What is Food Additives?!!!?!!?!?!?!?

Wikipedia: Substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste and appearance. Textbook: Added to food so that they last longer, make food more appetizing and delicious.

Types of FOOD ADDITIVES
Type of food additive Preservatives Antioxidants Flavouring agents Stabilizers and thickening agents Dyes OMG! Have to memorize! Examples Sodium Nitrite, sodium benzoate Ascorbic Acid Monosodium Glutamate (MSG, Ajinomoto), aspartame, Acacia gum, azo compounds, triphenyl compounds

Preservatives
‡ Chemicals that are added to food to RETARD microorganisms growth

Preserving Strawberries using Sugar Yum Yum!

Common Preservatives
Preservative Sodium nitrite Sodium nitrate Molecular Formula NaNO2 NaNO3 Uses ‡To preserve meat, sausage cheese«.. ‡Maintain meat¶s natural colour ‡To preserve sauces, juices, jam, margarine ‡Used as Bleaches and antioxidants ‡Maintain colour and freshness of veggies Prevent microorganism growth

Benzoic acid Sodium benzoate Sulphur Dioxide Sodium Sulphite

C6H5COOH C6H5COONa SO2 Na2SO3

Antioxidants
‡ Antioxidants are chemicals that are added to food, preventing oxidation of fat and oils. ‡ Oxidised food are rancid. Rancid food are volatile organic compounds with bad smellexample Butanoic Acid (C3H7COOH)
Comparison between oxidised apple and unoxidised

Flavoring agents
Two Types

Artificial Flavours

Flavour Enhancers

Flavour Enhancer
‡ Little or no taste. ‡ Added to enhance or bring out the taste of food ‡ Example: Monosodium Glutamate/Ajinomoto
Malaysia¶s favorite additive: Ajinomoto

Artificial Flavours
‡ Includes sweeteners and peppermint, vanilla flavours. ‡ Example: Aspartame, saccharin ‡ Some esters can also be used. Examples
Ester Flavour Benzyl ethanoate Strawberry Octyl ethanoate Orange Ethyl ethanoate Pineapple

Stabilisers
‡ Improves the texture and blending in food ‡ They are emulsifiers (allows water and oil to blend) ‡ Ex: Gelatin, acacia gum, lecithin, pectin ‡ Stabilisers improves the texture of:

Thickening Agents
‡ Thickens the liquids in food and prevents liquefaction. ‡ They absorb water, producing jelly-like structures. Ex: Gelatin, pectin ‡ Used in:

Dyes (not dies)
‡ Chemicals to give food colours ‡ Synthetic food colours are used to:
Restore food colours Enhance natural colours Give colours to colourless food

‡ The synthetic colours used are azo and triphenyl compounds. ‡ Azo compounds contain diazo group, - N = N ± ‡ Triphenyl compounds contain 3 phenyl groups: - C6H5

Effects of food additives: Allergy
‡ Food additives such as sodium sulphite, BHA & BHT, MSG and some food colours can cause allergic reaction. ‡ Example: Chinese restaurant syndrome, caused by MSG,³Blue baby syndrome´ caused by sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite.
Allergies!!!! Blue baby syndrome (right)

Cancer
‡ Some food additives can cause cancer. ‡ An example is Sodium Nitrite, a carcinogen.

Brain Damage
‡ Excessive intake of nitrites can cause brain damage. Oxygen supply is disrupted. Brain damage is caused. It is irreversible.

Nitrite Ion

Hyperactivity
‡ Tartrazine can cause hyperactivity. ‡ Hyperactive children are very active, and find it difficult to sleep and are restless. ‡ I am hyperactive!!!WAKAKAKAKAKAKAKA!

Read The FOOD LABEL!

Advantages of using Food additives
‡ Prevent food spoilage ‡ Medical reasons

No preservatives

Disadvantages
‡ As I have said, cancer, hyperactivity and allergy. ‡ Don¶t forget Death.

Life without food preservatives
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