orientation tolerances do not control the ________ of a feature. 4. 9. To apply a perpendicularity tolerance the desired angle must be indicated as a basic dimension. and ________________. 10. 8. 2. 5.Orientation Control Quiz Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. Mathematically all three orientation tolerances are _________. 3. perpendicularity datum feature angularity datum target location identical datum reference parallelism profile Answer questions #6-10 True or False 6. Parallelism tolerances do not apply to features of size.

7.1.1.5M-1994 .1) Total Runout (ASME Y14. 6.2.5M-1994.6.2.Tolerances of Runout Circular Runout (ASME Y14.2) .7.

Features Applicable to Runout Tolerancing Internal surfaces constructed around a datum axis External surfaces constructed around a datum axis Datum axis (established from datum feature Angled surfaces constructed around a datum axis Datum feature Surfaces constructed perpendicular to a datum axis .

. Each individual circular element of the surface is independently allowed the full specified tolerance. Maximum Minimum Full Indicator Movement Maximum Reading Minimum Reading 0 + - Measuring position #1 (circular element #1) Full Part Rotation Measuring position #2 (circular element #2) When measuring circular runout.Circular Runout Total Tolerance Circular runout can only be applied on an RFS basis and cannot be modified to MMC or LMC. but not 3-dimensional characteristics such as surface profile (overall form) or surface wobble (overall orientation). the indicator must be reset to zero at each measuring position along the feature surface. circular runout can be used to detect 2dimensional wobble (orientation) and waviness (form). In this example.

75 A A 50 +/-0.2 As Shown on Drawing Means This: Allowable indicator reading = 0.25 o o 50 +/. the indicator must be reset when repositioned along the feature surface. Datum axis A 360 o Part Rotation NOTE: Circular runout in this example only controls the 2-dimensional circular elements (circularity and coaxiality) of the angled feature surface not the entire angled feature surface Single circular element .75 max.Circular Runout (Angled Surface to Datum Axis) 0. Full Indicator Movement ( ) 0 + The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. Collet or Chuck When measuring circular runout. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface.

Allowable indicator reading = 0. the indicator must be reset when repositioned along the feature surface.Circular Runout (Surface Perpendicular to Datum Axis) 0.25 As Shown on Drawing Means This: The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface.75 A A 50 +/-0. 360 o Part Rotation Datum axis A NOTE: Circular runout in this example will only control variation in the 2-dimensional circular elements of the planar surface (wobble and waviness) not the entire feature surface .75 max. 0 Single circular element + When measuring circular runout.

25 As Shown on Drawing Means This: The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. Single circular element 360 o Part Rotation Datum axis A NOTE: Circular runout in this example will only control variation in the 2-dimensional circular elements of the surface (circularity and coaxiality) not the entire feature surface . When measuring circular runout. + 0 - Allowable indicator reading = 0. the indicator must be reset when repositioned along the feature surface. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface.75 max.Circular Runout (Surface Coaxial to Datum Axis) 0.75 A A 50 +/-0.

When measuring circular runout. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface. Machine center Single circular element Datum axis A-B 360 o Part Rotation Machine center NOTE: Circular runout in this example will only control variation in the 2-dimensional circular elements of the surface (circularity and coaxiality) not the entire feature surface . the indicator must be reset when repositioned along the feature surface. + 0 - Allowable indicator reading = 0.Circular Runout (Surface Coaxial to Datum Axis) 0.75 A-B A B As Shown on Drawing Means This: The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis.75 max.

25 B As Shown on Drawing Means This: The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is located against the datum surface and rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface. Single circular element Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 A B 50 +/-0. Datum plane A .Circular Runout (Surface Related to Datum Surface and Axis) A 0.75 max. Stop collar 360 o Part Rotation + 0 - Collet or Chuck Datum axis B When measuring circular runout. the indicator must be reset when repositioned along the feature surface.

Because the tolerance value is applied to the entire surface.Total Runout Total Tolerance Total runout can only be applied on an RFS basis and cannot be modified to MMC or LMC. the indicator is moved in a straight line along the feature surface while the part is rotated about the datum axis. total runout can be used to measure surface profile (overall form) and surface wobble (overall orientation). Maximum Minimum Full Indicator Movement Maximum Reading Minimum Reading + 0 Full Part Rotation Indicator Path 0 + - When measuring total runout. the indicator must not be reset to zero when moved to each measuring position. In this example. . It is also acceptable to measure total runout by evaluating an appropriate number of individual circular elements along the surface while the part is rotated about the datum axis.

the indicator must not be reset when repositioned along the feature surface. angularity.2 As Shown on Drawing Means This: When measuring total runout. the use of total runout will provide 3-dimensional composite control of the cumulative variations of circularity.75 max. coaxiality. taper and profile of the angled surface .Total Runout (Angled Surface to Datum Axis) 0.25 o o 50 +/. Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 A A 50 +/-0. 0 0 + The tolerance zone for the entire angled surface is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator positioned normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated about the datum axis and the indicator is moved along the entire length of the feature surface. (applies to the entire feature surface) + Collet or Chuck Full Part Rotation Datum axis A NOTE: Unlike circular runout.

