# Band Pass Systems, Phasors and Complex Representation of Systems KEY LEARNING OBJECTIVES I.

Phasors (complex envelope) representation for  sinusoidal signal  narrow band signal II. Complex Representation of Linear Modulated Signals & Bandpass System

Phasors and Complex Representation are useful for analyzing  baseband component of a signal  eliminates high frequency carrier components

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I. Phasors for monochromatic & narrow band signals x(t) is a narrowband signal (aka bandpass signal) if  X(f)  0 in some small neighborhood of f0 , a high frequency  X(f) 0 for | f ± f0 |  W where W < f0  f0 is usually referred to as center frequency, but need not be center frequency or in signal bandwidth at all

2W
-f -W -f
-f

X(f)
+W f -W f f +W

h(t) is a Bandpass System,, that passes signals with frequency components in the neighborhood of some frequency, f0  H(f) = 1 for | f ± f0 |  W otherwise H(f) § 0

X(f)

H(f)

X(f)

 bandpass system h(t) passes a bandpass signal x(t)
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Consider LTI system driven by input x(t)  output determined by multiplying X & frequency response of system computed at input frequency. f0  input & output frequencies are same output phasor gives output signal X(f) H(f) Y(f) determine the phasor for sinusoida1 signal and narrowband signal  capture phase and magnitude of base band signal  ignore effects of the carrier 3 .

determination of phasor.rotate z(t) at an angular frequency = 2 f0 in opposite direction .1.equivalent to multiplying z(t) by exp(2 f0t) X = z(t) exp(-j2 f0t ) = Aexp(j(2 f0t = Aexp(j ) ))exp(-j2 f0t ) x(t) 4 . X for sinusoidal input signal x(t) x(t) = Acos(2 f0 t xq(t) = Asin(2 f0 t ) )  quadrature component shifted 90o from x(t) (i) define a signal z(t) as a vector rotating with angular frequency 2 f0 z(t) = Aexp(j(2 f0t = Acos(2 f0t = x(t) jxq(t) ) )) jAsin(2 f0t ) I xq(t) 2 f0 Aexp(j ) R (ii) obtain phasor X from z(t) by eliminating 2 f0 rotation .

1a.j sin( )[ (f+f0) . delete negative frequencies & multiply by 2 x(t) = Acos(2 f0t ) = Acos( )cos(2 f0t) + Asin( )sin(2 f0t) A A X(f) = cos( )[ (f±f0 ) + (f+f0)] . using either or two methods (1) determine X(f) = F[x(t)].)} Z(f) = Aexp(j ) (f ± f0 ) (ii) then shift Z(f) by f0 X = Aexp(j ) 5 . determine Frequency Domain equivalent of z(t) and X (i) obtain Z(f).(f-f0)] 2 2 2A [cos( ) (f±f0 ) + jsin( ) (f±f0 )] Z(f) = 2 (2) determine Z(f) = F[z(t)] z(t) = Aexp(j(2 f0t + )) = Aexp(j )exp(j2 f0t ) since F[exp(j2 t)] = { (f.

x(t) based on definition of z(t) in sinusoid case: z(t) = x(t) + jxq(t) find Z(f) by deleting negative frequencies of X(f) & multiply result by 2 Z(f) = 2u-1(f)X(f) z(t) is known as the analytic signal or pre-envelope of x(t)  find z(t) using IFT find signal whose Fourier transform = u-1(f) 1 1 H( f ) 2 j 2Tf we know that F[u-1(t)] = by duality j » «1 F ¬ H (t )  ¼ = u-1(f) 2Tt ½ ­2 j¸ ¨ H (t )  ¹  x(t ) by convolution z(t) = © Tt º ª let Ö x (t ) ! 1  x(t ) Tt then z(t) = Ö x ( t )  jx ( t ) 6 .2. determine phasor for a narrowband signal.

pre-envelope for two types of signals (i) sinusoid case z(t) = x(t) + jxq(t) x(t) = Acos(2 f0 t+ ) xq(t)= Asin(2 f0 t+ ) (ii) narrowband case Ö z(t) = x(t) + j x (t ) 1  x (t ) Tt Ö Hilbert Transform of x(t) is given by x(t ) ! T phase shift x(t) by  for positive frequencies 2 T  phase shift x(t) by for negative frequencies 2 7 .

determine phasor. xl(t) of bandpass signal x(t)  xl(t) = low pass representation of x(t)  determined by shifting spectrum of z(t) left by f0 Xl(f) = Z(f + f0) = 2u-1(f + f0)X(f + f0) xl(t) = z(t)exp(-j2 f0t) f0 Z(f) X(f) A f0 2A f f xl(t) is a low pass signal  Xl(f) 0 for all | f |  W  phasor for band pass signal Xl(f) f0 2A f 8 .

