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Counting Statistics

Please Read: Chapters 3 (all 3 parts),

8, and 26 in Doyle

Types of Radiation

Charged Particle Radiation

Electrons

b particles

Can be easily

Heavy Charged Particles stopped/shielded!

a particles

Fission Products

Particle Accelerators

Uncharged Radiation

Electromagnetic Radiation

g-rays

More difficult to

x-rays

shield against!

Neutrons

Fission, Fusion reactions

Photoneutrons

Penetration Distances for Different

Forms of Radiation

as

bs

gs

ns

(few cm) (few in) (few feet)

Why is Radiation Detection

Difficult?

Cant see it

Cant smell it

Cant hear it

Cant feel it

Cant taste it

produces ionized pairs to try to create an electrical

signal

Ideal Properties for Detection of

Radioactivity

Radiation Ideal Detector Properties

a Very thin/no window or

ability to put source inside

detector

b Same as above, can be low or

high density, gas, liquid, or

solid

g High density, high atomic

number materials

neutrons Low atomic number materials,

preferably hydrogenous

How a Radiation Detector Works

The radiation we are interested in detecting all

interact with materials by ionizing atoms

While it is difficult (sometime impossible) to

directly detect radiation, it is relatively easy to

detect (measure) the ionization of atoms in the

detector material.

Measure the amount of charge created in a detector

electron-ion pairs, electron-hole pairs

Use ionization products to cause a secondary reaction

use free, energized electrons to produce light photons

Scintillators

We can measure or detect these interactions in many

different ways to get a multitude of information

General Detector Properties

Characteristics of an ideal radiation detector

High probability that radiation will interact with the detector

material

Large amount of charge created in the interaction process

average energy required for creation of ionization pair (W)

Charge must be separated an collected by electrodes

Opposite charges attract, recombination must be avoided

Initial Generated charge in detector (Q) is very small (e.g.,

10-13C)

Signal in detector must be amplified Q

Internal Amplification (multiplication in detector) V

External Amplification (electronics) C

Want to maximize V

Types of Radiation Detectors

Gas Detectors

Ionization Chambers

Proportional Counters

Geiger-Mueller Tubes (Geiger Counters)

Scintillation Detectors

Inorganic Scintillators

Organic Scintillators

Semiconductor Detectors

Silicon

High Purity Germanium

Gas Detectors

Most common form of radiation detector

Relatively simple construction

Suspended wire or electrode plates in a container

Can be made in very large volumes (m3)

Mainly used to detect b-particles and neutrons

Ease of use

Mainly used for counting purposes only

High value for W (20-40 eV / ion pair)

Can give you some energy information

Inert fill gases (Ar, Xe, He)

Low efficiency of detection

Can increase pressure to increase efficiency

g-rays are virtually invisible

Ionization Chambers

Two electric plates

surrounded by a metal case

Electric Field (E=V/D) is

applied across electrodes

Electric Field is low

only original ion pairs

created by radiation are

collected

Signal is very small

Can get some energy

information

Resolution is poor due to

statistics, electronic noise,

Good for detecting heavy charged

and microphonics

particles, betas

Proportional Counters

Wire suspended in a tube

Can obtain much higher

electric field

E a 1/r

Near wire, E is high

Electrons are energized

to the point that they can

ionize other atoms

Detector signal is much

larger than ion chamber

Can still measure energy

Same resolution limits as

ion chamber

Used to detect alphas,

betas, and neutrons

Examples of Proportional Counters

Geiger Counters

Apply a very large voltage

across the detector

Generates a significantly

higher electric field than

proportional counters

Multiplication near the

anode wire occurs

Geiger Discharge

Quench Gas

Generated Signal is

independent of the energy No energy information! Only

deposited in the detector used to count / measure the

Primarily Beta detection amount of radiation. Signal is

independent of type of

Most common form of

radiation as well!

detector

Examples of Geiger Counters

instruments. They can be easily operated with battery

power and are usually calibrated to give you radiation

dose measurements in rad/hr or rem/hr.

