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Typical Generator

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL protection scheme 1


Generator Earth fault protection
Types of Generator grounding:
Ungrounded system
Effectively grounded system
Low impedance grounded system
High impedance grounded system

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 2


Generator Earth fault protection
Effectively grounded system:
An effectively grounded system has sufficient grounding
capacity to limit the voltage rise on the unfaulted phases
during a ground fault such that 80% rated arresters can be
applied.

A system will meet this criterion if:


X0/X1< 3 and R0/X1<1

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 3


High Impedance grounding
Distribution transformer grounding:
The distribution transformer arrangement allows the use of
an inexpensive low voltage resistor.
The primary winding of the transformer must have a rating
equal to or greater than the generator phase to neutral
voltage.
The secondary winding is normally 120 or 240 Volts
The grounding transformer must have a sufficient
overvoltage capability to avoid saturation if a ground fault
occurs with the generator operating at 105% rated voltage.
The fault current is limited between 5 and 15 Amp.

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Effect of stator earth fault

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 10


95% Stator Earth fault protection
Results in voltage shift of generator neutral w.r.t ground
Detected by voltage relay connected across grounding resistor
or from the generator terminal through open delta VT
Protect approx 95% of stator winding
Sensitive inverse-time over voltage relay across the grounding
resistor at the secondary winding of NGT.
Generators can produce significant zero sequence harmonic
voltages during normal operations predominantly third
harmonic voltage which can be as high as 1-10% of the
generator terminal voltage. The relay must therefore be tuned
to fundamental frequency rendering it insensitive to third and
other zero-sequence harmonic voltages.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 11


95% Stator Earth fault protection
Winding remaining unprotected:
Since the voltage distribution along stator winding being
linear, the relay set at 6 V will not see (6/120)*100= 5% of
the generator winding at the neutral end.
Coordination:
The 59GN relay should be coordinated with the PT fuses
to prevent generator tripping for grounds on the PTs or
secondary PT circuit.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 12


100% SEF protection
An undetected fault near the neutral end of the generator will
bypass the grounding transformer and the ground fault
relaying.If a second ground fault occurs in the same phase
near the generator terminal it will be undetectable and
unrestricted by the grounding impedance.
Phase to ground fault, depending upon fault location,
increases elect. stresses on unaffected winding.
Probability of 2nd ground fault increases.
Serious damage may result, if a fault occurs near to
neutral and is then followed by a 2nd fault higher up
in same phase.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 13


100% SEF protection
This 2nd fault may result from insulation deterioration
caused by transient over- -voltages due to erratic, low
current unstable arcing of the 1st fault.
2nd fault may result in high currents.
The generator differential relay would not operate for this
fault, because current at each end of the winding would be
the same.
This extremely high magnitude fault would persist until it
evolved into phase-phase fault that is detectable by the
differential relay.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 14


100% SEF protection
To cover entire winding with earth fault protection, three
methods are used:
Measurement of 3rd harmonic at generator neutral
voltage.
Deliberate displacement of neutral potential with
respect to ground, by injecting a voltage, at a
sub-multiple of power frequency.
Comparison of 3rd harmonic voltages generated at both
neutral and line ends of the winding.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 15


Third harmonic voltage scheme
All machines produce harmonic voltages, particularly triplen
harmonics 3rd, 9th, 15th, 21st and so on, appear in each phase,
equal in magnitude and phase angle.The third harmonic voltage
is the largest of these harmonic voltages.
The amount of third harmonic voltage produced by the
Generator is critical to the successful application of these
schemes, typical value is 1
3rd harmonic voltage builds up across capacitive impedance
of phase to ground
Due to ground impedance, neutral shall also have 3rd harmonic
voltage to earth.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 16


Third harmonic voltage scheme
Actual 3rd harmonic voltage is 1- 3 % of rated voltage at no
load. At loads, it can be 0.5 to 2.5 times the no load
value. However VN3 / VL3 remains constant.
When fault occurs at point F, VN3 / VL3 ratio changes.
Difference of VN3 & VL3 as a % of V3, is sensed by relay