xs(t)sin(2 f0t) Ö x ( t ) = Im{z(t)} = xc(t)sin(2 f0t)+xs(t)cos(2 f0t) Ö bandpass to lowpass transform describes relationship of x(t) & x ( t )in terms of xc(t) & xs(t) 9 .Generally xl(t) is complex signal with real (in phase) & imaginary (quadrature) components xl(t) = xc(t) + jxs(t) Ö z(t) = x ( t )  j x ( t ) rewrite in terms of quadrature & in-phase components z(t) = xl(t)exp(j2 f0t) = [xc(t) + jxs(t)]exp(j2 f0t) = xc(t)cos(2 f0t) .xs(t)sin(2 f0t) + j[xc(t)sin(2 f0t)+xs(t)cos(2 f0t)] equate real & imaginary parts of z(t) and xl(t) x(t) = Re{z(t)} = xc(t)cos(2 f0t) .

Define xl(t) in terms of phase & envelope define envelope of xl(t) as V(t) = define phase of xl(t) as 2 xc (t )  xs2 (t ) ¨ xs ( t ) ¸ (t) = tan  1© © x (t ) ¹ ¹ ª c º I xl(t) then xl(t) = V(t)exp( j (t) ) ¨ x (t ) ¸ tan  1© s ¹ = x (t )  x (t ) © x (t ) ¹ ª c º 2 c 2 s V(t) (t) R V(t) & (t) are slowly time varying  monochromatic phasor has constant amplitude & phase  bandpass signal¶s phase & envelope vary slowly with time vector representation moves on a curve in the complex plane 10 .

sQ(t)sin(2 fct)  sI(t) = in-phase component of s(t)  sQ(t) = quadrature component of s(t) properties of sI(t) & sQ(t)  are real valued functions  are orthogonal to each other  are uniquely defined in terms of the baseband signal m(t)  two components can be used to synthesize modulated signal s(t) 11 . s(t) has 2 components s(t) = sI(t)cos(2 fct) .II. Complex Representation of Linear Modulated Signals & Bandpass System canonical representation of any bandpass signal.

circuit used to synthesize s(t) from sI(t) & sQ(t) sI(t) oscillator cos(2Tfct) 7 90o sin(2Tfct) s(t) sQ(t) circuits used to analyze sI(t) & sQ(t) based on s(t). LPF 2cos(2Tfct) oscillator 9 o sI(t) s(t) -2sin(2Tfct) LPF sQ(t) 12 .

Complex Envelope of a Band-Pass Signal s(t) is given as s(t) = sI(t) + jsQ(t) s(t) preserves information content of s(t).1.sQ(t)sin(2 fct) 13 . s(t) = Re{s(t)e(2 fct)} imag = sI(t)cos(2 fct) .sQ(t)sin(2 fct) + j[sI(t)sin(2 fct)+sQ(t)cos(2 fct)] real then. except for fc(t) s(t)e(2 fct) = [sI(t) + jsQ(t)] [cos(2 fct) + jsin(2 fct)] = sI(t)cos(2 fct) .

hQ(t)sin(2 fct) use equivalent complex baseband model to simplify analysis  impulse response given by h(t) = hI(t) + jhQ(t) x(t) h(t) 2 (t) 14 . Consider a narrowband linear band-pass system  system is narrowband if bandwidth W << fc . the system¶s center frequency h(t) x(t) y(t)  input x(t) is modulated by carrier. fc  output = y(t) canonical representation of system¶s impulse response given by: h(t) = hI(t)cos(2 fct) .2.

2.1 Passband Analysis of LTI System g y(t) = ´ x(P)h(t  P)dP g g y(t) = ´ [xI(P)cos(2 fc P)-xQ(t)sin(2 fc P)]· g [hI(t-P)cos(2 fct-P)-hQ(t-P)sin(2 fct-P)]dP g = ´ xI(t) hI(t-P) cos(2 fct)cos(2 fct-P) dP g g + ´ xQ(t) hQ(t-P) sin(2 fct)sin(2 fct-P) dP g g - ´ xI(t)hQ(t-P)cos(2 g g fct)sin(2 fct-P) dP ´ g xQ(t)hI(t-P)cos(2 fct-P)sin(2 fct) dP 15 .

Passband Analysis of LTI System (continued) y(t) = ´ xI(t) hI(t-P) ½[ cos(P) + cos(4 fc t-P) ] dP      g + ´ xQ(t) hQ(t-P) ½[ cos(P) .sin(P) ] dP ´ xQ(t)hI(t-P)½[ sin(4 g 16 .cos(4 fc t-P) ] dP g g - ´ xI(t)hQ(t-P)½[ sin(4 g g fc tP) + sin(P) ] dP fc tP) .

