DeIects and

Discontinuities
DeIect
· A Ilaw or Ilaws that by nature or
accumulated eIIect render a part or product
unable to meet minimum applicable
acceptance standards or speciIications. The
term designates reiectability.
Discontinuity
· An interruption oI the typical structure oI a
material, such as a lack oI homogeneity in
its mechanical, metallurgical, or physical
characteristics. A discontinuity is not
necessarily a deIect.
eld Joint Discontinuities
· Misalignment (hi-lo)
· Undercut
· Underfill
· Concavity or Convexity
· Excessive reinforcement
· Improper reinforcement
· Overlap
· Burn-through
· Incomplete or Insufficient
Penetration
· Incomplete Fusion
· Surface irregularity
Overlap
· Arc Strikes
· Inclusions
Slag
agon tracks
Tungsten
· Spatter
· Arc Craters
· Cracks
Longitudinal
Transverse
Crater
Throat
Toe
Root
Underbead and
Heat-aIIected zone
Hot
Cold or delayed
· Base Metal
Discontinuities
Lamellar tearing
Laminations and
Delaminations
Laps and Seams
· Porosity
UniIormly Scattered
Cluster
Linear
Piping
· Heat-affected zone
microstructure alteration
· Base Plate laminations
· Size or dimensions
Misalignment (hi-lo)
· Definition: Amount a ioint is out
oI alignment at the root
· Cause: Carelessness. Also due to ioining diIIerent
thicknesses (transition thickness)
· Prevention: orkmanship. Transition angles not to exceed
2.5 to 1.
· Repair: Grinding. CareIul on surIace Iinish and direction oI
grind marks. Inside oI Pipe /Tube diIIicult.
isalignment
Undercut
· Definition: A groove cut at the
toe oI the weld and leIt unIilled.
· Cause: High amperage, electrode
angle, long arc length, rust
· Prevention: Set machine on scrap metal. Clean metal
beIore welding.
· Repair: eld with smaller electrode, sometimes must be
low hydrogen with preheat. Sometimes must gouge Iirst.
Undercut
(cont......)
Undercut typically has an allowable limit.
DiIIerent codes and standards vary greatly
in the allowable amount.
Plate - the lesser oI 1/32¨ or 5° (typ.)
Under Cut
InsuIIicient Fill or Under Iill
· DeIinition: The weld surIace is below the adiacent surIaces
oI the base metal
· Cause: Improper welding techniques
· Prevention: Apply proper welding techniques Ior the weld
type and position. Use stripper beads beIore the cover pass.
· Repair: Simply weld to Iill. ay require preparation by
grinding.
Under Iill
InsuIIicient Fill on the Root Side
(suckback)
· DeIinition: The weld surIace is below the adiacent surIaces
oI the base metal at the weld root.
· Cause: Typically improper ioint preparation or excessive
weld pool heat.
· Prevention: Correct cause. (see next slide)
· Repair: Backweld to Iill. ay requireremoval oI weld
section by grinding Ior access to the ioint root.
Cause Ior InsuIIicient Fill at the
Root
Some liquids, like water or molten steel, try to cover as much surIace
area oI whatever they are in contact with as possible.
elding a root pass too wide can also cause the bead to sag (overhead
position).
Removing a root pass by
grinding
1. Recreate the groove geometry as closely as possible.
2. Use a saw or die grinder and 1/16 - 1/8¨ cut oII wheel to recreate root
opening. Remember repairs are sometimes required to be made with a
smaller electrode.
3. Open the groove angle. Be careIul to leave the proper root Iace
dimension.
4. Feather the start and stop to blend smoothly into and out oI the
existing weld.
xcessive Concavity or
Convexity
· Definition: Concavity or convexity oI a Iillet weld which
exceeds the speciIied allowable limits
· Cause: Amperage and travel speed
· Prevention: Observe proper parameters and techniques.