Scintillator Detectors

Voltage is not applied to these types of detectors

Radiation interactions result in the creation of

light photons

Goal is to measure the amount of light created

Light created is proportion to radiation energy

To measure energy, need to convert light to

electrical signal

Photomultiplier tube

Photodiode

} light electrons

Two general types

Organic

Inorganic

Organic Scintillators

Light is generated by fluorescence of molecules

Organic - low atomic numbers, relatively low

density

Low detection efficiency for gamma-rays

Low light yield (1000 photons/MeV) - poor signal

Light response different for different types of radiation

Light is created quickly

Can be used in situations where speed (ns) is necessary

Can be used in both solid and liquid form

Liquid form for low energy, low activity beta

monitoring, neutrino detection

Very large volumes (m3)

Organic Scintillators Come in Many Forms

Inorganic Scintillators

Generally, high atomic number and high density

materials

NaI, CsI, BiGeO, Lithium glasses, ZnS

Light generated by electron transitions within the

crystalline structure of the detector

Cannot be used in liquid form!

High light yield (~60,000 photons / MeV)

light yield in inorganics is slow (ms)

Commonly used for gamma-ray spectroscopy

W ~ 20 eV (resolution 5% for 1 MeV g-ray)

Neutron detection possible with some

Can be made in very large volumes (100s of cm3)

Inorganic Scintillators

Solid State (Semiconductor) Detectors

Radiation interactions yield electron-hole pairs

analogous to ion pairs in gas detectors

Very low W-value (1-5 eV)

High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy

Energy resolution << 1% for 1 MeV gamma-rays

Some types must be cooled using cryogenics

Band structure is such that electrons can be excited at

thermal temperatures

Variety of materials

Si, Ge, CdZnTe, HgI2, TlBr

Sizes < 100 cm3 [some even less than 1 cm3]

Efficiency issues for lower Z materials

NaI Scintillator

Ge Detector

Ideal Detector for Detection of Radiation

Radiation Ideal Detector

a Thin Semiconductor Detectors

Proportional Counters

b Organic Scintillators

Geiger Counters

Proportional Counters

g Inorganic Scintillators

Thick Semiconductor Detectors

neutrons Plastic Scintillators

Proportional Counters (He, BF3)

Lithium Glass Scintillators

Excellent table on Page 61 shows numerous different technologies used in

safeguards

Counting Statistics

Three Specific Models:

1. Binomial Distribution generally applicable to all

constant-p processes. Cumbersome for large

samples

Binomial Distribution if the success probability p

is small.

simplification permitted if the expected mean

number of successes is large

The Binomial Distribution

n = number of trials

p = probability of success for each trial

x successes:

Px p 1 p

n! x nx

n x ! x!

Probability Distribution Function

Example of the Binomial Distribution

Winners:

3,4,5, or 6

P = 4/6 or 2/3

Results of the Binomial Distribution

p = 2/3

n =10

x pn

2

6

3

Some Properties of the

Binomial Distribution

n

It is normalized: Px 1

x 0

n

x x Px

x 0

x pn

Standard Deviation

Predicted variance

n 2

2 x x Px

x 0

Standard Deviation

var iance

is a typical value for x x

For the Binomial Distribution:

Px px 1 p

n! nx

n x ! x!

where n = number of trials and p = success probability

Predicted Variance: Standard Deviation:

n 2

2 x x Px

x 0 x 1 p

np 1 p x 1 p

For our Previous Example

p = 2/3 n = 10

x np 6 2

3

x 1 p

20 1

2

2.22

3 3

2 2.22 1.49

The Poisson Distribution

Provided p << 1

Px

pn e pn

x

x!

pn x

Px

x e

x x

x!

For the Poisson Distribution

n

Px 1

x 0

Predicted Mean: x x Px

x 0

x pn

2

Predicted Variance: n

2 x x Px

x 0

pn x

Standard Deviation: x

Example of the Application

of Poisson Statistics

Is your birthday today?

1

p

365

x

x ex x pn 2.74

Px

x!

have a birthday today?