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 17


Third harmonic voltage scheme

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 18


Third harmonic voltage scheme
There is a blind zone when the ratio VN3 / VL3
remains same, in healthy as well as,in fault condition.
Relay shall not sense the fault.
This is taken care of by the usual 95% winding coverage
relay tuned to 50 Hz.
Relay stability depends upon availability of both neutral
and line voltages. Later can disappear if VT fuse blows.
VT fuse health is monitored by a circuit consisting of a
reed relay which gets energized if the fuse fails

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 19


Third harmonic voltage scheme
BLIND ZONE
N L
V3 N F L
VL3 V3 VL3F
Rn
VN3 VL3Q
VN3F
V3 VN3Q
BLIND ZONE
VL3 VL3 Q: HEALTHY
VN3 F: FAULTY
VN3 VL3
VN3
N L
NTPC LTD.
0 0.2 0.6 1.0
COS ELECTRICAL 20
FAULT POSITION
Third harmonic voltage scheme block dig

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 21


Third harmonic voltage scheme
Under voltage relay with filter tuned to 3rd harmonic
detects the faults near the neutral.
It can not detect faults near terminal.
Under voltage relay must be combined with an overvoltage
relay in the neutral for the remaining part of the winding.
Voltage differential relay with filter tuned to 3rd harmonic
detects the faults near the neutral and near the terminal.
It can not detect faults in the middle of the winding.
It must be combined with an overvoltage relay in the
neutral for the remaining part of the winding.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 22


Third harmonic voltage scheme

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 23


Third harmonic voltage scheme
Disadvantages:

Due to design variations, certain generating units may


not produce sufficient third harmonic voltages.
This method does not protect the m/c during stand still
conditions.
This method can not detect failures over the whole winding.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 24


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NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 31
100 % SEF protection
Low frequency injection principle settings:
Settings typical for 500 MW Unit
Trip: 10 Ohm
Time delay for trip: 1 Sec
Alarm: 30 Ohm
Time delay for alarm: 10 sec.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 32


TYPICAL CONNECTION DIAGRAM OF SEF/RF
USING INJECTION PRINCIPLE

relay accessory

FIELD
NGT
NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 33
ROTOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION

First rotor earth fault does not cause immediate damage


Second earth fault results in a winding short circuit of rotor
Cause magnetic unbalance/mechanical forces /damage

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 34


ROTOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION
Methods of detection
Potentiometer method
A center taped resistor is connected across the main
field winding
The center tap is connected to earth through a
voltage relay
An earth fault on the field winding will produce
voltage in the relay, maximum voltage occurring for
end faults
A blind spot exists at the tapping point, to avoid this
, the tapping point is varied with a push button or
switch , and is tested periodically to detect blind
zone
Setting is 5% of field voltage
NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 35
ROTOR E/F
CR = Normal Rotor -to-
Ground (Shaft)Capacitance. R7= R8 = Resistors.
Ck1=Ck2= Coupling Z = Cable Impedance.
Condensers. FW = Rotor Field Winding
Cx = Balancing Condenser.
3
Z Rotor E/F
stage1
e Cx
alarm
Ck1
FW CR
100Vac
from PT 50Vac 5 2
6
Ck2
Filter
1

R7 R8

Rotor E/F
stage2
trip
4
NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 36
ROTOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION

In normal operation the coupling condenser (Cx), Normal


capacitance (CR) of the rotor to ground (shaft), R7 and R8 form a
balanced bridge.
During rotor E/F the value of CR changes and results in
unbalance of the bridge which in turn generates the alarm and trip
signals depending on the severity of the fault.
If there is an earth fault between the point 3and point e the
CR is disturbed and the bridge is unbalanced resulting in alarm
and trip signals for the Rotor E/F Relay.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 37


ROTOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION
Low frequency injection method
Modern rotor earth fault protection relay operates on
the principle of low frequency injection into the field
winding via capacitors.
Corresponding current or resistance during E/F is
sensed
Typical setting (500 mw)
Alarm 40 k ohm time = 10 sec
trip 5 k ohm time = 1 sec
Actual values of setting shall be decided at site
during commissioning to ascertain the healthy value
of the particular machine.
NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 38
SEF/REF USING INJECTION PRINCIPLE TYPICAL
CONNECTION

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 39


Rotor E/F prot

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GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL
PROTECTION
Covers phase faults
Earth fault not covered due to high impedance
earthing resulting in low earth fault current.
Effects of phase fault:
High currents
Potential damage to machines
Expensive outage/repair due to damage.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 41


GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL
PROTECTION
Features of differential protection:
Unit type protection
Instantaneous in operation.
Covers the stator winding for phase to phase faults.
Duplicated differential protection given used for GCB
scheme
Stable for through faults
CTs are low reactance type class PS with minimum
turns ratio error and of identical magnetizing
characteristics.
Types of differential protection:
High impedance differential protection
Biased differential protection
NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 42
HIGH IMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL
PROTECTION RELAY
Two sets of identical dedicated CTs are used.
PS class CTs with stringent parameters are used.
Two CTs paralleled outside the relay and single input is
given to the relay.
Very sensitive
Through fault stability achieved by using stabilizing
resistors in the relay circuit.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 43


HIGH IMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL
PROTECTION RELAY

CT CONNECTION

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 44


NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 45
HIGH IMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL
PROTECTION RELAY
CT PARAMETERS
Vk = 2 If (Rct+2Rl)
Vk Min. Knee point voltage of the CT
If - Maximum fault current in the system
(converted to sec side)
Rct- Secondary resistance of the CT
Rl lead resistance of the sec connection
(typical 8.73 ohms per km for 2.5 sq mm cu cable)

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 46


BIASED DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
RELAY
CTs can be shared with other protections
PS class CTs are required.
Less stringent CT parameters.
Individual CT inputs given to the individual bias coils.
Through fault stability achieved through biasing.
CT mismatch (typical of the order of 1:5 ) can be
accommodated.
More suitable for numerical integrated protection systems as the
CTs can be shared for many functions.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 47


BIASED DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
RELAY

CT CONNECTION
NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 48
BIASED DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
RELAY CHARACTERISTIC

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TYPICAL B-H PLOT NEGLECTING
HYSTERESIS

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CT PERFORMANCE ISSUES
ERRORS
AC SATURATION EFFECT
DC SATURATION EFFECT
SIZING
REMANENT FLUX
PROXIMITY TO HIGH CURRENT
BUSES
NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 52
CURRENT OR RATIO ERROR AS
PER IEC IS:

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COMPOSITE ERROR:

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IEC60044-1 STANDARDS :

25 25 25

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 55


PROTECTION CLASS
MAIN REQUIREMENT IS THE ABILITY OF CT
TO FAITHFULLY TRANSFORM THE
PRIMARY CURRENT DURING FAULT
CONDITION.
DURING FAULT CONDITION, VALUE OF
PRIMARY CURRENT MAY BE 10 TO 20 TIMES
THE RATED PRIMARY CURRENT.
WITH RELAY BURDEN CONNECTED , IT
MAY SATURATE AND RELAY WILL RECEIVE
VERY LESS CURRENT AND, THEREFORE,
MAY MALOPERATE.
NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 56
PROTECTION CLASS
FOR NON-UNIT TYPE PROTECTION SUCH AS O/C TYPE OF
PROTECTION, CLASS PR TYPE CTs ARE USED.

THE PARAMETERS THAT ARE DEFINED FOR THE CT ARE:

STANDARD ACCURACY LIMIT FACTOR(SALF):


= RATED ACC. LIMIT PRIMARY CURR.
RATED CURRENT
WHEREAS, RATED ACCURACY LIMIT PRIMARY CURRENT IS
THE VALUE OF THE PRIMARY CURRENT UPTO WHICH CT WILL
COMPLY WITH THE REQUIREMENT OF COMPOSITE ERROR.