)]d = ´ hI(t.hQ(t.2.)xQ(t) + j[xQ(t)hI(t.2 Equivalent Complex Baseband Model  complex input & output are complex envelopes of bandpass systems input & output x(t) = xI(t) + jxQ(t) (t) = yI(t) + jyQ(t) is the complex envelope of x(t) is the complex envelope of y(t)  complex envelopes are related by complex convolution 1 1 ~ ~ (t) = ´ ~(P )h (t  P )dP = ´ ~(t  P )h (P )dP x x 2 g 2 g g g = ´ [xI(t) + jxQ(t)] [hI(t.)xI(t) .)xI(t)]d ¢  17 ¢ ¡  ¡ .) + hQ(t.) + jhQ(t.

Equivalent Notation for complex baseband model ( µ¶ = convolution) (t) = ½ (x(t) h(t)) = ½(h(t)  x(t))  ½ factor added to maintain equivalence between real & complex models  fc is omitted from complex baseband model simplifies analysis without loss of information Impulse response of band-pass system given by h(t) = Re{h(t)exp(2 fct)} = Re{ (hI(t) + jhQ(t)) (cos(2 fct) + jsin(2 fct) ) } = hI(t)cos(2 fct) .hQ(t) sin(2 fct) Passband signals are readily determined from (t) and x(t) x(t) = Re{x(t)exp(2 fct)} y(t) = Re{ (t)exp(2 fct)} 18 .

then: (i) exp( j(2Tf0t+Jx )) = cos(2Tf0t +Jx) + jsin(2Tf0t +Jx) (ii) x(t) = Re[Ex ( cos(2Tf0t +Jx) + jsin(2Tf0t +Jx) )] = Re [Ex exp(j(2Tf0t + Jx))] = Re [Ex exp(jJx) exp(j2Tf0t )] tR tR tR  phasor representing phase & magnitude of x(t) = complex envelope: Ex exp(jJx) = Ex cos(Jx) + jEx sin(Jx) Ex = magnitude Jx = argument (phase of x(t)) 19 .viewed as an extension of phasor for a real harmonic signal x(t) x(t) = Ex cos(2Tf0t + Jx) tR  assume Ex u 0 and phase is 0 e Jx < 2T.Appendix: More on Complex Envelope .

derive complex envelope for any real continuous signal. suppress negative frequencies & multiply by 2 xp(f) = Ex exp(jJx)H(f-f0) iii. i. take Inverse Fourier Transform F-1[xe(f) ] = xe(t) = Ex exp(jJx) 20 fR fR . Take Fourier Transform of x(t) X(f) = F[Ex cos(2Tf0t+ Jx)] = 1 Ex exp(jJx)H(f-f0) + 1 Ex exp(-jJx)H(f+f0) 2 2 tR ii. x(t) assume x(t) = Re [xe(t) exp(j2Tf0t )] where xe(t)= Ex exp(jJx). shift left by f0 to obtain frequency signal xe(f) = Ex exp(jJx)H(f0) iv.

Pure Harmonic signal given by x(t) = E cos(2Tf1t + Jx) where Ex u 0 0 e Jx < 2T i.e. FT yields X(f) = ½ E exp(jJx)H(f-f1) + ½ E exp(-jJx)H(f+f1) tR ii.g. xe(f) = E exp(jJ)H(f-f1+f0) iv xe(t) = E exp(jJ)exp(2jT(f1-f0))t  if f1 = f0  if |f1-f0| << f0 tR complex envelope = phasor xe varies slowly compared to exp(2jTf0t) 21 . xp(f) = E exp(jJ)H(f-f1) iii.

& F(x) has no delta function at f = 0 pre-envelope (aka analytical) of x is complex valued signal xp with F[xp] = xp(f) = 2X(F)1(f) fR complex-envelope of x with respect to frequency f0 is signal xe xe(f) = xp(f+f0) = 2X(f+f0) 1(f+f0) xe(t) = F-1[ xe(f) ] fR 22 . continuous function.If x(t) = real.

band-limited signal  fc = center frequency & W = bandwidth  where W < fc.Complex Envelope for let x(t) = real. band-pass. are positive real numbers (W << fc x(t) is narrowband)  X(f) = 0 for X(f) 0 | f | < fc-W W -fc Ö xp( f ) and | f | > fc+W fR W 0 fc xp = analytical 0 fc Ö xe ( f ) xe = complex envelope with respect to f0  contains only low frequencies  f0  R+ xe is not uniquely defined 0 23 .