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- Proverbs, 20:1
ð ¢ oho  beverage
made from the
fermented jue of
fruts rh n sugar;
more ommon 
grapes.
ð 4hou d not be onfused wth dst ed
uors or sprts.
1. Reommendatons
from other peop e.

2. Tpe or varet.

3. Mathes the food


or the mea .
ð Vo or
ð ¢ 
ð 
ð èod
3.
2.
1.
4.
5.
6. ¢gng
Pressng
Fermentaton
Mehana
Rakng
èott ofof
ng. or
the
the
separaton
destemmng
wne
of
wne
must
n to
oak
where
of
separate
barre
wne
and
sugar
from
s. thessedments
rushng so ofparts
grapes,
onverted
d from
ato ed
wth
a the
ees.
must
oho . as
ud.
the end produt.
ð Fermentaton b easts
[ Tradtona fermentaton
r 4pontaneous

[ Modern fermentaton
r Vommera 4tarter Vu tures

4 
ð Member of the taxon 4 
   group.
[ 4 4 4  
[ mso ated n f uxes of oaks and other broad-
eafed tree
ð mso ated from Vroatan vneards
ð Used n makng a fermented Mexan
drnk from the sap of ¢gave.
ð To determne spef desrab e eno oga
haratersts of 4 
 
ð To ompare the eno oga performanes
of 4. paradoxus and 4. erevsae under
mtng ondtons; and
ð To estab sh the potenta of 4. paradoxus
as a ommera wne starter east u ture.
ð ¢ oho  fermentaton
[ Vonverson of sugars to ethano and other
b-produts.

ð Ma o at fermentaton
[ Ma  ad degradaton.
ð Mar  stage of fermentaton.
[ Presene of natura mrof ora of grape skn.

   sp.

ë  sp. sp.


ð §atter stage of fermentaton.
[ Presene of more ethano ² to erant spees.

4  sp.


ð èo oga deadfaton
[ èreakdown of ma  ad whh s one of the
most domnant ads n grape must.
[ Produe butter and ream aromas.

ð Tradtona  done b addng at ad


batera at the atter stage of
fermentaton.
[ 4   s apab e of effetve
ma o at fermentaton.
ð Úepends on a i of
vo at e onsttuents suh as
ad, a oho s, and esters and
ther thresho d va ues.

ð ¢ffeted b temperature at
fermentaton.
ð Msters
[ Most mportant group nf uenng the aroma
of wne; frut odor.
ð ëgher ¢ oho s (400 mg/§
[ Vontrbutes to aroma and taste; affets wne
negatve  above ts thresho d va ue.
ð ºo at e ¢ds (1.1 g/§
[ ¢dds omp ext to wne; rand and hees
odor above ts thresho d va ue.
ð Resu ted from the omp ex wnemakng
proess.

ð Vombnaton of dfferent omponents


suh as g ero , tannns, resdua sugars,
a oho , and man more.
ð Provdes sweetness and fu ness to the
wne.

ð Produed n response to osmot


pressure, re eased upon e ss aused
b death.
ð Dow, there s an nreased demand for
wnes wth hgh g ero and redued
ethano ontent.

ð 4tudes done n ¢ustra a and Korea


resu ted to a hgher preferene for
´sweetµ wnes.
[ ´4weetnessµ s assoated wth the aroma.
Y 
       

4hraz 181 0.372

Vabernet 4auvgnon 131 0.270


Wne from a partu ar regon 129 0.265
Wne from a we known brand 106 0.218
4auvgnon è an 96 0.198

Vabernet / Mer ot 72 0.148


Vhardonna 21 0.043

Rosé -132 -0.272


Red ëouse Wne -162 -0.333
Whte 4park ng Wne -174 -0.358
Whte ëouse Wne -269 -0.553
ð 4    and
4   were
ntrodued to artfa musts.

ð ¢fter fermentaton, hghest popu aton


reahed, ethano e d, resdua sugar
onentraton, as we as g ero and
aet ad produton were
determned.
ð 4ugar ontent of the must
[ Rato of g uose and frutose

ð ¢ssm ab e ntrogen ontent


[ Ve metabo sm
[ Formaton of organo ept propertes
v      

 





4p ² D 4    300 mg/§ assm ab e ntrogen


100 g/§ g uose + 100 g/§ frutose

4p ² DF 4   300 mg/§ assm ab e ntrogen


80 g/§ g uose + 120 g/§ frutose
4p ² 4 4   50 mg/§ assm ab e ntrogen
100 g/§ g uose + 100 g/§ frutose
4p ² 4F 4  4 !  50 mg/§ assm ab e ntrogen
80 g/§ g uose + 120 g/§ frutose
4 ² D 4   300 mg/§ assm ab e ntrogen
100 g/§ g uose + 100 g/§ frutose
4 ² DF 4  300 mg/§ assm ab e ntrogen
80 g/§ g uose + 120 g/§ frutose
4 ² 4 4  50 mg/§ assm ab e ntrogen
100 g/§ g uose + 100 g/§ frutose
4 ² 4F 4  50 mg/§ assm ab e ntrogen
80 g/§ g uose + 120 g/§ frutose
ð ¢t varab e tme nterva , must samp es
were taken, d uted, and p ated on east
extrat agar.

ð The p ates were nubated at 25o V for


48 hours.
ð Fna ethano ontent, vo at e adt
produton, and resdua sugar ontent
n the must were uantfed aordng to
the Offa MU Methods for wne ana ss.
ð Mthano ontent
[ Fratona dst aton
ð ºo at e adt
[ è ttraton of the vo at e ads separated
from the wne b steam dst aton and
ttraton of the dst ate
ð Resdua sugar ontent
[ è determnaton of g uose and frutose
ontent usng an enzmat method
ð ero onentraton was determned
wth an enzmat ¼ o ormetr
ommera kt espea  desgned for
wnes.
Fgure 1. rowth ¼ dea
p ate ount data
(red and g ero
produton (b ue of
(a 4 
  and (b
4 
 n D must
(300 mg 1 of
assm ab e ntrogen;
100 g/§ g uose + 100
g/§ frutose .
v          

4p ² D 6.846
4p ² DF 6.676

4p ² 4 3.763

4p ² 4F 4.394

4 ² D 4.785

4 ² DF 4.171

4 ² 4 4.850

4 ² 4F 4.447
v         ¢    !
  

4p ² D 10.70 0.230 0.333
4p ² DF 10.82 0.140 0.433
4p ² 4 11.35 0.290 0.466
4p ² 4F 11.60 0.176 0.366
4 ² D 11.15 1.140 0.400
4 ² DF 11.60 0.766 0.400
4 ² 4 12.10 1.066 0.466
4 ² 4F 11.70 1.072 0.433
  4  4 
 
Popu aton ëgher §ower

ero produton ëgher §ower


Mthano produton §ower ëgher

ºo at e ad produton §ower ëgher


Resdua sugar eft §ower ëgher
ð mt was seen that 4   stran
possesses eno oga propertes of
nterest for the wne ndustr, suh as
sgnfant hgher snthess of g ero
and ower produton of vo at e ads
than 4 
ð The eno oga haratersts shown b
4    makes t a
better a ternatve to 4  as wne
starter u ture based on the urrent
wnemakng trends.