STANDARD VALUES OF SALF ARE 5,10,15,20,30

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 57


PROTECTION CLASS
ACCURACY CLASS: TELLS ABOUT %AGE
COMPOSITE ERROR LIMIT AT SALF ,RATED
FREQUENCY AND RATED BURDEN CONNECTED (at
0.8 pf). STANDARD VALUES ARE 5,10.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 58


PROTECTION CLASS
RATED BURDEN: DEPENDING ON THE LOAD (VA)
CONNECTED TO THE CT, RATED VA BURDEN (AT
0.8Pf) IS DEFINED.

REMANENCE FACTOR FIXED TO 10%.

PROTECTION CLASS CTs HAVE LOW


REMANENCE. AS HIGH REMANENCE CTs WILL
SATURATE FASTER.
THE ABOVE CT PARAMETERS ARE
THEREFORE SPECIFIED AS FOR EXAMPLE:
CTR:1000/1, 5PR20 @ 30VA etc.
IN NTPC, FOR GENERATOR PROTECTION WE
TYPICALLY SPECIFY CTR 10000A/5A,5PR20 @
75VA
NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 59
HYSTERISIS CURVE FOR PROTECTION CTs


r
H

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 60


PROTECTION CLASS

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 61


MAGNETIC INRUSH PHONOMENA

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FOR UNIT TYPE PROTECTION

HERE , REQUIREMENTS ARE RATHER


STRINGENT AS WE COMPARE CURRENT
OF TWO OR MORE CTS AND RELY ON THE
THEIR MUTUAL FAITHFULLNESS.
MOREOVER, OUR AIM IS THAT THE
PROTECTION MUST BE STABLE FOR EVEN
WORST THROUGH FAULT AND FAST
ACTING FOR INTERNAL FAULT.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 64


UNIT PROTECTION
Substation to be protected

External/Through Fault

Internal Fault

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 65


UNIT PROTECTION
Equipment to be protected
I1 I1 I2

i1 i1
i1 i1 i2
Stabilising i1 + i2
Resistance
Operating
relay

UNIT PROTECTION

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 66


UNIT PROTECTION
FOR THIS PX CLASS OF CTs ARE
NEEDED (THESE CTs ARE SIMILAR IN
ALL RESPECTS TO CLASS PS OF IS-
2705 AND CLASS-X OF BS-3938 WITH
SOME ADDITIONAL FEATURES)

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 67


UNIT PROTECTION
THE PARAMETERS WHICH ARE DEFINED
IN THIS CT ARE:
KNEE POINT VOLTAGE (KPV):
That minimum sinusoidal voltage (r.m.s.) at rated
power frequency when applied to the secondary
terminals of the transformer, all the terminals
being open-circuited, which when increased by
10% causes the r.m.s. exciting current to increase
by no more than 50%.
NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 68
UNIT PROTECTION
FOR WORST THROUGH FAULT, CTs
SHOULD NOT GET SATURATED.WHEN ONE
OF THE CTs GETS SATURATED, LARGE
AMOUNT OF CURRENT MAY FLOW
THROUGH DIFFERENTIAL CIRCUIT AND
RESULT IN OPERATION OF
RELAY.HOWEVER, IF RELAY IS SET
ABOVE THIS VALUE
i.e. Iset= Ifx (Rct+2xRl),
NTPC LTD. RstabCOS ELECTRICAL 69
UNIT PROTECTION
Equipment to be protected
I1 I1 I2

i1 i1 SATURATED CT
i1 i1
Stabilising
Resistance
Operating
relay

UNIT PROTECTION (HIGH IMPEDANCE)