75 A 10 35 50 +/-0. the indicator must not be reset when repositioned along the feature surface. - 0 + + 10 35 Full Part Rotation - 0 When measuring total runout.25 A As Shown on Drawing Means This: The tolerance zone for the portion of the feature surface indicated is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator positioned normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated about the datum axis and the indicator is moved along the portion of the feature surface within the area described by the basic dimensions. (applies to portion of feature surface indicated) Datum axis A NOTE: The use of total runout in this example will provide composite control of the cumulative variations of perpendicularity (wobble) and flatness (concavity or convexity) of the feature surface. .75 max. Allowable indicator reading = 0.Total Runout (Surface Perpendicular to Datum Axis) 0.

7. Total runout is a 2-dimensional control. . straightness. 4. taper. angularity and any other surface variation. Total runout can control circularity. 6. 5. Total runout tolerances are an appropriate way to limit ³wobble´ of a rotating surface. 10. Runout tolerances are used on rotating parts. 11. Runout tolerances are used to control a feature¶s size. Circular runout can be applied to control taper of a part. 9. 3.Runout Control Quiz Answer questions #1-12 True or False 1. 8. coaxiality. Runout tolerances can be applied to surfaces at right angles to the datum reference. Runout tolerances always require a datum reference. Circular runout tolerances are used to control an entire feature surface. 2. Circular runout and total runout both control axis to surface relationships. 12. Circular runout tolerances apply to single elements . Total runout tolerances should be applied at MMC.

Tolerances of Profile

Profile of a Line (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.5.2b)

Profile of a Surface (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.5.2a)

Profile of a Line
20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2

C

1 A B C

17 +/- 1
A

2 Wide Size Tolerance Zone 18 Max 16 Min.

1 Wide Profile Tolerance Zone

The profile tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel lines oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The profile tolerance zone is free to float within the larger size tolerance and applies only to the form and orientation of any individual line element along the entire surface. Profile of a Line is a two-dimensional tolerance that can be applied to a part feature in situations where the control of the entire feature surface as a single entity is not required or desired. The tolerance applies to the line element of the surface at each individual cross section indicated on the drawing.

Profile of a Surface
20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2

C

2 A B C

23.5

A

2 Wide Tolerance Zone Size, Form and Orientation Nominal Location

23.5

The profile tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The profile tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part surface to vary equally about the true profile of the feature.

Profile of a Surface is a three-dimensional tolerance that can be applied to a part feature in situations where the control of the entire feature surface as a single entity is desired. The tolerance applies to the entire surface and can be used to control size, location, form and/or orientation of a feature surface.

.5 Inboard 0. form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface. When a bilateral value is specified.Profile of a Surface (Bilateral Tolerance) 20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2 1 A B C C 50 1 Wide Total Tolerance Zone B 0. Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control the location. the tolerance zone allows the trim edge variation and/or locational error to be on both sides of the true profile. The profile tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part surface to vary equally about the true profile of the trim.5 Outboard 50 C Nominal Location The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The tolerance applies to the entire edge surface.

Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control the location. form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface. The tolerance applies to the entire edge surface.5 Wide Total Tolerance Zone B C 50 Nominal Location The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. the tolerance zone limits the trim edge variation and/or locational error to one side of the true profile. The profile tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that allows the trim surface to vary from the true profile only in the inboard direction. . When a unilateral value is specified.Profile of a Surface (Unilateral Tolerance) 20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2 0.5 A B C C 50 0.

form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface.2 Wide Total Tolerance Zone B 0. Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control the location. Typically when unequal values are specified.5 Inboard 0.Profile of a Surface (Unequal Bilateral Tolerance) 20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2 0.5 1. The profile tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part surface to vary from the true profile more in one direction (outboard) than in the other (inboard). .2 A B C C 50 1.7 Outboard 50 C Nominal Location The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. the tolerance zone will represent the actual measured trim edge variation and/or locational error. The tolerance applies to the entire edge surface.

75 A Composite Profile of Two Coplanar Surfaces w/o Orientation Refinement .1 Wide Tolerance Zone 25.25 24.1 25 Location & Orientation Form Only A 0.5 A 0.Profile of a Surface 0.

5 A 0.Profile of a Surface 0.25 A 24.1 Wide Tolerance Zone 25.1 A 25 Location Form & Orientation A 0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone A Composite Profile of Two Coplanar Surfaces With Orientation Refinement .75 0.