P4

2.74 e

4 2.74

0.152

4 3 2

Discrete Poisson Distribution

Gaussian (Normal) Distribution

p << 1

Binomial Poisson

x l arg e

Poisson Gaussian

x x

2

n

Px 1

Px

1

e 2x

2x x 0

x pn 2 x x

Example of Gaussian Statistics

What is the predicted distribution in the number of people

with birthdays today out of a group of 10,000?

1

p n 10000 x 27.4

365

x 27.4 2

Px

1

e 54.8

2 27.4

x 5.23

Distribution Gaussian Distribution

The Universal Gaussian Curve

to f(to)

0 0

0.674 0.500

1.00 0.683

1.64 0.900

1.96 0.950

2.58 0.990

Summary of Statistical Models

Predicted Variance: 2 x

Standard Deviation: x

CAUTION!!

We may apply x only if x

represents a counted number of

radiation events

1. Counting Rates

2. Sums or Differences of counts

3. Averages of independent counts

4. Any Derived Quantity

The Error Propagation Formula

Given: directly measured counts

(or other independent variables)

x, y, z,

for which the associated standard

deviations are known to be

x, y, z,

calculated quantity

u(x, y, z, )

2

u 2 u 2

2

x y

2

x y

u

Sums or Differences of Counts

u=x+y or u = x - y

2

u u

2

Recall: 2u 2x 2y

x y

u u

1 1

x x

u u

1 1

y y

2u 2x 2y

u 2x 2y x y

Example of Difference of Counts

total = x = 2612

background = y = 1295

net = u = 1317

u 2612 1295

u 3907 62.5

Multiplication or Division by a

Constant

Example of Division by a Constant

Calculation of a counting rate

x

r

t

x = 11,367 counts t = 300 s

11367

r 37.89 / s

300 s

x 11367

r 0.36 / s

t 300 s

Multiplication or Division of Counts

Example of Division of Counts

Source 1: N1 = 36,102 (no BG)

Source 2: N2 = 21,977 (no BG)

2 2

R N1 N 2 R

2

2

N1 N 2 5

2 7.32 10

R N1 N 2

2

N1 N 2 R

R 3

8.56 10 R R R 0.014

R R

R = 1.643 0.014

Average Value of Independent Counts

Sum: = x1 + x2 + x3 + + xN

2x1 2x 2 2x N x1 x 2 x N

Average: x

N

Nx x

x

N N N N

Single measurement: x x

1 1

Improvement Factor:

N N

For a single measurement based

on a single count:

Fractional error:

x x 1

x x x

Fractional

10% 3.16% 1%

Error

Limits of Detection

In many cases within non-proliferation, you

are required to measure sources that have a

small signal with respect to background

sources of radiation

Thus, we need to assess the minimum

detectable amount of a source that can be

reliably measured.

Lets look at an example of testing the limits

of detection

Limits of Detection

Two basic cases: No Real Activity Present

Real Activity Present

NS N T N B

N s Counts from source

N T Measured Counts

N B Counts from background

2N s 2N T 2N B

Limits of Detection No Source

Goal: Minimize the number of false positives (i.e., dont want to holdup many

containers that do not contain anything interesting)

2Ns 2NT 2N B

2NT 2N B

2Ns 22N B

Ns 2 N B 2 N B if only fluctuatio ns from counting statistics

Want to set critical counting level (LC) high enough such that the probability

that a measurement Ns that exceeds Lc is acceptably small. Assuming

Gaussian distribution, we are only concerned with positive deviations from

the mean. If we were to accept a 5% false positive rate (1.645 or 90% on

distribution), then

LC 1.645 NS 2.326 N B

Limits of Detection Source Present

Goal: Minimize the number of false negatives (i.e., dont want to let many

containers that contain radioactive materials get through). Let ND be the

minimum net value of NS that meets this criterion. We can then determine our

lower critical set point. Lets assume an acceptable 5% false negative rate.

N D LC 1.645 N D

But , N D N B , we can use the approximat ion

N D 2 N B

N D LC 2.326 N B

N D 4.653 N B

the same as that of the background only. In reality, these widths are not the same.

