You are on page 1of 28

Business

Supply chain
Mantras

management

Shurbhi
Agarwal - 74
Sharad Ahvad -
75
Shweta Ghone
- 83
Structure Followed
• What is Supply chain?
• Objective of a supply chain
• Supply Chain Management
• Bull Whip effect
• Drivers of Supply chain performance
• Inventory policies
• Types of Distribution networks
What is Supply chain?

Supplier Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Customer

• Consists of all parties involved,


directly or indirectly, in fulfilling a
customer request
Is supply chain so simple?

Supplier Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Customer

Supplier Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Customer

Supplier Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Customer

Upstream Downstream
Process View
Customer
Customer
Order Cycle Pull

Retailer
Replenishment
Cycle

Distributor

Manufacturing
Cycle
Manufacturer Push

Procurement
Cycle
Supplier
Objective of a Supply Chain
• Maximise overall profit
• Profit
– Revenue generated from customer - costs
incurred along the entire chain
(e.g. manufacturing / storing /
distributing the product)
• When is Supply chain effective?
– Manage Product, Information and Fund
flow
Why not max. individual
profitability?
Buy Back

Manufacturer Manufacturer
No risk Cost = Rs. 1 Cost = Rs. 1
Buy Back
Profit Rs. 4000 Sharing Profit Rs. 5520 at Rs. 3
Retailer Retailer
Cost = Rs. 5
of Cost = Rs. 5
Bears Q = 1000 Q = 1200
All risk risks
Profit Rs. 4000 Profit Rs. 5160
Customer Customer
Cost = Rs. 10 Cost = Rs. 10
Demand = 900 Demand = 1080
So, what is SCM?
• Objective is to be able to have the right
products in the right quantities (at the
right place) at the right moment at
minimal cost.
Bull Whip Effect

• Each organisation seek to solve the


problem from its own perspective
– Small changes in consumer demand
result in large variations in orders
placed upstream
• Dramatic order size variation
• Amplification of order size variation as one
moves up the supply chain
Delay 2 weeks Delay 2 weeks Delay 2 weeks

Supplier Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Customer

Orders 40 Orders 25 Orders 15 Buys 10


Causes
• Little or no communication between
supply chain partners.
• Delay times between order
processing, demand, and receipt of
products.
• Over reacting to the backlog orders.
• Inaccurate demand forecasts.
Drivers of Supply Chain
Performance
• Facilities
– Production/Storage Sites
• Responsiveness Vs Efficiency
Drivers of Supply Chain
Performance
• Inventory
– Raw materials
– WIP
– Finished Goods
– Responsiveness Vs Efficiency
• Sourcing
– Outsourcing
• Transportation
Transportation Total
costs

Cost
Transport
costs

Inventory
costs

Rail Air
Inventory
• Where do we hold inventory?
– Suppliers and manufacturers
– warehouses and distribution centers
– retailers
• Types of Inventory
– raw materials
– WIP
– finished goods
• Why do we hold inventory?
– Uncertainty in supply and demand
– Lead Time
– Avoid stock outs (customer goodwill)
Terms Involved
• Inventory lot size
• Replenishment Lead time
• Stock out
• Reorder Point
• Safety stock
Relevant Costs in an Inventory
System
• Procurement costs
– Ordering cost (appx. administrative, inspection,
transportation etc.)
• Holding costs
– Maintenance and Handling
– Taxes
– Obsolescence
• Stock-outs costs
– Lost sales (Customer goodwill)
– Backorders
The Inventory Cycle

Profile of Inventory Level Over Time


Q Demand
rate Constant
Demand
Quantity
on hand

Reorder
point

Time
Receive Place Receive Place Receive
order order order order order
Lead time
Decisions
• When to order
• How much to order
• Types of System
– Continuous Review
– Periodic Review
EOQ: A View of Inventory

Note:
• No Stockouts
• Order when no inventory
• Order Size determines policy
Inventory

Order
Size

Time
EOQ - Cost Minimization Goal
The Total-Cost Curve is U-Shaped
Annual Cost

Holding Costs

Ordering Costs

Order Quantity
QO (optimal order quantity)
or EOQ (Q)
EOQ: Important
Observations
• Tradeoff between set-up costs and
holding costs when determining order
quantity.

• Total Cost is not particularly sensitive


to the optimal order quantity
Order Quantity 50% 80% 90% 100% 110% 120% 150% 200%
Cost Increase 125% 103% 101% 100% 101% 102% 108% 125%
Types of System –
Continuous Review
• Continuously monitored
– R – Reorder point, L – Lead time
– Q – Order quantity
• Time b/w orders vary but Q is fixed
Periodic Review
• Monitored at periodic intervals of
length “r”
• Quantity set as the amount
consumed during this interval
• Time b/w orders fixed
Distribution
• Steps taken to move and store a product
from supplier to customer
• Design Options
– Manufacturer storage with direct shipping
– Manufacturer storage with direct shipping
and in-transit merge
– Distributor storage with package carrier
delivery
Manufacturer storage with
direct shipping

Manufacturer

Retailer

Customers

• Drop Shipping
Manufacturer storage with
direct shipping and in-transit
merge
Manufacturer

Retailer In-transit Merge by carriers

Customers
Distributor storage with carrier
delivery

Manufacturer

Warehouse Storage by
Distributor/Retailer

Customers
To Summarize
• Components of supply chain (SC)
• Objective of SC is to max. profit
• Bull whip effect
• Facilities decisions
• Inventory policies
• Distribution networks