You are on page 1of 83

c  c  

   c  

— c      
          
   
— !  "    #
—          "" 
      $
— %    !  &  

—   c     !
—        
   
c  '
—      
   !    
   

  (
Ä    c ''
 c   
c  c  
c 
 c   
$    

    !
 
%    c
Ä c    ) 
  
Ä *      
        +,cc)
-.*)-,)c/-, 
Ä *       
 
c  '''
cc0.1     

2.(((((

  ! 


*-33, c*c-     

) 
  
—      
    
"   
  
— c !$! 
   
— )    
! 4  
 !    '
— c !  
  
 
  
— 3 
   
— +   
"   $ 
$ 
%  5(
— 3
  
6   
/)72
! 8
"  
%  5(
—  3
* 
-!  
  
 3
  
"  
 
%  5(
— )
     
   3
    
 -!   
)  ! 299:
—    c #
!  
*. / 5('

   
— .   ''
Ä c       
  ! $
Ä    '
Ä   55
c    c
— -    &  3  $ 
             
      "    
     !    %   
  $      
          
        !$  "
7 
— ; 7'(
—  $     !  
!    
— 29        
c  " <9   "  !
     
—   7 = =  $ 
 7!    ! 
— >    c  ! 
     
  !   
    $c  
   3 !      
" ; *        
c  c  6c 8  
  c '
—  c  c  !    
!  $      
c       !   
   ! 
— c       !  "
 
    
  !  
— = =   
@ 7 7       
@      ""!     ! 
@c7$        "   
    
@c       "    " 

<?
c  " c
  c  c

< < /   -  ;  . 


*   
2 2  -)       
-!   
A A   * !   3 ! 
   
B B +   * "  .  * "  
-  !  
> >      %   
    
C C   *Ec 
D D /   )  ) 
. c
Ä  c  c  
   )F 
 ! 6F8
  ! 
   F !
;  G *   
.$ 
Ä *     
  c    
    
     
"     F 
.$    
    **)/)
;  G *   .$ 
. c 6 8
Ä ;  G *      
=      =
Ä .  ) ; 
  c     
     3*c
      ;  
Ä .   7 "   
c  #*Ec 
‘ 
c  c  

22
c
— c  "      !   
   !    
      
-!   )   
Ä      "   
        
—   
 /   77 -       
     $     
    "   c  
"       "    
   !     
"       
 !        " 
   3299 $ 
Ä          
"        !  
   !  !   
       
  $   !  7
 !       
    
Ä c  $   < 2C    "   
    3 /    " 
    ""    
        7! c 
) % % 
Ä   $ !  
 H F IA2 D
 H )  IDC D
 H  I> >
 H ; <I<A
 H ; 2I<9 B
 

, 

 
) 

F,c
) 3  ; 

  3
    !   77     
!$   !     
     " *   !$ 
     
Ä   "      
 "     
 !   "  
       
  "     
       
 

  


     
F,c
3

There is a large gap in between the Orbits of the Mars and the Jupiter This gap is
occupied by a large number of small bodies that revolve around the Sun These are
called asteroids
    77 . 7     " 
      !    
 "     !    
 !        

Ä )       


 7!     / )  $ 
Ä   $    * )  
       "    
 "     J   
<<<7 6AB7 8      
<<<7 ! "   6   * 8
 ?>7 62C7 8  2A97 6D97 8
   AC7 6<<7 8   
   <299  "    AC99 
Ä    "  <     
!  3 
 
,)K299999    "     
        3
,)KD>999999
Ä ,       
   
       
      
       
       
!   $      
    %  

  J    " 
 
Ä   !$  / )  $   
    77         " 
       3      
!$        !    
     "       / ) 
$  !           
        !   " 
Ä . "     "     
   /)     3* -!    
3    <::: 
%  5(
Ä 3  6   
/)72! 8"  
Ä  3* -! 
     3
  "  
 