. 8. Profile of a line controls apply to individual line elements. 4. 10. 12. 6. Profile of a line tolerances should be applied at MMC. Profile tolerances can be applied to features of size. Profile tolerances can be applied either bilateral or unilateral to a feature. 7. 5. 13. 11. 2. Profile tolerances can be combined with other geometric controls such as flatness to control a feature. 9. Profile tolerances can be applied in both freestate and restrained datum conditions. Profile of a line tolerances apply to an entire surface. Profile tolerances only control the location of a surface. 3. Profile of a surface tolerance is a 2-dimensional control.Profile Control Quiz Answer questions #1-13 True or False 1. Composite profile controls should be avoided because they are more restrictive and very difficult to check. Tolerances shown in the lower segment of a composite profile feature control frame control the location of a feature to the specified datums. Profile of a surface tolerance should be used to control trim edges on sheet metal parts. Profile tolerances always require a datum reference.

Profile tolerances can be applied _________ or __________. composite profile bilateral virtual condition profile of a surface primary datum orientation datum reference unilateral profile of a line location true geometric counterpart form . a ______ __________ is not required in the feature control frame. 2. and ____________________. and sometimes size of a feature. ___________ . 3. When using profile tolerances to control the location and/or orientation of a feature. 5.Profile Control Quiz Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. _________________ tolerances are 2-dimensional controls. a _______________ must be included in the feature control frame. _________________ can be used when different tolerances are required for location and form and/or orientation. ____. 7. the tolerance shown in the upper segment of the feature control frame applies only to the ________ of the feature. 6. 9. When using profile tolerances to control form only. The two types of profile tolerances are _________________. ____________________ tolerances are 3-dimensional controls. In composite profile applications. Profile tolerances can be used to control the ________. 8. 4.

Tolerances of Location True Position (ASME Y14. 5.5M-1994.12) Symmetry (ASME Y14. 5.13) .5M-1994. 5.2) Concentricity (ASME Y14.5M-1994.

Notes .

0.4 +/.25 +/.0.5 10.25 +/.5 B 8.4 A B C Circular Tolerance Zone 10.0.5 Geometric Dimensioning 1.0.Coordinate vs Geometric Tolerancing Methods 8.5 +/.5 Rectangular Tolerance Zone Circular Tolerance Zone 57% Larger Tolerance Zone Circular Tolerance Zone Rectangular Tolerance Zone Increased Effective Tolerance .25 C A Coordinate Dimensioning +/.25 10.0.1 Rectangular Tolerance Zone 10.0.5 +/.1 1.

Positional Tolerance Verification (Applies when a circular tolerance is indicated) Z X Feature axis actual location (measured) Positional tolerance zone cylinder Actual feature boundary Y Feature axis true position (designed) Formula to determine the actual radial position of a feature using measured coordinate values (RFS) Z= Z X2 + Y2 positional tolerance /2 Z = total radial deviation X2 = ³X´ measured deviation Y2 = ³Y´ measured deviation .

MMC) Z 2 = positional tolerance Z = total radial deviation X2 = ³X´ measured deviation Y2 = ³Y´ measured deviation .Positional Tolerance Verification (Applies when a circular tolerance is indicated) Z X Feature axis actual location (measured) Positional tolerance zone cylinder Actual feature boundary Y Feature axis true position (designed) Formula to determine the actual radial position of a feature using measured coordinate values (MMC) X2 + Y2 Z = +( actual .

5 X 0.25 Means This: 1.5 Wide Tolerance Zone True Position Related to Datum Reference Frame C 10 10 35 B 0.5 Wide Tolerance Zone Each axis must lie within the 1.5 rectangular tolerance zone basically located to the datum reference frame .5 A B C 2X 0.Bi-directional True Position Rectangular Coordinate Method 2X 1.5 A B C C A 10 10 35 B As Shown on Drawing 2X 6 +/-0.

25 1.Bi-directional True Position Multiple Single-Segment Method 2X 6 +/-0.5 X 0.5 rectangular tolerance zone basically located to the datum reference frame .5 Wide Tolerance Zone True Position Related to Datum Reference Frame C 10 10 35 B 0.5 A B C A 10 10 35 B As Shown on Drawing Means This: 1.5 A B C 0.5 Wide Tolerance Zone Each axis must lie within the 1.

Bi-directional True Position Noncylndrical Features (Boundary Concept) 2X 13 +/-0.50 Position tolerance 11. True position boundary related to datum reference frame 5.75 MMC length of slot -0.25 Maximum boundary C 90 o 10 10 35 B A .25 1. The boundary concept can only be applied on an MMC basis.25 maximum boundary 12.25 maximum boundaries when the part is positioned with respect to the datum reference frame.75 MMC width of slot -1.5 M A B C BOUNDARY 2X 6 +/-0.25 x 5.25 0.50 Position tolerance 5.5 M A B C BOUNDARY C A 10 10 35 B As Shown on Drawing Means This: Both holes must be within the size limits and no portion of their surfaces may lie within the area described by the 11.

