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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

LECTURE:
BIOTECHNOLOGY ( Concept, Scope, Trends and Applications)

BY

DR. EJIDOKUN T. O
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

CONTENT
Introduction

Evolution of Biotechnology

Scope of Biotechnology

Applications

Latest Trends of Biotechnology

Future Expectations of Biotechnology

Limitation

Food for thought on Biotechnology


Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS BIO-TECHNOLOGY?
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

WHAT IS BIO-TECHNOLOGY?
INTRODUCTION..
Definitions

Genentech: Biotechnology is the process of harnessing


natures own biochemical tools to make
possible products and processes and provide
solutions to societys ills .

Websters : The aspect of technology concerned with the


application of living organisms to meet the
needs and ends of man.

General: Biotechnology can be defined as the use of


living organisms, cells or cellular components
for the production of compounds or precise
genetic improvement of living things for the
benefit of man
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun
EVOLUTION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
Ancient / Traditional Biotechnology
It started thousands of years ago during the stone age. Early men
practice Nomadic life style, which leads to migration of animals and
distribution of edible plants e.g. existence of wild wheat and barley
dated ~2x106 years ago
,,

Followed by domestication plant and animal through artificial


selection. Consequently, settlement where established, Hence
sedentary life evolved (~10, 000 yr. ago). It resulted in:
i. Cultivation of wheat, barley through seed collection
ii. Milk, cheese and meat where produced from sheep and
animals
iii. Grinding stone for food Preparation
iv. Accidental discover of fermentation process(9000 BC),
deliberate contamination of food with bacteria. Food
products like bread, yogurt, cheese ,wine beer where
produced.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

EVOLUTION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY..
Classical Biotechnology
Advancement of early Fermentation process resulted in
Production huge number of products e.g. Different types of
beers, vinegar, Glycerol, Acetone, Butanol, Lactic acid, Citric
acid etc..

Production of antibiotics for medical purpose such as penicillin


made by fermentation of Penicillium

Microbial Synthesis of commercial valuable products


i. Amino acids to improve food taste, quality or preservation
ii. Enzymes such as cellulose, collagenase, diastase, glucose
isomerase, invertase e.t.c
iii. Vitamin serving as food supplements to nourish the body
iv. Pigments such as Paints etc.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

EVOLUTION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY..
Modern Biotechnology
This is the latest trends of biotechnology, which
has diverse areas of applications

It entails manipulation of genes and cell fusion of


living organisms for specific purposes

It combines area such as cell biology, Molecular


biology, synthetic biology, Genetic engineering and
infusion with recent DNA Technology.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

EVOLUTION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY..

OVERVIEW OF MORDERN TECHNOLOGY


Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
BIOPROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
It involves the use of living cells such as yeast and
bacteria; or the molecular components to produce
desired products.
A form of bioprocessing, microbial fermentation, has been
used for thousands of years - unwittingly - to brew beer,
make wine, leaven bread and pickle foods.
The evolution of biotechnology from old to new,
"bioprocessing" gradually became has resulted in the now
use microbial fermentation, in conjunction with
recombinant DNA technology, to manufacture products
such as human insulin, the calf enzyme used in cheese-
making, biodegradable plastics, laundry detergent
enzymes and the hepatitis B vaccine
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.

CHEESE MAKING
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.

HEPATITIS B VACCINE
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.
Monoclonal Antibody Technology
The use of immune system cells to make proteins called
an Antibody. The specificity of antibodies is a very
powerful diagnostics tool.
The technology can be used to
i. Locate environmental pollutants
ii. Detect harmful microorganisms in food
iii.Distinguish cancer cells from normal cells
Diagnose infectious diseases in animal, plants and human
more quickly and accurately
i. Currently monoclonal antibodies are used to treat
organ transplant rejection and autoimmune diseases by
targeting them specifically to the type of immune
system cell responsible for these attacks, leaving intact
the other branches of the immune system
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.