Ä )     
   3
     -! 
 )  ! 299:
.c $''
—.  $'
Ä 3       I
Ä <*c *-3,I
Ä c #   !      * 
      J 
 
 
Ä 2c)6c  );c*-;c/8I
Ä c      "   
   $ I/ ) 
á  


 

.  $'6 8
Ä Ac)-6-c -%) *8I
Ä c$     
 -      
 # $    
!    c #$     
Ä B 6 -L**))-c 8I
Ä c       c)#     c 
  c  &  c  " 
      "     
!  !     " $
      
Ä
.  $'6 8
Ä > -,)I
Ä            
       
Ä c 4     $    
       
Ä     $     
!            
  )    c     $
      $
    !     
.  $'6 8
Ä C +*L+- )I
Ä      !        
Ä +$!   !    $ 
Ä 3   !$!        2G! 
Ä D c  --*-6c//)))8I
Ä "     c   J    !   c
   c  c          
    "   c      7    
      "  $    "  =  =
!   !      $  !!  
Ä   !   c    !     "    
   "   !  c        
A2c      A27!  ! 
Ä   c 9 9 9 9  "      $    
2>> 2>> 2>> 2>> ! 
.  $'6 8
Ä ? --*-I
Ä     *Ec
6  *  Ec  
 8 !    
; *   *   
 c    c 
c  !   !  
c
 
  
1985 1993
SFT founded by Web Browser ͞Mosaic͟
1969 1983
The ational Science invented by Mark
p pT O Mandated pdoption of
Foundation pndreesen
 roject TCI

p pT IT T

1974 1983
Vinton Cerf p pT Split into 1991
and obert Kahn Initiated p pT and MILT World Wide Web
TCI eleased by
Tim-Berners Lee
 
 
 


     

 




  
 

  



!

 
 
   
          
       
           
      
       

L 7!  c 555
Ä  c $ $  7     
!       !     
= 7   = $"  7 
   !        
  c  c    3   !
!             
         3
     !         !
  !$    =  7 7=
    c   & !   
    "     ""   
          "  
6"       8 
  
   
Ä "           c 
      c     
       
             
! "  !    .       !
      
c  I
Ä @ )/ )  $6/) 8 
Ä @
7       3 
Ä @        
Ä </)* -LI
Ä  /)        $  !
)  $    "   
    c    
          /) 
$  #        c  
  c    /) !    
     c  c  ! !
 3c*         
c  c  )          
/)  !   3    
 3   <2  )  !  
3" 7     !    
  3  " !   
" 3      c  
— 2)c*- )c- I
Ä ,    3 $   /)   
     
     
3     3!
Ä  
      
         
       
 !$3   3
       
   !     c 
$       
      7
!    "   
— A--*-,)/I
Ä     "   c   
            
"         
   !$!      
  c   6c8    
  6*8     
Ä ; *        
 "      !  !  
  "       !   
       $ 
 c     "  $  
      c  !$ 
 $     
Ä      /    - ! 
      
 7     / 
c   !    !
* .  2
Ä /     ! A99   
  "         
 2B $
Ä     " ""   
    !     7
!  
Ä $  /   J  1   
 1+ "       
    "       - 
      
  !  !    !
 
Ä =  =        
         
       
         
        
c  c  = $
     =
Ä      "  7 7    
        "! 7
  "    &  
        =!  = 7
 "      & )  7 7%
! 
Ä , $    #!$!  "    
  "   !       
 $    !$!  
       "     
          #
!$!  $ H   ! ! 
      
!H  
  !$!       
   $ 
  !       I
 @c    0   1 " 
 7  !         
      !  
 @c "           
$      "      !
    = = c   
         $  
  !     !     
        6  "  8
      ! "   
 @c          $  7!7
  7 7!     7 
      !!     
  
 -             
68          
  c $ $  7     
!       !     = 7
  = $"  7    !  
         c  c    3
  !!            
          3
     !         !  
!$    =  7 7=    c  
 & !       "     "" 
            " 
 6"       8 
        !  6  8  
     c  4    # c  
 6c8           $ 
     !    7 7      !  
           