B.5 A B C 0.5 Feature-Relating Tolerance Zone Cylinder pattern orientation relative to Datum A only (perpendicularity) 1. and C C 10 10 35 B True Position Related to Datum Reference Frame Each axis must lie within each tolerance zone simultaneously .Composite True Position Without Pattern Orientation Control 2X 6 +/-0.5 A C A 10 10 35 B As Shown on Drawing Means This: 0.5 Pattern-Locating Tolerance Zone Cylinder pattern location relative to Datums A.25 1.

5 A B C 0.25 1.5 Feature-Relating Tolerance Zone Cylinder pattern orientation relative to Datums A and B Each axis must lie within each tolerance zone simultaneously .Composite True Position With Pattern Orientation Control 2X 6 +/-0. and C C 10 10 35 B 0. B.5 Pattern-Locating Tolerance Zone Cylinder pattern location relative to Datums A.5 A B C A 10 10 35 B As Shown on Drawing Means This: True Position Related to Datum Reference Frame 1.

90 As Shown on Drawing Means This: Axis of Datum Feature A 0.5 A A 15.5 cylindrical tolerance zone. Concentricity can only be applied on an RFS basis.Location (Concentricity) Datum Features at RFS 6.95 15.05 0. The axis of the tolerance zone coincides with the axis of datum feature A. .0.5 Coaxial Tolerance Zone Derived Median Points of Diametrically Opposed Elements Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size. all median points of diametrically opposed elements must lie within a 0.35 +/.

Symmetry can only be applied on an RFS basis.5 Wide Tolerance Zone Derived Median Points Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size.5 apart.Location (Symmetry) Datum Features at RFS 6.0.95 15.90 As Shown on Drawing Means This: Center Plane of Datum Feature A 0.05 0.35 +/. . all median points of opposed elements must lie between two parallel planes equally disposed about datum plane A. 0.5 A A 15.

True position tolerances can control a feature¶s size. 9. 6. 3. 5. The tolerance value shown in the upper segment of a composite true position feature control frame applies to the location of a pattern of features to the specified datums. . Composite true position tolerances can only be applied to patterns of related features. 2. True position tolerances can be used to control center distance relationships between features of size. Positional tolerances are applied to individual or patterns of features of size. 4. The tolerance value shown in the lower segment of a composite true position feature control frame applies to the location of a pattern of features to the specified datums. Cylindrical tolerance zones more closely represent the functional requirements of a pattern of clearance holes. 7. Positional tolerances can be used to control circularity 11. Composite true position tolerances should be avoided because it is overly restrictive and difficult to check.True Position Quiz Answer questions #1-11 True or False 1. 8. Positional tolerances are applied on an MMC. True position tolerance values are used to calculate the minimum size of a feature required for assembly. or RFS basis. 10. LMC.

_________ tolerance zones are recommended to prevent fastener interference in mating details. 8. 3. _____ and ________ fastener equations are used to determine appropriate clearance hole sizes for mating details 6. Positional tolerance zones can be ___________. Functional gaging principles can be applied when __________ ________ condition is specified surface boundary floating feature-relating pattern-locating rectangular cylindrical 3-dimensional basic dimensions projected location maximum material fixed axis . ________________ are used to establish the true (theoretically exact) position of a feature from specified datums. 4. Positional tolerancing is a _____________ control. The tolerance shown in the upper segment of a composite true position feature control frame is called the ________________ tolerance zone. ___________. or spherical 2.True Position Quiz Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. 9. Positional tolerance can apply to the ____ or ________________ of a feature. 5. The tolerance shown in the lower segment of a composite true position feature control frame is called the ________________ tolerance zone. 7.

Notes .

Notes .

Fixed and Floating Fastener Exercises .

Fastener Size = 10.50 B H = 10 + 0.50 +/.?? +/.Floating Fasteners In applications where two or more mating details are assembled. The formula will provide a ³zero-interference´ fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance 2x M10 X 1.5 (Reference) General Equation Applies to Each Part Individually A B H=F+T or T=H-F H= Min.? M Calculate Required Positional Tolerance T=H-F H = Minimum Hole Size = F = Max.25 0.25 ?.25 10 A Calculate Nominal Size T = 10. Fastener Size = T = Positional Tolerance = 10 0.25 -10 T = ______ 2x ??.0.5 M remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value. and all parts have clearance holes for the fasteners.50 H = ______ . the floating fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate hole sizes or positional tolerance requirements to ensure assembly. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter 2x 10. H = F +T F = Max.0.