This technology is used


primarily to fight off cancer
cells as these monoclonal
antibodies can be trained to
target markers that show up
on cancer cells.
The mAbs will then destroy the
cancer cell and go looking for
more.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.
Cell culture technology
Plant cell culture
Used to provide an environmental sound and friendly crops
with therapeutic value
Used to as an important source of flavors, colors and aromas
by food processing industry
Insect cell culture
insect cell culture can broaden our use of biological control
agents that kill insect pests without harming beneficial
insects or having pesticides accumulate in the environment.
In addition, like plant cell culture, insect cell culture is being
investigated as a production method of therapeutic protein
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.
Mammalian Cell Culture
Eggs and sperm, taken from genetically superior bulls and
cows, are united in the lab, and the resulting embryos are
grown in culture before being implanted in surrogate cows. A
similar form of mammalian cell culture has also been an
essential component of the human in vitro fertilization
process.
Healthy bone marrow cells, a type of adult stem cell that can
become either white or red blood cells, have been used for
years to treat some cancers.
Certain diseases of other tissue types that produce adult
stem cells, such as liver and muscle, might also be amenable
to treatment by replacing diseased cells with healthy stem
cells grown in culture.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.
RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNIQUES
Currently, recombinant DNA techniques are being used, in
conjunction with molecular cloning, to

produce new medicines and safer vaccines.


treat some genetic diseases.
enhance biocontrol agents in agriculture
increase agricultural yields and decrease production costs.
decrease allergy-producing characteristics of some foods
improve food's nutritional value.
develop biodegradable plastics
decrease water and air pollution.
slow food spoilage.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.

RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNIQUES


Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.
Cloning
Cloning technology allows us to generate a population of
genetically identical molecules, cells, plants or animals.

Animal Cloning
Recombinant DNA technologies, in conjunction with animal
cloning, is providing us with excellent animal models for
studying genetic diseases, aging and cancer and, in the
future, will help us discover drugs and evaluate other forms
of therapy, such as gene and cell therapy

Animal cloning provides zoo researchers with a tool for


helping to save endangered species.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.
ANIMAL CLONNING
1. An egg is taken from the
surrogate mother
2. A needle removes the
DNA from the egg cell.
3. An udder cell (or other
somatic cell) is taken
from the organism being
Udder Cells
cloned.
4. The blank egg cell is
fused with the udder
cell.
5. Electricity stimulates the
fused cell to begin
Egg Cell
dividing into an embryo.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.

Megan and Morag, the worlds first cloned mountain


sheep.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.
ANIMAL CLONNING

Utah State
University
(And Idaho State)
First Cloned Mule
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.

Megan and Morag, the worlds first cloned mountain


sheep.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.
This is Carbon
Copythe first
cloned pet.
Carbon Copy is not a
phenotypic carbon
copy of the animal
she was cloned from.

Rainbow and her clone cc (Science (2002) 295:1443)


Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.
ANIMAL CLONNING
If they are clones, why
arent the identical?
The genes that controls
coat color can be active or
inactive in each skin cell.
This is a random process.
Even though CC has the
gene for orange spots,
that gene has been
turned off
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.

The first cloned horse and her surrogate


mother/genetic twin.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.
Biosensors
A biosensor is composed of a biological component, such as a
cell, enzyme or antibody, linked to a tiny transducer-a device
powered by one system that then supplies power (usually in
another form) to a second system.

Biosensors are detecting changes that rely on the specificity


of cells and molecules to identify and measure substances at
extremely low concentrations
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.
Microarrays
Microarray technology is transforming laboratory research
because it allows us to analyze tens of thousands of samples
simultaneously.

A 2002 study estimates an annual compounded growth rate


for this market of 63 percent between 1999 and 2004, from
$232 million (U.S.)to $2.6 billion.