 " !     c  #  * 
 6*8
      /    - ! 
      
 7     / 
c   !    !
* .  2
 /     ! A99   
  "         
 2B $
     " ""   
    !     7
!  
 $  /   J  1   
 1+ "       
    "       - 
      
  !  !    !
 
 =  =        
         
       
         
        
c  c  = $
     =
      "  7 7 
          
  "! 7  "  
  &     
    =!  = 7 " 
     & )  7 7
%! 
 +  ) "     
 +     7
   $ "  
  7     "  
    I 
         !
7 7  !  7 7   
  7 7       
  +       
    ,L7/3*   299?
  
      7 7 
      
*%/      / 
c *%/  **)/)% / " 
 
-  &  !  
 *   " * ) / ) 
6**)/)8I7!   4 
     c << ! 
  22! "    " <99
   
 )F  ! 6F8
 *)E**))6   *   )  
  E  * *! " 
  )   )  8  
  ;  
  c    $% 6c%8
  c  c    G
6c G8
  c%6c     $% 8
*. G)-c  
c  6/c)/; G)8
    c  $  "  
 !      !      
     
     "   "  !   
 " 4  3  !  
     I
 @  77    
 @ ) 
 @)     
 @ ! $ ! $7  
 @      
Ä <)/-%cG./I
 -         c   
         +    
" A$ $   $     
    $     
    c      !       
   3 ! !  A?  6>C
 $8 2B?  6B99 $8  
        $  "   
     "       
c    ! !      7  
   c         7 7
     !   
!   "        !    
 
Ä 2-),I
 4!  !  c  c   
    !  "        
     
 3       
         
!   !     !   
          
     *  " 7  
     !   !    ! 
3            
   
 A)c3c   *I
      3 $!    
           ! 
      
        
      "  !  
 !        
Ä B.*L)I
 .$    !         c  + $7
     "       ! 
     "      7
    / "    $  "       
   ! !          
"  !  !  $       ! 
!    / "  $   )  )$  
6))8           
   c 

Ä > -c)c % *I


 "       !  ! "   

            !  
       )        ! "  !  
              c ! " 
  
c*c- )M%,,
/;-3 )
    c  ! 
3            
     c   ! 
      
    
"  c   ! !     
 $         !  
     c   ! !  
$ "        
3   )        
F       c  I
Ä )- -3c*)*.I
 c       " " 
      "          
  ! "! c    $ 
    "    
Ä ,+c*;cc GI
 . !E    " !"   
           "     
         "   ! 
!        ! "  
 
    c 
 / 7    $ 
 " 4    
     c  c  
          
  !  "   
"       
Ä ;c,-/I
 * !       
"     !   
       $ 
       

   " "     
 
Ä )*-,c)3 
%   "  
%   "  
Ä %,,/;-3 )
— <*- *c;cI
Ä c      # "    
     $  $!  
3   *  )   
   /)  #     c 
 +  / )  $  
"    " <2  c
  !      /) 
       !  " 
   $  " !    
— 2)*,cI
Ä )     c     "  
  )    ))6)  )$  8
        " 
c  c ! "   ))   
         ! 
     !      
   .$     

— A+ /c/.I
Ä  " !       
 <3!"    G!  
   !$!      " 
"      !    J  
        " !   
— B-),I
Ä  !      
   )  !  
    )    " 
    !     
Ä  c  $    
!      3    
7            
     ! 

     7!  
    
    
 c     3  
    )    
0 1!   !0   0
0  1  
*- *,)c-
M c  c         
         $!     c 
     , "  
M   $  $       ! 
   " "           
  3             3
    !      
M     c  c  
 
!              
c      !  
    
   ! !      ! 
 "  3      J     
3    4   !   "    !  !
 "    c    ) )    6!" 8  3 
             
 $