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POWJS ZC234

Linear Algebra & Optimization

BITS Pilani RAKHEE

Department of Mathematics

Pilani Campus

BITS Pilani

Pilani Campus

Dr. RAKHEE

Associate Professor,

Dept. of Mathematics,

BITS, Pilani.

rakhee@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in

BITS Pilani

Pilani Campus

Course Title: Linear Algebra & Optimization

Date: 30-07-2017

Contact Session 3

BITS Pilani

Pilani Campus

1. REF and RREF

2. Linear system of equations

3. Consistent and inconsistent

4. Unique, Infinitely Many and No Sol.

5. Homogeneous Equation

BITS Pilani

Pilani Campus

Topics to be covered :

1. Vector Space

2. Subspace, Span of vector space

Vector Space

multiplication .

such that :

6 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

I. UNDER VECTOR ADDITION:

V is closed under vector addition.

Moreover,

A1. u + v = v + u for all u, v V

A2. (u + v) + w = u + (v + w)

for all u, v, w V

A3. There is an element 0 V such that

0 + u = u for all u V

A4. For each u V there is -u V

such that u + (-u) = 0.

NOTE: V is a commutative group (Abelian group) under vector

addition .

7 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

II. UNDER SCALAR MULTIPLICATION:

closed under scalar multiplication.

Moreover

B1. ( u + v) = u + v

for all u, v V, for all real

8 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Example 1.

vectors and multiplication of vectors by

scalars.

9 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

B2. ( + ) u = u + u

for all u V , for all real ,

B3. ( ) u = ( u )

for all u V, for all real ,

B4. 1 . u = u for all u V,

Note: B1-B4: scalar multiplication with vectors

10 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Example 2

n in the variable x with coefficients in R.

polynomials and scalar multiplication of a

polynomial.

11 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Some important results in a vector

space

4. . u = 0 => = 0 or u = 0

12 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

SUBSPACE

subset of V.

If W is a vector space with respect to operations

in V, then W is called a subspace of V.

Every vector space has at least two subspace: {0}

and V itself.

These are known as trivial subspace & {0} is

known as zero subspace

13 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Theorem: Let V be a vector space.

Let W be non-empty subset of V.

Then, W is subspace of V iff

1. x, y W x + y W

(Closed under vector addition)

2. is scalar, x W x W.

(Closed under scalar multiplication)

14 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Ex-1: Let V = R3

Then W = {(x, y, 0 )| x, y R } is a subspace

of V.

(First show W is a non-empty set)

W = {p P| degree of p=3 }

Then W is NOT a subspace of P.

15 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Example 3. Let W be the set of points inside and on

the unit circle in the xy plane , that is,

W x, y : x 2 y 2 1 .

Then W is not a subspace of V2 as

1 1

u , W and for 4 ,

2 2

u 2,2 W .

16 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Theorem : Intersection of two subspaces is

a subspace.

Theorem : Union of two subspaces is a subspace

iff one of them is contained in other.

17 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Linear Combination

Let v1, v2, ...... , vk V.

v1, v2, ...... , vk if

v = c1 v1 + c2 v2 + ......+ ck vk , ci R

18 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Ex:(2, 3) is LC of (1, 0) and (0, 1) in R2

Ex: v = (2, 1, 5) in R3 is LC of

x = (1, 2, 1), y = (1, 0, 2), z = (1, 1, 0).

because v = x + 2y z.

19 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Span of a set:

S = { v1, v2, ...... , vk} be a subset of V.

={c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .....+ ck vk : ci R }

=set of elements generated by the elements of S

20 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Ex: Let V = R3

Let S = {(1, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1) }

21 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Theorem : Let V be a vector space.

Let S be a non-empty subset of V. Then [S] is

a subspace of V

Proof: Let u, v [S]. Then

u = c1 u1 + c2 u2 + ......+ cm um

for some scalar ci, for some uis S

and a positive integer m

22 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

v = d1 v1 + d2 v2 + ......+ dn vn

for some scalars di, for some vis S

and a positive integer n

Now u + v= c1 u1 + c2 u2 + ......+ cm um +

d1 v1 + d2 v2 + ......+ dn vn

is a finite linear combination of S

Therefore u + v [S]

23 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Simlarly,

au = (ac1) u1 + (ac2 )u2 + ......+ (acm) um

for any scalar a

is a finite linear combination of S

So a u [S]

Hence [S] is subspace of V.

24 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Ex: Let V = P2

S = { x2 + 1, x 1, x2 + x }

Does S spans V ?? i.e. V = [S] ??

Sol:

Let any element p(x) = ax2 + bx + c V ; a, b, c

are real number

Now p(x) [S] if

ax2 + bx + c = (x2 + 1)+( x 1)+( x2 + x) for

any a, b & c for some , &

25 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

System consistent if c a + b = 0

p(x) does not belongs to [S]

V is not a subset of [S]

Hence V [S]

26 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Ex: Let

a b

W : a ,b ,c R

b c

Then, W is a subspace of 2 X 2

SYMMETRIC matrices

27 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Let

1 1 1 0 0 1

S , , ,

1 1 0 0 1 0

Then S spans W. i.e. W = [S]

28 30.07.17 Contact session 3 MATH ZC234 Linear Algebra & Optimization RAKHEE, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

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