· Repair: Grind oII or weld on. ust blend smoothly into the
base metal.
Concavity
Root Concavity
Convexity
ReinIorcement
· xcessive
· InsuIIicient
· Improper contour
Face ReinIorcement
Root ReinIorcement
The amount oI a groove weld which extends beyond the surIace
oI the plate
xcessive ReinIorcement
· DeIinition: SpeciIically deIined by the standard. Typically,
ReinIorcement should be Ilush to 1/16¨(pipe) or Ilush to
1/8¨ (plate or structural shapes).
· Cause: Travel speed too slow, amperage too low
· Prevention: Set amperage and travel speed on scrap plate.
· Repair: Remove excessive reinIorcement and Ieather the
weld toes to a smooth transition to the base plate.
xcessive Penetration
· DeIinition: SpeciIically deIined by the standard. Typically,
UnderIill may be up to 5° oI metal thickness not to exceed
1/32¨ as long as the thickness is made up in the opposite
reinIorcement. Not applied to Iillet welds.
· Cause: On root reinIorcement - Too little Iiller metal will
cause thinning oI the Iiller metal. In OH position, too hot or
too wide will cause drooping oI the open root puddle.
· Prevention: Use proper welding technique. Use backing or
consumable inserts. Use back weld or backing.
· Repair: Possibly simply increase the Iace reinIorcement. II
backwelding is not possible, must remove and reweld.
InsuIIicient ReinIorcement
· DeIinition: hen the weld exhibits less than a 135
0
transition angle at the weld toe.
· Cause: Poor welding technique
· Prevention: Use proper techniques. A weave or whip motion
can oIten eliminate the problem.
· Repair: The weld Iace must be Ieathered into the base plate.
135
0
Improper eld Contour
Overlap
· DeIinition: hen the Iace oI the weld extends beyond the
toe oI the weld
· Cause: Improper welding technique. Typically, electrode
angles and travel speed.
· Prevention: Overlap is a contour problem. Proper welding
technique will prevent this problem.
· Repair: Overlap must be removed to blend smoothly into
the base metal. Be careIul oI deep grind marks that run
transverse to the load. Also be careIul oI Iusion
discontinuities hidden by grinding. Use NDT to be sure.
Overlap
Overlap is measured with
a square edge such as a
6¨ rule. No amount oI
overlap is typically
allowed.
Burn-through (non-standard)
· DeIinition: hen an undesirable open hole has been
completely melted through the base metal. The hole may or
may not be leIt open.
· Cause: xcessive heat input.
· Prevention: Reduce heat input by increasing travel speed,
use oI a heat sink, or by reducing welding parameters.
· Repair: ill be deIined by standards. Filling may suIIice.
Otherwise, removal and rewelding may be required. Some
standards may require special Iiller metal and/or PHT.
Incomplete or InsuIIicient
Penetration
· DeIinition: hen the weld metal does not extend to the
required depth into the ioint root
· Cause: Low amperage, low preheat, tight root opening, Iast
travel speed, short arc length.
· Prevention: Correct the contributing Iactor(s).
· Repair: Back gouge and back weld or remove and reweld.
ICP
Incomplete Fusion
· DeIinition: here weld metal does not Iorm a cohesive
bond with the base metal.
· Cause: Low amperage, steep electrode angles, Iast travel
speed, short arc gap, lack oI preheat, electrode too small,
unclean base metal, arc oII seam.
· Prevention: liminate the potential causes.
· Repair: remove and reweld, being careIul to completely
remove the deIective area. This is sometimes extremely
diIIicult to Iind.
Lack oI Side all Fusion
Arc Strike
· DeIinition: A localized coalescence outside the weld zone.
· Cause: Carelessness
· Prevention: In diIIicult areas, adiacent areas can be
protected using Iire blankets.
· Repair: here applicable, arc strikes must be sanded
smooth and tested Ior cracks. II Iound, they must be remove
and repaired using a qualiIied repair procedure and
inspected as any other weld.