Limits of Detection Source Present

ND 2N B N D

ND 4.653 N B

ND 2 N B 1 2 N B 1

4N B 4N B

N D 2 N B 1.645

N D 4.653 N B 2.706 (Currie Equation )

ND

a min imum det ectable activity

fT

f radiation yield per decay

absolute det ection efficiency

T measuremen t time

Two Interpretations of Limits of

Detectability

LC = lower limit that is set to ensure a 5%

false-positive rate

a source to ensure a false-negative rate no

larger than 5%, when the system is operated

with a critical level (or trigger point) LC that

ensures a false positive rate no greater than 5%

Neutron Detection

Neutron Coincidence Counting

Neutron Energy Classification

Slow Neutron Detection

Need exoenergetic (positive Q) reactions to provide

energetic reaction products

Useful Reactions in Slow Neutron

Detection

6Li (n, a) 3H

3He (n, p) 3H

(n, fission)

The 10B(n,a) Reaction

Q MeV

7

Li a 2.792

10

B n 7 *

Li a 2.310

[10B (n, a) 7Li*]

Conservation of energy:

Eli + Ea = Q = 2.31 MeV

Conservation of momentum:

m Li v Li m a v a

2m Li E Li 2m a E a

Other Reactions

Q MeV

6

Li n He a

3

4.78

3

He n3 H p 0.765

X n, fission ~ 200

Detectors Based on the Boron Reaction

1. The BF3 proportional tube

3. Boron-loaded scintillator

The BF3 Tube

Typical HV: 2000-3000 V

Usual 10B enrichment of 96%

BF3 Pulse Height Spectrum

Boron-Lined Proportional Tube

Detection efficiency limited by boron thickness

Boron-Lined Proportional Tube

Pulse Height Spectrum

Fast Neutron Detection and

Spectroscopy

Counters based on neutron moderation

reactions

Moderated Neutron Detectors

Moderating Sphere

Moderating Sphere

Neutron Rem Counter

Long Counter

Long Counter Sensitivity

Application of the 3He(n,p) reaction

the 3He Proportional Tube

3He Proportional Counter

Detectors that Utilize Fast Neutron

Scattering

1. Proton recoil scintillator

High (10 50%) detection efficiency, complex response

function, gamma rejection by pulse shape discrimination

2. Gas recoil proportional tube

Low (.01 - .1%) detection efficiency, can be simpler response

function, gamma rejection by amplitude

3. Proton recoil telescope

Very low (~ .001%) detection efficiency, usable only in beam

geometry, simple peak response function

4. Capture-gated spectrometer

Modest (few %) detection efficiency, simple peak response

function

Proton Recoil Scintillators

Recoil Proton Spectrum Distortions

Recoil Proton Detector Efficiency

Proton Recoil Telescope

Proton Recoil Telescope Response

Function

Ep = Encos2

Capture-Gated Proton Recoil Neutron

Spectrometer

Capture-Gated Spectrometer:

Timing Behavior

second pulse within gate period

Capture-Gated Spectrometer:

Response Function

energy

Energy resolution limited by nonlinearity of light output

with energy (Two 0.5 MeV protons total yield less than

one 1 MeV proton.)

Neutron Coincidence Counting

Technique involving the simultaneous measurement

of neutrons emitted from a fission source (in

coincidence with each neutron)

Used to determine mass of plutonium in unknown

samples

Most widely used non-destructive analysis technique for Pu

assay, and can be applied to a variety of sample types (e.g.,

solids, pellets, powders, etc.)

