EE384y: Packet Switch Architectures
Matchings, implementation and heuristics
Nick McKeown
Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Stanford University
nickm@stanford.edu
www.stanford.edu/~nickm
Outline
Finding a maximum match.
Maximum network flow problems
_{•} Definitions and example _{•} Augmenting paths
Maximum size/weight matchings as examples of maximum network flows
_{•} Maximum size matching _{•} Complexity of maximum size matchings and maximum weight matchings
What algorithms are used in practice?
Maximal Matches Wavefront Arbiter (WFA) Parallel Iterative Matching (PIM) iSLIP
Network Flows
a
c
10
10
10
1
1
10
10
b
d
1
Source
s
Sink
t
_{•}
•
•
Let G = [V,E] be a directed graph with capacity cap(v,w) on edge [v,w].
A flow is an (integer) function, f, that is chosen
for each edge so that
f (v,w)
cap(v,w).
We wish to maximize the flow allocation.
A maximum network flow example
By inspection
a
c
10
Source
Sink
10
10
s
1
t
1
10
10
b
d
1
Step 1:
a
c
10, 10
Source
Sink
10, 10
s
1
10, 10
t
1
10
10
b
d
1
Flow is of size 10
A maximum network flow example
Step 2:
a
c
10, 10
10, 10
1
10, 10
1
10, 1
b
d
10, 1
1, 1
Flow is of size 10+1 = 11
Source
s
Sink
t

Not
Maximum flow:
a
c
10, 9
10, 10
1,1
10, 10
1,1
10, 2
b
d
10, 2
1, 1
Source
s
Sink
t
obvious
Flow is of size 10+2 = 12
FordFulkerson method of augmenting paths

1. Set f(v,w) = f(w,v) on all edges.

2. Define a Residual Graph, R, in which res(v,w) = cap(v,w) – f(v,w)

3. Find paths from s to t for which there is positive residue.
Example of Residual Graph
a
c
10, 10
10, 10
1
10, 10
1
10
10
b
d
1
Flow is of size 10
res(v,w) = cap(v,w) – f(v,w)
c
10
10
1
s
t
Residual Graph, R
s
t
Augmenting path
Example of Residual Graph
Step 2:
a
c
10, 10
10, 10
s
1
10, 10
t
1
10, 1
b
d
10, 1
1, 1
Flow is of size 10+1 = 11
Residual Graph
a
c
10
10
10
1
s
t
1
1
1
b
d
1
9
9
Example of Residual Graph
Step 3:
a
c
10, 9
10, 10
s
1, 1
10, 10
t
1, 1
10, 2
b
d
10, 2
1, 1
Flow is of size 10+2 = 12
1
Residual Graph
a
c
9
10
10
1
s
1
2
2
b
d
1
8
8
t
Complexity of network flow problems
In general, it is possible to find a solution by considering at most V.E paths, by
picking shortest augmenting path first.
There are many variations, such as picking
most augmenting path first.
Outline
Finding a maximum match.
Maximum network flow problems
_{•} Definitions and example _{•} Augmenting paths
Maximum size/weight matchings as examples of maximum network flows
_{•} Maximum size matching _{•} Complexity of maximum size matchings and maximum weight matchings
What algorithms are used in practice?
Maximal Matches Wavefront Arbiter (WFA) Parallel Iterative Matching (PIM) iSLIP
Finding a maximum size match
How do we find the maximum size (weight) match?
Network flows and bipartite matching
Sink
t
Source
s
Finding a maximum size bipartite matching is equivalent to solving a network flow problem with capacities and flows of size 1.
Network flows and bipartite matching
FordFulkerson method
Residual Graph for first three paths:
s
t
Network flows and bipartite matching
Residual Graph for next two paths:
s
t
Network flows and bipartite matching
Residual Graph for augmenting path:
s
t
Network flows and bipartite matching
Residual Graph for last augmenting path:
s
t
Note that the path augments the match: no input and output is removed from the match during the augmenting step.
Network flows and bipartite matching
Maximum flow graph:
s
t
Network flows and bipartite matching
Maximum Size Matching:
Complexity of Maximum Matchings
Maximum Size Matchings:
Algorithm by Dinic O(N ^{5}^{/}^{2} )
Maximum Weight Matchings
Algorithm by Kuhn O(N ^{3} )
In general:
Hard to implement in hardware Slooooow.
Outline
Finding a maximum match.
Maximum network flow problems
_{•} Definitions and example _{•} Augmenting paths
Maximum size/weight matchings as examples of maximum network flows
_{•} Maximum size matching _{•} Complexity of maximum size matchings and maximum weight matchings
What algorithms are used in practice?
Maximal Matches Wavefront Arbiter (WFA) Parallel Iterative Matching (PIM) iSLIP
Maximal Matching
A maximal matching is one in which each edge is added one at a time, and is not later removed from the matching.
i.e. no augmenting paths allowed (they remove edges added earlier).
No input and output are left unnecessarily idle.
Example of Maximal Size Matching
Maximal Size Matching
Maximum Size Matching
Maximal Matchings
In general, maximal matching is simpler to implement, and has a faster running time.
A maximal size matching is at least half the size of a maximum size matching.
A maximal weight matching is defined in the obvious way.
A maximal weight matching is at least half the weight of a maximum weight matching.
Outline
Finding a maximum match.
Maximum network flow problems
_{•} Definitions and example _{•} Augmenting paths
Maximum size/weight matchings as examples of maximum network flows
_{•} Maximum size matching _{•} Complexity of maximum size matchings and maximum weight matchings
What algorithms are used in practice?
Maximal Matches Wavefront Arbiter (WFA) Parallel Iterative Matching (PIM) iSLIP
Wavefront Arbiters
Properties
Feedforward (i.e. noniterative) design lends itself to pipelining. Always finds maximal match. Usually requires mechanism to prevent Q _{1}_{1} from getting preferential service. In principle, can be distributed over multiple chips.
Outline
Finding a maximum match.
Maximum network flow problems
_{•} Definitions and example _{•} Augmenting paths
Maximum size/weight matchings as examples of maximum network flows
_{•} Maximum size matching _{•} Complexity of maximum size matchings and maximum weight matchings
What algorithms are used in practice?
Maximal Matches Wavefront Arbiter (WFA) Parallel Iterative Matching (PIM) iSLIP
_{I}_{t} _{e} _{r}_{a} _{t} _{i}_{o} _{n} _{:}
#1
#2
Parallel Iterative Matching
uar selection
uar selection
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
2: Grant
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
1: Requests
3: Accept/Match
PIM Properties
Guaranteed to find a maximal match in at most N iterations.
In each phase, each input and output arbiter can make decisions independently.
In general, will converge to a maximal match in < N iterations.
How many iterations should we run?
Parallel Iterative Matching
Convergence Time
Number of iterations to converge:
C
=
# of iterations required to resolve connections
N 2
E
[
U
]

i
i
N
=
# of ports
4
=
#
of unresolved connections after iteration i
E[C]
logN
U i
Parallel Iterative Matching
Parallel Iterative Matching
PIM with a
single iteration
Parallel Iterative Matching
Outline
Finding a maximum match.
Maximum network flow problems
_{•} Definitions and example _{•} Augmenting paths
Maximum size/weight matchings as examples of maximum network flows
_{•} Maximum size matching _{•} Complexity of maximum size matchings and maximum weight matchings
What algorithms are used in practice?
Maximal Matches Wavefront Arbiter (WFA) Parallel Iterative Matching (PIM) iSLIP
iSLIP Operation
Grant phase: Each output selects the requesting input at the pointer, or the next input in roundrobin order. It only updates
its pointer if the grant is accepted.
Accept phase: Each input selects the granting output at the pointer, or the next output in roundrobin order.
Consequence: Under high load, grant pointers tend to move to unique values.
iSLIP
Properties
Random under low load TDM under high load Lowest priority to MRU 1 iteration: fair to outputs
Converges in at most N iterations. (On average, simulations suggest < log _{2} N)
Implementation: N priority encoders 100% throughput for uniform i.i.d. traffic.
But…some pathological patterns can lead to low throughput.
Maximal Matches
Maximal matching algorithms are widely used in industry (PIM, iSLIP, WFA and others).
PIM and iSLIP are rarely run to completion (i.e. they are submaximal).
A maximal match with a speedup of 2 is stable for nonuniform traffic.
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