Arc Strike
eld Spatter
,:808 !70;03943
High aic povoi Roduco aic povoi
Magnolic aic lIov Roduco aic Ionglh oi
svilch lo AC povoi
Incoiiocl sollings foi
CMAW piocoss
Modifv oIocliicaI
sollings (lul lo caiofuI
lo nainlain fuII fusion
Danp oIocliodos Uso div oIocliodos
Inclusions
· Slag
· agontracks
· Tungsten
· DeIinition: Slag entrapped within the weld
· Cause: Low amperage, improper technique, Trying to weld
in an area that is too tight. Slow travel in Vertical Down
· Prevention: Increase amperage or preheat, grind out tight
areas to gain access to bottom oI ioint.
· Repair: Remove by grinding. Reweld.
Slag Inclusion
Slag Inclusion
· DeIinition: Slang term Ior a groove leIt at the toe oI a root
pass which becomes Iilled with slag and is trapped in the
weld.
· Cause: The contour oI the root pass is too high, or the weld
toe is not bonded to the base metal
· Prevention: Use proper technique to deposit the weld root.
· Repair: Best repaired beIore applying the hot pass.
CareIully grind the root pass Iace Ilat. be careIul not to
gouge other areas on the weldment.
agon Tracks (non-standard)
· DeIinition: A tungsten particle embedded in a weld.
(Typically GTA only)
· Cause: Tungsten electrode too small, amperage too high,
AC balance on ¹, Upslope too high, electrode tip not
snipped, electrode dipped into the weld pool or touched
with the Iill rod, electrode split.
· Prevention: liminate the cause
· Repair: Grind out and reweld
Tungsten Inclusion
Inclusions
· Iix when you see it. otherwise grind out &
Iix
hiskers
· Unsightly
· Inhibits material Ilow in piping
· Are inclusions
· Can break oII in pipes and damage
equipment downline
Spatter
· DeIinition: Small particles oI weld metal expelled Irom the
welding operation which adhere to the base metal surIace.
· Cause: Long arc length, severe electrode angles, high
amperages.
· Prevention: Correct the cause. Base metal can be protected
with coverings or hi-temp paints.
· Repair: Remove by grinding or sanding. Sometimes must be
tested as iI it were a weld.
Arc Craters
· DeIinition: A depression leIt at the termination oI the weld
where the weld pool is leIt unIilled.
· Cause: Improper weld termination techniques
· Prevention:
· Repair: II no cracks exist, simply Iill in the crater. Generally
welding Irom beyond the crater back into the crater.
Cracks
· Longitudinal
· Transverse
· Crater
· Throat
· Toe
· Root
· Underbead and Heat-aIIected zone
· Hot
· Cold or delayed
· DeIinition: A crack running in the direction oI the weld axis.
ay be Iound in the weld or base metal.
· Cause: Preheat or Iast cooling problem. Also caused by
shrinkage stresses in high constraint areas.
· Prevention: eld toward areas oI less constraint. Also
preheat to even out the cooling rates.
· Repair: Remove and reweld
Longitudinal Crack
· DeIinition: A crack running into or inside a weld, transverse
to the weld axis direction.
· Cause: eld metal hardness problem
· Prevention:
· Repair:
Transverse Crack
· DeIinition: A crack, generally in the shape oI an 'X¨ which
is Iound in a crater. Crater cracks are hot cracks.
· Cause: The center oI the weld pool becomes solid beIore the
outside oI the weld pool, pulling the center apart during
cooling
· Prevention: Use crater Iill, Iill the crater at weld termination
and/or preheat to even out the cooling oI the puddle
· Repair:
Crater Crack
· DeIinition: A longitudinal crack located in the weld throat
area.
· Cause: Transverse Stresses, probably Irom shrinkage.
Indicates inadequate Iiller metal selection or welding
procedure. ay be due to crater crack propagation.