Fastener Size = T = Positional Tolerance = 10 0.5 B H= H= 10 + .25 10 A Calculate Nominal Size T = 10.0. and all parts have clearance holes for the fasteners.5 Minimum REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC .Floating Fasteners In applications where two or more mating details are assembled.25 -10 T = 0. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter 2x 10. H = F +T F = Max.25 M Calculate Required Positional Tolerance T=H-F H = Minimum Hole Size = F = Max.5 (Reference) General Equation Applies to Each Part Individually A B H=F+T or T=H-F H= Min. The formula will provide a ³zero-interference´ fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance 2x M10 X 1.5 10.25 0.50 +/.75 +/.25 0. Fastener Size = 10.25 2x 10. the floating fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate hole sizes or positional tolerance requirements to ensure assembly.0.5 M remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value.

8) H = _____ B .00 + 2(0.8 M P 10 Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations) H = F + 2T F = Max.0. the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerance required to ensure assembly.5 0.80 H = 10. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are the same for both parts. 2x ??.Fixed Fasteners In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have equal positional tolerances.8 +/. The formula provides a ³zero-interference´ fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. Calculate Required Clearance Hole Size.25 M A 2X M10 X 1.?? 0.) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1.5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Equal 10 A B H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2 H= Min. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC size to obtain the correct nominal value. Fastener Size = T = Positional Tolerance = 10.00 0.

0.8 +/.8 M P 10 Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations) H = F + 2T F = Max. 2x 11.80 H = 10.5 0.00 + 2(0.) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC size to obtain the correct nominal value.00 0. the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerance required to ensure assembly. Calculate Required Clearance Hole Size. Fastener Size = T = Positional Tolerance = 10. The formula provides a ³zero-interference´ fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance.5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Equal 10 A B H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2 H= Min.8) H = 11.85 0. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are the same for both parts.25 M A 2X M10 X 1.Fixed Fasteners In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have equal positional tolerances.60 Minimum B REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC .

(Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are the same for both parts.8 H = 10 + 2(0.25 M A 2X M10 X 1. 2x 11.Fixed Fasteners In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have equal positional tolerances.) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1. Calculate Required Clearance Hole Size.6 Minimum B REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC .5 0. Fastener Size = T = Positional Tolerance = 10 0. The formula provides a ³zero-interference´ fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance.8) H = 11.8 +/.85 0.0. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC size to obtain the correct nominal value.5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Equal 10 A B H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2 H= Min. the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerance required to ensure assembly.8 M P 10 Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations) H = F + 2T F = Max.

and one part has restrained fasteners.25 0. (Both Parts) A Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations) T = (H .0.5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Equal 10 A B H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2 H= Min.25 +/.50 B REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC .10)/2 T = 0.5 0. The formula will provide a ³zero-interference´ fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance.F)/2 2X M10 X 1. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter 2x 11.5 M Calculate Required Positional Tolerance . the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate appropriate hole sizes and/or positional tolerances required to ensure assembly.Fixed Fasteners In applications where two mating details are assembled.5 M P 10 H = Minimum Hole Size = F = Max. Fastener Size = 11 10 T = (11 . (Note: in this example the resultant positional tolerance is applied to both parts equally.) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1.

diameter of clearance hole F = Maximum diameter of fastener T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2= Positional tolerance (Part B) ??. the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerances required to ensure assembly.5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Not Equal 10 A B H=F+(T1 + T2) H = Min.5 1 M P 10 Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations) H=F+(T1 + T2) F = Max. (A) = T2 = Positional Tol.5 M remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value. (B) = 10 0. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are not equal.5 + 1) H = ____ B .25 0.) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1. Calculate Required Clearance Hole Size. Fastener Size = T1 = Positional Tol. The formula provides a ³zero-interference´ fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance.50 1 H = 10+ (0. 2x A 2X M10 X 1.Fixed Fasteners In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have unequal positional tolerances.0.?? +/.

(A) = T2 = Positional Tol. 2x A 2X M10 X 1.5 Minimum B REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC . (B) = 10 0.75 +/.5 + 1) H = 11. diameter of clearance hole F = Maximum diameter of fastener T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2= Positional tolerance (Part B) 11. Fastener Size = T1 = Positional Tol.25 0.5 1 M P 10 Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations) H=F+(T1 + T2) F = Max.0. the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerances required to ensure assembly. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are not equal.5 1 H = 10 + (0.5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Not Equal 10 A B H= F+(T1 + T2) H = Min.Fixed Fasteners In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have unequal positional tolerances. Calculate Required Clearance Hole Size.) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1.5 M remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value. The formula provides a ³zero-interference´ fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance.