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 70


UNIT PROTECTION
THEN, RELAY MAY NOT OPERATE FOR
INTERNAL FAULT IF ONE OF THE CT GETS
SATURATED FOR INTERNAL FAULT.
THEREFORE, KNEE POINT VOLTAGE IS
DEFINED.FOR HIGH IMPEDANCE UNIT
PROTECTION, THIS IS USUALLY TAKEN
AS:

KPV=2x If (Rct+2xRl)

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 71


UNIT PROTECTION

FOR LOW IMPEDANCE UNIT PROTECTION:

KPV=Kx In (Rct+2xRl), WHERE Kx IS THE


DIMENSIONING FACTOR

WELL, THESE ARE RELAY APPLICATION


AND SYSTEM X/R SPECIFIC.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 72


UNIT PROTECTION
MAGNETISING CURRENT AT KPV OR
%AGE THEREOF:

TWO OR MORE CTs USED FOR UNIT


PROTECTION SHOULD WORK LIKE CLONE
BROTHERS i.e. FOR THROUGH FAULT
CONDITION, THE SPILL CURRENT
SHOULD BE IDEALLY ZERO. BUT
PRACTICALLY, THIS IS NOT THE CASE.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 73


UNIT PROTECTION

IF TWO CTs HAVE DIFFERENT


MAGNETISING CURRENT AND HIGH
LEAKAGE REACTANCE, IT WILL
INTRODUCE HIGH CURRENT AS WELL AS
PHASE ERROR.THUS, RESULTANT
CURRENT OF THESE CT SECONDARIES
MAY LEAD TO HIGH SPILL(DIFFERENTIAL)
CURRENT DURING THROUGH FAULT.THIS
MAY LEAD TO PROTECTION OPERATION
DURING THROUGH FAULT.
NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 74
UNIT PROTECTION
CT DC RESISTANCE AT 75 deg C(Rct):
THIS VALUE IS VERY IMPORTANT FROM
THE POINT OF VIEW OF KPV
CALCULATION AS IT IS ONE OF THE
LIMITING FACTORS TO THIS. THEREFORE,
IT IS DEFINED.

TURN RATIO ERROR: LIMITED TO 0.25%.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 75


UNIT PROTECTION
THE ABOVE CT PARAMETERS ARE
THEREFORE SPECIFIED AS FOR
EXAMPLE:
CTR: 1000/1 ,PX , KPV=1000V,
Ie=30mAmp @ KPV/2, Rct< 5OHMS @75
deg C etc. (TYPICAL TO NTPC)

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 76


CT CURRENT AND FLUX-SLIGHT
AC SATURATION

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 77


CT CURRENT AND FLUX-MODERATE
AC SATURATION

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 78


CT OUTPUT WITH DC SATURATION

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RELAY SLOPE CHARACTERISTIC-EM

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 80


RELAY SLOPE CHARACTERISTIC-
NUMERICAL AND STATIC
Security from
misoperation for
maximum fault condition

Maxm sensitivity for


low current faults
Expected increased
CT error

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Overall diff prot

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Generator diff
prot

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NTPC LTD. Overhead line diff prot
COS ELECTRICAL 94
NEGATIVE SEQUENCE PROTECTION

Causes of negative sequence current:


Unbalanced loads
Unbalance system fault
Open circuit
Effects negative sequence current:
These create synchronous field in reverse direction.
This field induces 2f (100Hz) currents to flow on rotor
surface & intense heat.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 95


ACA - PROT - 43 / 75 HO
NEGATIVE SEQUENCE RELAY 46

R
Y
B
IB ZB ZR IR
46
IR VR + VB
VR + VB = 0 IR
VR VR VB
IB
IB VB IY IY
NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 96
NEGATIVE SEQUENCE PROTECTION

The energy input to the rotor and rotor temperature rise


over an interval of time is proportional to I22X T .
The limit below damage level for rotor component is based
on equation, K = I22X T
K= Constant dependent on generator design and size
T= Time in seconds
I2= RMS value of NPS current.
K is provided by generator manufacturer in
accordance with ANSI C50.13

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 97


TYPICAL NPS CAPABILITY

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TYPICAL NPS SETTINGS

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NEGATIVE PHASE SEQUENCE THERMAL
CHARACTERISTIC FOR MICOM RELAY

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 101


NEGATIVE SEQUENCE PROTECTION
The negative sequence protection relays shall be set to the
NPS capability of the machine which is
K = I22X T
Typical for 500 MW
Permissible negative seq current = 5 8 % of stator
current
Permissible I22X T = 5 10

Settings adopted for NTPC


I2 = = 7.5 %
I22XT = 8.3

Negative sequence relay give alarm if I2 increases preset value


and trip the m/c if I2t exceeds limit. Alarm is set at 80% of
I2t trip value and instant trip at 100%
NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 102
INTER TURN FAULT PROTECTION

Types of Inter turn fault protection:


Current based protection system
Voltage based protection system
Current based system
For generators with split neutrals with all six terminals
brought out on neutral side
Delayed low-set O/C relay which senses the current in the
connection between the neutrals of the stator windings

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 103


INTER TURN FAULT PROTECTION

Voltage based system


Relay compares the neutral NGT sec voltage and
generator terminal open delta voltage.
Should be balance during E/F or normal condition
During inter turn fault open delta voltage will be
developed and NGT sec voltage will be zero,resulting in
a differential voltage which makes the relay operate

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 104


INTER TURN FAULT PROTECTION

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GENERATOR ACCIDENTAL BACK
ENERGISATION
Inadvertent energisation during standstill.
HOW
Backfed from the Generator transformer or from the UAT
side thro erroneous closure of CB
IMPACT
Starts as Induction motor
Significant Inrush current (phase current 3-4pu) and
prolonged period of acceleration(10-60 sec)
Severe thermal stress in stator and rotor windings.
Turbine Bearing and end blade damage.
NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 106
QUESTIONS IN MIND

Which other protections can sense accidental


energisation?
Are normal generator Protections accidentally
or intentionally disabled when the Generator is
offline?

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 107


PROTECTION PROVIDED BY
NATIVE SCHEMES
LOSS OF FIELD PROTN
BACK UP DISTANCE PROTN
VOLTAGE RESTRAINT/VOLTAGE
CONTROL RELAYS
MOTORING PROTECTION
NEGATIVE SEQUENCE PROTN
BACK UP EARTH FAULT
NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 108
GENERATOR ACCIDENTAL BACK
ENERGISATION

Single phase energisation at the Generator


not a concern as current is limited to earth current(
10Amp)
Single phase energisation at the HV side of
Generator Transformer
is a concern as the current is not limited by
Grounding imp and can approach three phase
energisation values

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 109


GENERATOR ACCIDENTAL BACK
ENERGISATION

Breaker Flashover during run up


Arcing over of breaker poles during
synchronisation
Flashover due to loss of insulating medium
pressure
Likely event of one or two pole flashover

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 110


INITIAL CURRENT FOR A THREE
PHASE ENERGISATION
Initial 3-phase energising current

Istart= Esys/(Zex+R2+X2)

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BREAKER FLASHOVER PROTECTION

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NTPC SCHEME

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NTPC SCHEME

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NTPC SCHEME

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BACK UP IMPEDANCE
PROTECTION

Voltage controlled/Voltage restraint time


over-current protection(51V)for small/medium size
Generators

Non directional
CTs can be connected at the terminal or at the
neutral
Phase distance relays(21)for Large Generators

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 120


BACK UP DISTANCE
PROTECTION
Impedance relay is used at Generator terminal
Back up protection for faults beyond the Generator
terminals and on the transmission system
It measures the impedance from the Generator
terminal looking into the power system
It can also have a reverse looking offset to include
impedance equivalent to negative seq impedance of
the Generator.

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 121


BACK UP DISTANCE RELAY MTA

ZL

Xtr
REACH

X2
OFFSET

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BEST WISHES
TO U ALL

NTPC LTD. COS ELECTRICAL 124