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# Band Pass Systems, Phasors and Complex Representation of Systems KEY LEARNING OBJECTIVES I.

Phasors (complex envelope) representation for sinusoidal signal narrow band signal II. Complex Representation of Linear Modulated Signals & Bandpass System

Phasors and Complex Representation are useful for analyzing baseband component of a signal eliminates high frequency carrier components

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I. Phasors for monochromatic & narrow band signals x(t) is a narrowband signal (aka bandpass signal) if X(f) 0 in some small neighborhood of f0 , a high frequency X(f) 0 for | f ± f0 | W where W < f0 f0 is usually referred to as center frequency, but need not be center frequency or in signal bandwidth at all

2W

-f -W -f

-f

X(f)

+W f -W f f +W

h(t) is a Bandpass System,, that passes signals with frequency components in the neighborhood of some frequency, f0 H(f) = 1 for | f ± f0 | W otherwise H(f) § 0

X(f)

H(f)

X(f)

** bandpass system h(t) passes a bandpass signal x(t)
**

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Consider LTI system driven by input x(t) output determined by multiplying X & frequency response of system computed at input frequency. f0 input & output frequencies are same output phasor gives output signal X(f) H(f) Y(f) determine the phasor for sinusoida1 signal and narrowband signal capture phase and magnitude of base band signal ignore effects of the carrier 3 .

determination of phasor.rotate z(t) at an angular frequency = 2 f0 in opposite direction .1.equivalent to multiplying z(t) by exp(2 f0t) X = z(t) exp(-j2 f0t ) = Aexp(j(2 f0t = Aexp(j ) ))exp(-j2 f0t ) x(t) 4 . X for sinusoidal input signal x(t) x(t) = Acos(2 f0 t xq(t) = Asin(2 f0 t ) ) quadrature component shifted 90o from x(t) (i) define a signal z(t) as a vector rotating with angular frequency 2 f0 z(t) = Aexp(j(2 f0t = Acos(2 f0t = x(t) jxq(t) ) )) jAsin(2 f0t ) I xq(t) 2 f0 Aexp(j ) R (ii) obtain phasor X from z(t) by eliminating 2 f0 rotation .

1a.j sin( )[ (f+f0) . delete negative frequencies & multiply by 2 x(t) = Acos(2 f0t ) = Acos( )cos(2 f0t) + Asin( )sin(2 f0t) A A X(f) = cos( )[ (f±f0 ) + (f+f0)] . using either or two methods (1) determine X(f) = F[x(t)].)} Z(f) = Aexp(j ) (f ± f0 ) (ii) then shift Z(f) by f0 X = Aexp(j ) 5 . determine Frequency Domain equivalent of z(t) and X (i) obtain Z(f).(f-f0)] 2 2 2A [cos( ) (f±f0 ) + jsin( ) (f±f0 )] Z(f) = 2 (2) determine Z(f) = F[z(t)] z(t) = Aexp(j(2 f0t + )) = Aexp(j )exp(j2 f0t ) since F[exp(j2 t)] = { (f.

x(t) based on definition of z(t) in sinusoid case: z(t) = x(t) + jxq(t) find Z(f) by deleting negative frequencies of X(f) & multiply result by 2 Z(f) = 2u-1(f)X(f) z(t) is known as the analytic signal or pre-envelope of x(t) find z(t) using IFT find signal whose Fourier transform = u-1(f) 1 1 H( f ) 2 j 2Tf we know that F[u-1(t)] = by duality j » «1 F ¬ H (t ) ¼ = u-1(f) 2Tt ½ 2 j¸ ¨ H (t ) ¹ x(t ) by convolution z(t) = © Tt º ª let Ö x (t ) ! 1 x(t ) Tt then z(t) = Ö x ( t ) jx ( t ) 6 .2. determine phasor for a narrowband signal.

pre-envelope for two types of signals (i) sinusoid case z(t) = x(t) + jxq(t) x(t) = Acos(2 f0 t+ ) xq(t)= Asin(2 f0 t+ ) (ii) narrowband case Ö z(t) = x(t) + j x (t ) 1 x (t ) Tt Ö Hilbert Transform of x(t) is given by x(t ) ! T phase shift x(t) by for positive frequencies 2 T phase shift x(t) by for negative frequencies 2 7 .

determine phasor. xl(t) of bandpass signal x(t) xl(t) = low pass representation of x(t) determined by shifting spectrum of z(t) left by f0 Xl(f) = Z(f + f0) = 2u-1(f + f0)X(f + f0) xl(t) = z(t)exp(-j2 f0t) f0 Z(f) X(f) A f0 2A f f xl(t) is a low pass signal Xl(f) 0 for all | f | W phasor for band pass signal Xl(f) f0 2A f 8 .

xs(t)sin(2 f0t) Ö x ( t ) = Im{z(t)} = xc(t)sin(2 f0t)+xs(t)cos(2 f0t) Ö bandpass to lowpass transform describes relationship of x(t) & x ( t )in terms of xc(t) & xs(t) 9 .Generally xl(t) is complex signal with real (in phase) & imaginary (quadrature) components xl(t) = xc(t) + jxs(t) Ö z(t) = x ( t ) j x ( t ) rewrite in terms of quadrature & in-phase components z(t) = xl(t)exp(j2 f0t) = [xc(t) + jxs(t)]exp(j2 f0t) = xc(t)cos(2 f0t) .xs(t)sin(2 f0t) + j[xc(t)sin(2 f0t)+xs(t)cos(2 f0t)] equate real & imaginary parts of z(t) and xl(t) x(t) = Re{z(t)} = xc(t)cos(2 f0t) .

Define xl(t) in terms of phase & envelope define envelope of xl(t) as V(t) = define phase of xl(t) as 2 xc (t ) xs2 (t ) ¨ xs ( t ) ¸ (t) = tan 1© © x (t ) ¹ ¹ ª c º I xl(t) then xl(t) = V(t)exp( j (t) ) ¨ x (t ) ¸ tan 1© s ¹ = x (t ) x (t ) © x (t ) ¹ ª c º 2 c 2 s V(t) (t) R V(t) & (t) are slowly time varying monochromatic phasor has constant amplitude & phase bandpass signal¶s phase & envelope vary slowly with time vector representation moves on a curve in the complex plane 10 .

sQ(t)sin(2 fct) sI(t) = in-phase component of s(t) sQ(t) = quadrature component of s(t) properties of sI(t) & sQ(t) are real valued functions are orthogonal to each other are uniquely defined in terms of the baseband signal m(t) two components can be used to synthesize modulated signal s(t) 11 . s(t) has 2 components s(t) = sI(t)cos(2 fct) .II. Complex Representation of Linear Modulated Signals & Bandpass System canonical representation of any bandpass signal.

circuit used to synthesize s(t) from sI(t) & sQ(t) sI(t) oscillator cos(2Tfct) 7 90o sin(2Tfct) s(t) sQ(t) circuits used to analyze sI(t) & sQ(t) based on s(t). LPF 2cos(2Tfct) oscillator 9 o sI(t) s(t) -2sin(2Tfct) LPF sQ(t) 12 .

Complex Envelope of a Band-Pass Signal s(t) is given as s(t) = sI(t) + jsQ(t) s(t) preserves information content of s(t).1.sQ(t)sin(2 fct) 13 . s(t) = Re{s(t)e(2 fct)} imag = sI(t)cos(2 fct) .sQ(t)sin(2 fct) + j[sI(t)sin(2 fct)+sQ(t)cos(2 fct)] real then. except for fc(t) s(t)e(2 fct) = [sI(t) + jsQ(t)] [cos(2 fct) + jsin(2 fct)] = sI(t)cos(2 fct) .

hQ(t)sin(2 fct) use equivalent complex baseband model to simplify analysis impulse response given by h(t) = hI(t) + jhQ(t) x(t) h(t) 2 (t) 14 . Consider a narrowband linear band-pass system system is narrowband if bandwidth W << fc . the system¶s center frequency h(t) x(t) y(t) input x(t) is modulated by carrier. fc output = y(t) canonical representation of system¶s impulse response given by: h(t) = hI(t)cos(2 fct) .2.

2.1 Passband Analysis of LTI System g y(t) = ´ x(P)h(t P)dP g g y(t) = ´ [xI(P)cos(2 fc P)-xQ(t)sin(2 fc P)]· g [hI(t-P)cos(2 fct-P)-hQ(t-P)sin(2 fct-P)]dP g = ´ xI(t) hI(t-P) cos(2 fct)cos(2 fct-P) dP g g + ´ xQ(t) hQ(t-P) sin(2 fct)sin(2 fct-P) dP g g - ´ xI(t)hQ(t-P)cos(2 g g fct)sin(2 fct-P) dP ´ g xQ(t)hI(t-P)cos(2 fct-P)sin(2 fct) dP 15 .

Passband Analysis of LTI System (continued) y(t) = ´ xI(t) hI(t-P) ½[ cos(P) + cos(4 fc t-P) ] dP g + ´ xQ(t) hQ(t-P) ½[ cos(P) .sin(P) ] dP ´ xQ(t)hI(t-P)½[ sin(4 g 16 .cos(4 fc t-P) ] dP g g - ´ xI(t)hQ(t-P)½[ sin(4 g g fc tP) + sin(P) ] dP fc tP) .

)]d = ´ hI(t.hQ(t.2.)xQ(t) + j[xQ(t)hI(t.2 Equivalent Complex Baseband Model complex input & output are complex envelopes of bandpass systems input & output x(t) = xI(t) + jxQ(t) (t) = yI(t) + jyQ(t) is the complex envelope of x(t) is the complex envelope of y(t) complex envelopes are related by complex convolution 1 1 ~ ~ (t) = ´ ~(P )h (t P )dP = ´ ~(t P )h (P )dP x x 2 g 2 g g g = ´ [xI(t) + jxQ(t)] [hI(t.)xI(t) .)xI(t)]d ¢ 17 ¢ ¡ ¡ .) + hQ(t.) + jhQ(t.

Equivalent Notation for complex baseband model ( µ¶ = convolution) (t) = ½ (x(t) h(t)) = ½(h(t) x(t)) ½ factor added to maintain equivalence between real & complex models fc is omitted from complex baseband model simplifies analysis without loss of information Impulse response of band-pass system given by h(t) = Re{h(t)exp(2 fct)} = Re{ (hI(t) + jhQ(t)) (cos(2 fct) + jsin(2 fct) ) } = hI(t)cos(2 fct) .hQ(t) sin(2 fct) Passband signals are readily determined from (t) and x(t) x(t) = Re{x(t)exp(2 fct)} y(t) = Re{ (t)exp(2 fct)} 18 .

then: (i) exp( j(2Tf0t+Jx )) = cos(2Tf0t +Jx) + jsin(2Tf0t +Jx) (ii) x(t) = Re[Ex ( cos(2Tf0t +Jx) + jsin(2Tf0t +Jx) )] = Re [Ex exp(j(2Tf0t + Jx))] = Re [Ex exp(jJx) exp(j2Tf0t )] tR tR tR phasor representing phase & magnitude of x(t) = complex envelope: Ex exp(jJx) = Ex cos(Jx) + jEx sin(Jx) Ex = magnitude Jx = argument (phase of x(t)) 19 .viewed as an extension of phasor for a real harmonic signal x(t) x(t) = Ex cos(2Tf0t + Jx) tR assume Ex u 0 and phase is 0 e Jx < 2T.Appendix: More on Complex Envelope .

derive complex envelope for any real continuous signal. suppress negative frequencies & multiply by 2 xp(f) = Ex exp(jJx)H(f-f0) iii. i. take Inverse Fourier Transform F-1[xe(f) ] = xe(t) = Ex exp(jJx) 20 fR fR . Take Fourier Transform of x(t) X(f) = F[Ex cos(2Tf0t+ Jx)] = 1 Ex exp(jJx)H(f-f0) + 1 Ex exp(-jJx)H(f+f0) 2 2 tR ii. x(t) assume x(t) = Re [xe(t) exp(j2Tf0t )] where xe(t)= Ex exp(jJx). shift left by f0 to obtain frequency signal xe(f) = Ex exp(jJx)H(f0) iv.

Pure Harmonic signal given by x(t) = E cos(2Tf1t + Jx) where Ex u 0 0 e Jx < 2T i.e. FT yields X(f) = ½ E exp(jJx)H(f-f1) + ½ E exp(-jJx)H(f+f1) tR ii.g. xe(f) = E exp(jJ)H(f-f1+f0) iv xe(t) = E exp(jJ)exp(2jT(f1-f0))t if f1 = f0 if |f1-f0| << f0 tR complex envelope = phasor xe varies slowly compared to exp(2jTf0t) 21 . xp(f) = E exp(jJ)H(f-f1) iii.

& F(x) has no delta function at f = 0 pre-envelope (aka analytical) of x is complex valued signal xp with F[xp] = xp(f) = 2X(F)1(f) fR complex-envelope of x with respect to frequency f0 is signal xe xe(f) = xp(f+f0) = 2X(f+f0) 1(f+f0) xe(t) = F-1[ xe(f) ] fR 22 . continuous function.If x(t) = real.

band-limited signal fc = center frequency & W = bandwidth where W < fc.Complex Envelope for let x(t) = real. band-pass. are positive real numbers (W << fc x(t) is narrowband) X(f) = 0 for X(f) 0 | f | < fc-W W -fc Ö xp( f ) and | f | > fc+W fR W 0 fc xp = analytical 0 fc Ö xe ( f ) xe = complex envelope with respect to f0 contains only low frequencies f0 R+ xe is not uniquely defined 0 23 .