Thousands of DNA or protein molecules are arrayed on glass


slides to create DNA chips and protein chips, respectively.
Recent developments in microarray technology use
customized beads in place of glass slides.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.
DNA Microarrays

DNA microarrays are being used to


detect mutations in disease-related genes
monitor gene activity.
diagnose infectious diseases and identify the best antibiotic
treatment
identify genes important to crop productivity.
improve screening for microbes used in bioremediation.
Gene sequence and mapping data mean little until we
determine what those genes do-which is where protein
arrays come in.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.
DNA Microarrays..
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS


Diagnostics
Many diseases and medical conditions can be detected more quickly , with
greater

biotechnology is allowing us to diagnose diseases earlier in the disease


process, which greatly improves a patient's prognosis.

A familiar example of biotechnology's benefits is the new generation of home


pregnancy tests that provide more accurate results much earlier than previous
tests.

biotechnology-based tests to diagnose certain cancers, such as prostate and


ovarian cancer, by taking a blood sample, eliminating the need for invasive and
costly surgery.

Tests for strep throat and many other infectious diseases provide results in
minutes, enabling treatment to begin immediately in contrast to the two- or
three-day delay of previous tests.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Biotechnology has application in four major are


Namely:-

Health and Medical application

Food Production

Application in Agriculture

Environmental Application
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS.


Gene therapy
certain genetic diseases are amenable to correction via
replacement gene therapy. These are diseases caused by the
lack of a protein, such as homophilia and severe combined
immunodeficiency disease (SC1D), commonly known as the
"bubble boy disease.

Medical researchers have also discovered that gene therapy


can treat diseases other than hereditary genetic disorders.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS.


Xenotransplantation
Organ transplantation provides an especially effective, cost-
efficient treatment for severe, life-threatening diseases of
the heart, kidney and other organs

Organs and cells from other species - pigs and other animals -
may be promising sources of donor organs and therapeutic
cells. This concept is called xenotransplantation.

The most significant obstacle to xenotransplantation is the


immune system's self-protective response.
One approach deletes the pig gene for the enzyme that is the
main cause of rejection; another adds human genetic
material to disguises the pig cells as human cells
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS.


Regenerative Medicine
It involves the use of ability human body's natural capacity to
repair and maintain itself.
Tissue Engineering
Advances in cell biology and materials science has made it
possible to create semi-synthetic tissues and organs in the
lab.
Its Ultimate the goal is to create whole organs consisting of
different tissue types to replace diseased or injured organs

Recently, however, physicians have achieved remarkable


results with a biohybrid kidney that maintains patients with
acute renal failure until the injured kidney repairs itself.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS.


Tissue Engineering
The manufactured kidney is perfectly
similar to the natural one. It has silicon
filters, live cells and is bio-hybrid.

The device works with a series of


microchips and is moved by the human
heart to filter the waste from the
bloodstream.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS.


Tissue Engineering
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS.


Natural Regenerative Proteins
The human body produces an array of small proteins known as
growth factors that promote cell growth, stimulate cell division
and, in some cases, guide cell differentiation.
As proteins, they are prime candidates for large-scale production
by transgenic organisms, which would enable their use as
therapeutic agents.
The first biotechnology products; fibroblast growth factor, which
stimulates cell growth and has been effective in healing burns,
ulcers and bone and growing new blood vessels in patients with
blocked coronary arteries
Nerve growth factor, which encourage nerve cells to grow, repair
damage and could be used in patients with head and spinal cord
injuries or degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS.


Stem Cells
A stem cell is a cell that has not yet been assigned a specific function.
During development the stem cells become specialized

White Blood Cell

Stem Cell Skin Cell


Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS.

Stem Cells
This specialization is terminal.
That means that once a cell has been specialized it
can only produce more cells like it.
White Blood Cell White Blood Cell
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS.


Stem Cells
Where can you find stem cells?

This is a four day old


embryo called a
blastocyst. Each of
these developing cells
is a stem cell!

One of the best sources for stem cells is an


embryo of a developing fetus.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS.