5 M remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value.05 +/-0.5(1 + 2(15/20)) H= __________ . it is necessary to select a positional tolerance and minimum clearance hole size combination that will allow for any out-of-squareness of the feature containing the fastener. pin size T1 = Positional Tol. pin projection 10 = 0.25 0.5 M H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D)) F = Max. P = 15 = B H = 10.5 + 0. pin depth = Max.5 = 0.?? +/-0.05 0. A 2x 10. APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS NOT USED H P F A B D H= Min.5 D = 20. depth of pin (Part A) P= Maximum projection of pin Calculate Nominal Size 2x ??. (A) T2 = Positional Tol.00 + 0. (B) = Min. The modified fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size required to ensure assembly. The formula provides a ³zero-interference´ fit when the features are at MMC and at the extreme positional tolerance.Fixed Fasteners In applications where a projected tolerance zone is not indicated. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of pin T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2= Positional tolerance (Part B) D= Min.

5(1 + 2(15/20)) H= 11. (A) T2 = Positional tol. pin size T1 = Positional tol.5 D = 20 P = 15 B H = 10 + 0.05 0.5 M remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of pin T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2= Positional tolerance (Part B) D= Min.5 = 0. pin projection = 10 = 0.5 + 0. The modified fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size required to ensure assembly.25 0. A 2x 10.75 Minimum REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC . (B) = Min. pin depth = Max. depth of pin (Part A) P= Maximum projection of pin A B D Calculate Nominal Size 2x 12 +/-0.Fixed Fasteners In applications where a projected tolerance zone is not indicated. it is necessary to select a positional tolerance and minimum clearance hole size combination that will allow for any out-of-squareness of the feature containing the fastener.05 +/-0.5 M H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D)) F = Max. The formula provides a ³zero-interference´ fit when the features are at MMC and at the extreme positional tolerance. APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS NOT USED H P F H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D)) H= Min.

Answers to Quizzes and Exercises .

Unless otherwise specified size tolerances control form. Title block default tolerances apply to basic dimensions. FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE . Size tolerances control both orientation and position. 7. A material modifier symbol is not required for RFS. A free state modifier can only be applied to a tolerance. Bilateral tolerances allow variation in two directions. The use of GD&T improves productivity. 3. A surface on a part is considered a feature. 6. 5. Tight tolerances ensure high quality and performance. 9. 11. Virtual condition applies regardless of feature size. 10. A free state datum modifier applies to ³assists´ & ³rests´. A material modifier symbol is not required for MMC. 8.Rules and Definitions Quiz Questions #1-12 True or False 1. 12. 2. 4.

2 123.890 MMC 11 23.6 .895 .25/-0 23. 5 +/-0.05/-0.75 23.45 +0.1 .895 LMC External Features 10.885 10.4 .45 +0.75 +0/-0.5 23.5 123.4 .5 123.885 Calculate appropriate values .Material Condition Quiz Fill in blanks Internal Features 10.2 123.6 .75 23. 5 +/-0.890 10.890 MMC LMC 10.1 .25 23.890 .05/-0.75 +0.25 123.25 123.

7. 4. Datum target areas are theoretically exact. 11. 10. Datum simulators are used to represent datums. Primary datums have only three points of contact. 9. All datum features must be dimensionally stable. Datums should represent functional features. The 6 Degrees of Freedom are U/D. Datum planes constrain degrees of freedom. 5. 2.Datum Quiz Questions #1-12 True or False 1. Datum simulators are part of the gage or tool. F/A. Datums are actual part features. 6. Datum features are imaginary. & C/C. FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE . 12. Tertiary datums are not always required. 8. All tooling locators (CD¶s) are used as datums. 3.

10. The primary and secondary datum planes together will restrain five degrees of freedom. restrain movement five coordinated repeatable tertiary two 3-rotational primary 2-rotational three functional one datum simulator 1-linear datum feature datum secondary 3-linear six . 8. and coordinated. 4. secondary and tertiary datum planes together will restrain all six degrees of freedom. The purpose of a datum reference frame is to restrain movement of a part in a gage or tool. and tertiary. secondary. A datum is a theoretically exact point. A planar primary datum plane will restrain 1-linear and 2-rotational degrees of freedom. A datum must be functional. An unrestrained part will exhibit 3-linear and 3-rotational degrees of freedom. axis or plane. 6. 7. 2. repeatable. A datum feature is an actual feature on a part. The primary. 5. 9.Datum Quiz Questions #1-10 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. The three planes that make up a basic datum reference frame are called primary. A datum simulator is a precise surface used to establish a simulated datum. 3.

Size limits implicitly control a feature¶s form. flatness. and cylindricity. Rule #1 states that unless otherwise specified a feature of size must have perfect form at MMC. Flatness controls the orientation of a feature. FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE 9. 5. 7. Flatness and cylindricity are surface (3-D) controls. circularity. straightness straight perfect form cylindricity angularity flatness tapered profile circularity true position Answer questions #6-10 True or False 6. Form controls require a datum reference. 10. A feature¶s form tolerance must be less than it¶s size tolerance. Form controls do not directly control a feature¶s size. 3. Straightness and circularity element (2-D) controls. 2. The four form controls are straightness. Circularity can be applied to both straight and tapered cylindrical parts.Form Control Quiz Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. 8. are individual line or circular 4. .

Orientation tolerances indirectly control a feature¶s form. Orientation tolerances do not control the location of a feature. Mathematically all three orientation tolerances are identical. parallelism. Parallelism tolerances do not apply to features of size. 8. To apply a perpendicularity tolerance the desired angle must be indicated as a basic dimension. A datum reference is always required when applying any of the orientation controls.Orientation Control Quiz Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. Perpendicularity is the appropriate geometric tolerance when controlling the orientation of a feature at right angles to a datum reference. Orientation tolerance zones can be cylindrical. To apply an angularity tolerance the desired angle must be indicated as a basic dimension. perpendicularity datum feature angularity datum target location identical datum reference parallelism profile Answer questions #6-10 True or False 6. 4. and perpendicularity. 7. The three orientation controls are angularity. 5. TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE 9. 2. 3. . 10.

11. Runout tolerances always require a datum reference. Total runout tolerances should be applied at MMC. angularity and any other surface variation. 12. Runout tolerances are used on rotating parts. 5. Total runout is a 2-dimensional control. 7. 4. Circular runout tolerances are used to control an entire feature surface. Circular runout and total runout both control axis to surface relationships. Circular runout tolerances apply to single elements . Runout tolerances are used to control a feature¶s size.Runout Control Quiz Answer questions #1-12 True or False 1. FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE 2. 10. Total runout tolerances are an appropriate way to limit ³wobble´ of a rotating surface. 6. straightness. Circular runout can be applied to control taper of a part. taper. Runout tolerances can be applied to surfaces at right angles to the datum reference. 8. 9. 3. Total runout can control circularity. . coaxiality.

and sometimes size of a feature. 2. the tolerance shown in the upper segment of the feature control frame applies only to the location of the feature. a datum reference must be included in the feature control frame. When using profile tolerances to control the location and/or orientation of a feature. 3. 7. and profile of a surface. 6. 5. Profile tolerances can be applied bilateral or unilateral. 4. Profile of a line tolerances are 2-dimensional controls. Profile tolerances can be used to control the location. The two types of profile tolerances are profile of a line. In composite profile applications. 9. 8. When using profile tolerances to control form only. Composite Profile can be used when different tolerances are required for location and form and/or orientation. form. orientation. composite profile bilateral virtual condition profile of a surface primary datum orientation datum reference unilateral profile of a line location true geometric counterpart form .Profile Control Quiz Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. Profile of a surface tolerances are 3-dimensional controls. a datum reference is not required in the feature control frame.

Profile tolerances only control the location of a surface. Profile tolerances can be applied to features of size. Profile of a surface tolerance is a 2-dimensional control. Profile tolerances can be combined with other geometric TRUE 7. 6. FALSE 2.Profile Control Quiz Answer questions #1-13 True or False 1. FALSE 8. controls such as flatness to control a feature. Profile of a line controls apply to individual line elements. Profile of a line tolerances apply to an entire surface. 10. FALSE 3. 5. Profile of a line tolerances should be applied at MMC. Tolerances shown in the lower segment of a composite profile feature control frame control the location of a feature to the specified datums. TRUE 9. FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE 11. 13. . Composite profile controls should be avoided because they are more restrictive and very difficult to check. TRUE FALSE TRUE 4. Profile tolerances can be applied either bilateral or unilateral to a feature. Profile tolerances always require a datum reference. Profile of a surface tolerance should be used to control trim edges on sheet metal parts. Profile tolerances can be applied in both freestate and restrained datum conditions. 12.

Positional tolerances are applied to individual or patterns TRUE of features of size. 6. 4.True Position Quiz Answer questions #1-11 True or False 1. FALSE TRUE . or RFS basis. 5. Composite true position tolerances should be avoided because it is overly restrictive and difficult to check. True position tolerances can be used to control center distance relationships between features of size. FALSE 10. 7. The tolerance value shown in the upper segment of a composite true position feature control frame applies to the location of a pattern of features to the specified datums. 8. Composite true position tolerances can only be applied to patterns of related features. True position tolerance values are used to calculate the minimum size of a feature required for assembly. Positional tolerances can be used to control circularity 11. Cylindrical tolerance zones more closely represent the functional requirements of a pattern of clearance holes. 2. Positional tolerances are applied on an MMC. LMC. True position tolerances can control a feature·s size. TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE 3. The tolerance value shown in the lower segment of a composite true position feature control frame applies to the location of a pattern of features to the specified datums. 9.