Requires knowledge of isotopic ratios, which can be

determined by other techniques

Also used in U assay

Neutron Distribution from Pu

Fission

Neutron Coincidence Counting

Makes use of the fact that plutonium isotopes

with even mass number (238, 240, 242) have a

high neutron emission rate from spontaneous

fission

Spontaneous fission neutrons are emitted at the

same time (time correlated), unlike other neutrons

(a,n), which are randomly distributed in time

Count rate of time correlated neutrons is then a

complex function of Pu mass

Fission Emission Rates for Pu isotopes

Isotope Spontaneous Neutron

Emission Rate

(neutrons/sec-g)

Pu-238 2.59 x 103

Pu-239 2.18 x 10-2

Pu-240 1.02 x 103

Pu-241 5 x 10-2

Pu-242 1.72 x 103

In reactor fuel, Pu-240 signal dominates over Pu-238 and Pu-242 due to

abundance

Neutron Coincidence Counting

In neutron coincidence counting, the primary quantity

determined is the effective amount of Pu-240, which

represents a weighted sum of the three even numbered

isotopes

m240eff a m238 m240 c m242

Coefficients for contributions from Pu-238 and Pu-242

are determined by other means, such as knowledge of

burnup of reactor fuel. Without additional information,

calculation will have errors but will give a good

estimate of Pu mass due to relative abundance of the

three isotopes. Generally, a 2.52, c 1.68

Neutron Coincidence Counting

In order to determine the total amount of Pu, mPu,

the isotopic mass fractions (R) must be known.

These can be easily determined through mass-

spectroscopy or gamma-ray spectroscopy, and is

then used to calculate the quantity

240

Pu eff aR 238 R 240 cR 242

m 240eff

m Pu 240

Pu eff

NCC Technique

Utilize He-3 detectors, which can moderate and detect

spontaneous fission neutrons

He-3 detectors usually embedded in neutron moderating

material to further slow down neutrons

Increases detection efficiency

Most common measurement is the simple (2-neutron)

coincidence rate, referred to as doubles

If other materials present in the material contribute to neutron signal, or

impact neutron multiplication, other effects may become significant,

producing errors

Generally carried out on relatively pure or well characterized materials,

such as Pu-oxides, MOX fuel pins and assemblies

NCC Counters

NCC Sources of Uncertainty

Counting statistics (random)

Can be a significant issue since efficiency can be

low

Calibration parameters and uncertainties

associated with reference materials

(systematic)

Correction for multiplication effects, detector

dead time, other neutron emission (systematic)

Nuclear data

NCC Parameters to Consider

1. Spontaneous fission rate

2. Induced fission

3. (a,n) reaction rate

4. Energy spectrum of (a,n) neutrons

5. Spatial variation of multiplication

6. Spatial variation of detection efficiency

7. Energy spectrum effects on efficiency

8. Neutron capture in the sample

9. Neutron die-away time in the detector

Clearly, there can be more unknowns than can be determined in conventional NCC

NCC Parameters

We want to determine 1,2,3

4 and 5 can be determined with proper use of

modeling and simulation

6 and 7 can be determined through proper

calibration

8 and 9 are usually unknown, but in general,

are of minor consequence

Traditional NCC can end up indeterminate

only 2 equations, but three unknowns

Neutron Multiplicity Measurements

In neutron multiplicity counting (NMC), one utilizes

triple coincidence rates (in addition to single and

double counting rates) to provide a third

measurement such that all parameters can be

determined

Thus, we are solving three equations with three

unknowns solution is self contained and complete

One significant advantage of NMC is that there is no

need for careful calibration with Pu standards

Also, can measure samples where there may be significant

uncertainties in composition

Design of NMC

Maximize detection efficiency

Minimize signal processing

time

Minimize detector die-away

time to decrease accidental

coincidences

Minimize geometry effects to

efficiency

Minimize spectral effects on

efficiency

Advantages of NMC

Greater accuracy in Pu mass determination

Self-multiplication and (a,n) rates are directly

determined

Calibration does not necessarily require

representative standards

Measurement time on the order of a few thousand

seconds, shorter than the 10,000s typical of NCC

Higher efficiency NMC systems can provide even

shorter measurement times with improved accuracy

Disadvantages of NMC

Cost

More floor space required

Some other techniques can provide shorter

measurement times

Some biases can remain if there is a high

degree of uncertainty in measured samples

Running out of He-3

Examples

In-Plant NMC measurement system

Examples

30-gallon drum measurement system

Examples

High efficiency neutron counter

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