Stem Cells

FYI: When stem cells are harvested, the embryo is


destroyed and can no longer grow into a fetus
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS.


Stem Cells
What do scientists do with stem cells?

Researchers believe that stem cells can be


used to replace damaged tissue caused by:

Cancer
Multiple Sclerosis
Parkinsons Disease
Spinal Damage
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS.


Stem Cells
There ARE other sources for stem cells, but they are
believed to be inferior to embryonic stem cells:

Bone Marrow

Lipid cells
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS
Improving Crop Production the use of crossbreeding and other genetic
modification techniques: increased yields; resistance to diseases caused by bacteria,
fungi and viruses; the ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions such as
freezes and droughts; and resistance to pests such as insects, weeds and
nematodes.
Natural Protection for Plants
Biotechnology will also open up new avenues for working with nature by providing
biopesticides, such as microorganisms and fatty acid compounds, that are toxic to
targeted crop pests but do not harm humans, animals, fish, birds or beneficial
insects.
A biopesticide farmers (including organic farmers) have used since the 1930s is the
microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt, which occurs naturally in soil. Several of
the proteins the Bt bacterium produces are lethal to certain insects, such as the
European corn borer
Using the flexibility provided by biotechnology, we can transplant the genetic
information that makes the Bt bacterium lethal to certain insects (but not to
humans, animals or other insects) into plants on which that insect feeds. The plant
that once was a food source for the insect now kills it, lessening the need to spray
crops with chemical pesticides to control infestations.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS..
Natural Protection for Plants
Using the flexibility provided by biotechnology, the genetic
information that makes the bacterium lethal to certain insects
(but not to humans, animals or other insects) can be
transplanted into plants on which that insect feeds.
Herbicide Tolerance
Using biotechnology, it is possible to make crop plants tolerant
of specific herbicides.

This lets farmers reduce the number of times herbicides have


to be applied and reduces the cost of producing crops and
damage to the environment.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS..
Increasing Yields
Maize photosynthesis genes to was added rice to increase
its efficiency at converting sunlight to plant starch and
increased yields by 30 percent

Mexican scientists have genetically modified plants to


secrete citric acid, a naturally occurring compound, from
their roots. In response to the slight increase in acidity,
minerals bound to soil particles, such as calcium,
phosphorous and potassium, are released and made
available to the plant.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

APPLICATION IN FOOD PRODUCTION

is the application of technology to


modify genes of animals, plants,
and microorganisms to create new
species which have desired
production, marketing, or nutrition
related properties.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

APPLICATION IN FOOD PRODUCTION..


EXTENDED LIFE SPAN

The first steps in genetic


modification were for food
producers to ensure larger
profits by keeping food
fresher, longer.
This allowed for further
travel to and longer
availability at markets, etc
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

APPLICATION IN FOOD PRODUCTION.

Example: Long Shelf Tomatoes


These genetically modified tomatoes
promise less waste and higher profits.
Typically, tomatoes produce a protein
that softens them after they have
been picked.
Scientists can now introduce a gene
into a tomato plant that blocks
synthesis of the softening protein.
Without this protein, the genetically
altered tomato softens more slowly
than a regular tomato, enabling
farmers to harvest it at its most
flavorful and nutritious vine-ripe
stage.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

APPLICATION IN FOOD PRODUCTION..


Better Nutrient Composition
Some plants, during
processing, lose some of
the vital nutrients they once
possessed.
Others are grown in
nutrient poor areas
Both these problems can be
solved by introducing genes
into plants to increase the
amount or potency of
nutrients.Biofortification
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

APPLICATION IN FOOD PRODUCTION

Example: Golden Rice


Scientists have engineered
"golden rice", which has
received genes from a
daffodil and a bacterium that
enable it to make beta-
carotene.This offers some
promise in helping to correct
a worldwide Vitamin A
deficiency.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

APPLICATION IN FOOD PRODUCTION


Efficient Drug Delivery

Inserting genes into


plants/animals to produce
essential medicine or
vaccines. Biopharming
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATION
BIOREMEDIATION
Bioremediation is the use of bacteria (or fungi) to clean up
hazardous environmental wastes.

The bacteria essentially turn the dangerous waste products


into less hazardous, easy to dispose of, waste

Plants are also being tested in some areas to do this job


(Sunflowers at Chernobyl removed Cesium and Strontium).
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATION
BIOREMEDIATION
Effective Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

In the case of hydrocarbons, there is a problem with petroleum


degradation in the soil or water.
In most cases, there are insufficient organisms present to
initiate the target degradation process. Organisms that
preferentially utilize petroleum as their food of choice are in
minority population and cannot decrease the level of
contamination rapidly.
FQE Clean Earth will efficiently reduce the background
hydrocarbon concentrations in soils and water streams by as
much as 75% within 72 hours and 95% within 96hrs of being
introduced into the system.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATION
BIOREMEDIATION

Bioremediation of soil
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATION..
BIOSENSORS
Current uses of biosensors
include:
Detecting levels of toxins
in an ecosystem
Detecting airborne
pathogens (i.e. anthrax)
Monitoring blood glucose
levels
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATION..
BIOFUEL
A biofuel is a plant derived
fuel that is deemed more
environmentally friendly
that current fuel sources as
they all release less carbon
dioxide into the
atmosphere.
Ethanol from corn is placed
in many gasoline varieties in
North America.
Biodiesel is fuel made from
used cooking oil.
Biogas is made from gases
released by compost or a
landfill.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

BREAK THROUGHS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY


1. REVERSING PARALYSIS
A system that read the
monkeys intention to move
and then transmitted it
immediately in the form of
bursts of electrical stimulation
to its spine. Soon enough, the
monkeys right leg began to
move. Extend and flex. It
hobbled forward. The
monkey was thinking, and
then boom, it was walking
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

BREAK THROUGHS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY


Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

BREAK THROUGHS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY


2. CANCER SPIT TEST
Detection of oral cancer from a single
drop of saliva. Proteins that are
associated with cancer cells react with
dyes on the sensor, emitting fluorescent
light that can be detected with a
microscope.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

BREAK THROUGHS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY


3. SMART CONTACT LENS
It contains conductive wires that
continuously monitor pressure and
fluid flow within the eyes of at-risk
people. The device wirelessly
transmits its data to a computer.

The constant data flow will help


doctors better understand the
causes of the disease.

Future technology may also


automatically dispense drugs in
response to pressure changes.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

BREAK THROUGHS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY


4. SMART PILL
Researchers has engineered
sensors that track medication use
by recording the exact time drugs
are ingested. Sand-grain-size
microchips emit high-frequency
electrical currents that are logged
by Band-Aid-like receivers on the
skin. The receivers also monitor
heart rate and respiration and
wirelessly transmit the data to a
computer.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

BREAK THROUGHS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY


4. SPEECH RESTORER
For people who have lost the
ability to talk, a "phonetic
speech engine was developed
to provide an audible voice.
It uses electrodes to detect
neuronal signals traveling from
the brain to the vocal cords.
Patients imagine slowly
sounding out words; then the
quarter-size device (located in
a neck brace) wirelessly
transmits those impulses to a
computer or cellphone, which
produces speech.
Integrated Science Programme
Biotechnology ( Concept, Scope, Trends and applications) by Dr. Ejidokun

BREAK THROUGHS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY


5. MIND CONTROLLED WHEEL CHAIR
It uses an EEG cap worn on the head,
using a P300 neurophysiological
protocol and automated navigation.
The user sees a real-time visualization
of his surroundings on the screen in
front of him, and then concentrates on
the space which he wants to navigate
to.
The EEG detects the location, which is
then transmitted to the autonomous
navigation system, which then drives
the chair to the desired location,
avoiding any obstacles that might be in
the way.