Positional tolerance can apply to the axis or surface boundary of a feature. 9.True Position Quiz Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. 3. Basic dimensions are used to establish the true (theoretically exact) position of a feature from specified datums. cylindrical. 8. Positional tolerancing is a 3-dimensional control. Fixed and floating fastener equations are used to determine appropriate clearance hole sizes for mating details 6. The tolerance shown in the upper segment of a composite true position feature control frame is called the pattern-locating tolerance zone. Positional tolerance zones can be rectangular. 7. Projected tolerance zones are recommended to prevent fastener interference in mating details. The tolerance shown in the lower segment of a composite true position feature control frame is called the feature-relating tolerance zone. Functional gaging principles can be applied when maximum material condition is specified surface boundary floating feature-relating pattern-locating rectangular cylindrical 3-dimensional basic dimensions projected location maximum material fixed axis . 5. or spherical 2. 4.

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Notes .

Notes .

Notes .

Extreme Variations of Form Allowed By Size Tolerance 25.1 (LMC) 24.9 (LMC) 25 (MMC) 25.9 (LMC) .1 25 25 24.9 25 (MMC) 25.1 (LMC) 24.9 (LMC) 25 (MMC) MMC Perfect Form Boundary 25 (MMC) 25.1 (LMC) 24.

Virtual and Resultant Condition Boundaries Internal and External Features (MMC Concept) .

5 1M A B C C XX.5 MMC Size of Feature Applicable Geometric Tolerance Virtual Condition Boundary .X A B XX.X As Shown on Drawing Virtual Condition Inner Boundary Maximum Inscribed Diameter 1 Positional Tolerance Zone at MMC ( ) True (Basic) Position of Hole Other Possible Extreme Locations Boundary of MMC Hole Shown at Extreme Limit True (Basic) Position of Hole Axis Location of MMC Hole Shown at Extreme Limit Calculating Virtual Condition 13.0.Virtual Condition Boundary Internal Feature (MMC Concept) 14 +/.5 1 12.

X A B XX.5 2 16.5 LMC Size of Feature Geometric Tolerance (at LMC) Resultant Condition Boundary .0.Resultant Condition Boundary Internal Feature (MMC Concept) 14 +/.X As Shown on Drawing Resultant Condition Outer Boundary Minimum Circumscribed Diameter 2 Positional Tolerance Zone at LMC True (Basic) Position of Hole Other Possible Extreme Locations Boundary of LMC Hole Shown at Extreme Limit True (Basic) Position of Hole Axis Location of LMC Hole Shown at Extreme Limit ( ) Calculating Resultant Condition (Internal Feature) 14.5 1M A B C C XX.

0.XX A B XX.5 MMC Size of Feature Applicable Geometric Tolerance Virtual Condition Boundary .Virtual Condition Boundary External Feature (MMC Concept) 14 +/.5 1M A B C C XX.X As Shown on Drawing Virtual Condition Outer Boundary Minimum Circumscribed Diameter 1 Positional Tolerance Zone at MMC ( ) True (Basic) Position of Feature Other Possible Extreme Locations Boundary of MMC Feature Shown at Extreme Limit True (Basic) Position of Feature Axis Location of MMC Feature Shown at Extreme Limit Calculating Virtual Condition 14.5 1 15.

5 2 11.X As Shown on Drawing ( Resultant Condition Inner Boundary Maximum Inscribed Diameter ) 2 Positional Tolerance Zone at LMC True (Basic) Position of Feature Other Possible Extreme Locations Boundary of LMC feature Shown at Extreme Limit True (Basic) Position of Feature Axis Location of LMC Feature Shown at Extreme Limit Calculating Resultant Condition (External Feature) 13.5 1M A B C C XX.X A B XX.5 LMC Size of Feature Geometric Tolerance (at LMC) Resultant Condition Boundary .0.Resultant Condition Boundary External Feature (MMC Concept) 14 +/.

for example. Least Material Condition (LMC): The condition where the feature contains the least material with in the stated limits of size . A space is used after X Maximum Material Condition (MMC): The condition where the feature contains the maximum material within the stated limits of size ± for example. . 3X 5. the smallest pin or largest hole.0 5mm is 3 times repeated. the largest pin or the smallest hole.

GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOLS TYPE OF TOLERANCE CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOL STRAIGHNESS FOR INDIVIDUAL FEATURES FLATNESS FORM CIRCULARITY (ROUNDNESS) CYLINDRICITY FOR INDIVIDUAL OR RELATED FEATURES FROFILE PROFILE OF A SURFACE PROFILE OF A LINE ANGULARITY ORIENTATION PERPENDICULARITY PARALLELISM FOR RELATED FEATURES POSITION CONCENTRICITY LOCATION SYMMETRY CIRCULAR RUNOUT TOTAL RUNOUT RUNOUT .