· Prevention: Correct initial cause. Increasing preheat may
prevent it. be sure not to leave a crater. Use a more ductile
Iiller material.
· Repair: Remove and reweld using appropriate procedure.
Be sure to correct initial problem Iirst.
Throat Crack
· DeIinition: A crack in the base metal beginning at the toe oI
the weld
· Cause: Transverse shrinkage stresses. Indicates a HAZ
brittleness problem.
· Prevention: Increase preheat iI possible, or use a more
ductile Iiller material.
· Repair:
Toe Crack
Toe Crack
· DeIinition: A crack in the weld at the weld root.
· Cause: Transverse shrinkage stresses. Same as a throat
crack.
· Prevention: Same as a throat crack
· Repair:
Root Crack
Root Crack
· DeIinition: A crack in the unmelted parent metal oI the
HAZ.
· Cause: Hydrogen embrittlement
· Prevention: Use Lo/Hi electrodes and/or preheat
· Repair: (only Iound using NDT). Remove and reweld.
Underbead Crack
· DeIinition: A crack in the weld that occurs during
solidiIication.
· Cause: icro stresses Irom weld metal shrinkage pulling
apart weld metal as it cools Irom liquid to solid temp.
· Prevention: Preheat or use a low tensil Iiller material.
· Repair:
Hot Crack
· DeIinition: A crack that occurs aIter the metal has
completely solidiIied
· Cause: Shrinkage, Highly restrained welds, Discontinuities
· Prevention: Preheat, weld toward areas oI less constraint,
use a more ductile weld metal
· Repair: Remove and reweld, correct problem Iirst, preheat
may be necessary.
Cold Crack
Cold Crack or eld etal
Hydrogen Crack
Repairs to Cracks
· Determine the cause
· Correct the problem
· Take precautions to prevent reoccurrence
· Generally required to repair using a smaller
electrode
Base Metal Discontinuities
· Lamellar tearing
· Laminations and Delaminations
· Laps and Seams
Lamellar Tearing
Laminations
·Base etal Discontinuity
·ay require repair prior to welding
·Formed during the milling process
Lamination eIIects can be reduced by ioint design:
Laps and Seams
A mill-induced discontinuity in which results Irom a lump oI metal
being squeezed over into the surIace oI the material.
II beyond acceptable limits, must be removed and repaired or
discarded.
Porosity
· Single Pore
· UniIormly Scattered
· Cluster
· Linear
· Piping
Porosity
Single Pore
· Separated by at least
their own diameter
along the axis oI the
weld
UniIormly Scattered Porosity
· Typically iudged by diameter and proximity
to a start or stop
· oIten caused by low amperage or short arc
gap or an unshielded weld start
Cluster Porosity
· Typically viewed as a single large
discontinuity
Linear Porosity
· being linear greatly aIIects the severity oI
this discontinuity
Piping Porosity
· Generally has special allowable limits
Porosity
· preheat will help eliminate
· may need an electrode with more
deoxidizers
· Use run-on/run-oII taps
· restart on top oI previous weld and grind oII
lump
Heat-aIIected zone
microstructure alteration
· add drawing oI HAZ oI groove weld with
leaders to:
grain reIinement
grain growth
hardened areas
soItened areas
precipitate suseptable areas.
Size or dimension
· II it renders the part unusable, it is a deIect.
· II it is outside the allowable limit, it renders
the part unusable.
· Things don`t have to be perIect, iust within
the acceptable tolerance. orking to
perIection is too time consuming and costly
Hammer marks
· Stress risers
· Unsightly
· Unnecessary
RPAIR TCHNIQUS
· ay involve:
diIIerent process
diIIerent procedure
diIIerent preheat/PHT
diIIerent electrode
smaller electrode
Only repair defects.
Discontinuities are by
definition acceptable.
Repair is therefore
unnecessary and not cost
effective.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful