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Asphalt and Asphalt Concrete

History
Asphalt and Tar Material
Engineered Asphalt Cements
Hot-mixed asphalt
Cutbacks
Emulsions
Properties of Asphalt
History
3500 B.C. natural bitumen used to line
reservoirs by the Greeks

First US asphalt in NY and NJ

Automobile drove the ACC industry


Sources of Natural Asphalt Cement

Natural asphalts are refined by nature


Trinidad Lake asphalt
very hard, mined commercially
Washington, DC 1870s
Gilsonite in Utah
very hard, mined commercially
contains fine sand
Rock asphalt Kentucky, Texas
sandstone impregnated with asphalt
Tar sands
in Canada (Athabasca)
La Brea tar pits in California
Bitumen and Asphalt
Bitumen: non-volatile hydrocarbon, soluble in
carbon disulfide, very complex material
structure
Coal tar, asphalt (processed oil residue)
Asphalt (combination of asphaltine, resin, oil)
Asphaltine (C/H>0.8)
Resin (0.8>C/H>0.6)
Oil (C/H < 0.6)
Specific Gravity = 0.95 1.05
Composition of Asphalt Cement
Large organic molecules of varying size and polarity
Carbon 80-87% Nitrogen 0-1%
Hydrogen 9-11% Sulfur 0.5 -7%
Oxygen 2-8% Heavy metals 0-0.5%
Heavy metals play important role
Contribute to polarity
Asphaltenes
Resins
Molecular structure very complex
Oils
Asphaltenes - largest and most polar
Resins - intermediate, also polar
Oils - smallest, paraffin -like, non -polar
Colloidal model
Asphaltenes surrounded by resins
Oils continuous medium
Refinery Operation
OIL WELL FIELD STORAGE TANKS

LIGHT
DISTILLATE SOLVENTS

GASOLENE
PUMPING MEDIUM
STATION DISTILLATE JET FUEL
HEAVY
DISTILLATE LUBRICANTS
TOWER
DISTILLATION HEATING OIL

RESIDUAL ASPHALT
CEMENTS
STORAGE TUBE CONDENSERS
HEATER AND
COOLERS Lighter molecules vaporize
Asphalt cement remains
Residual varies in consistency
Asphalt Characterization
Flash Point: temperature at which a substance will ignite with a
open flame
Rolling Thin-Film Oven: indicator of the aging effect of
short term high temperatures when producing ACC.
Viscosity: rotational viscometer measures the viscosity at a
standard temperature (135C)
Complex Shear Modulus: dynamic shear rheometer
Flexural Creep: bending beam rheometer measure creep
stiffness
Tensile Strength
Engineered Asphalt Cement
Hot mixed asphalt (pavements)
Viscous semi-solid
Flows for heating into liquid range
Cutback asphalt
Viscous liquid
Cut with oil distillates
Emulsion asphalt
Viscous liquid
Cut with water
- Asphalt Binder Liquefied with Water
Emulsions
Water - reduces viscosity
Emulsifier gives surface charge to asphalt droplets suspended
in water medium
Anionic Water
Negative charge
Alkaline (Basic) aggregate Asphalt
Good with limestones (positive charge) Binder
Cationic
Positive charge
Acidic aggregate
Good with silica gravels (negative charge)
Consistency controlled by amount of water
Stability controlled by choicer of emulsifier
Environmentally correct
Properties of Asphalt Cement
Adhesion: property to connect dissimilar materials

Cohesion: property to connect similar materials

3M scotch tape is adhesive, not cohesive


Silly putty is cohesive, not adhesive
Asphalt is adhesive and cohesive
Flow properties
Consistency: measure of fluidity at a given temperature
Absolute Viscosity, poises


shear _ stress
poises 0.1Pa s
shear _ rate
Kinetic Viscosity, centistokes
Absolute viscosity

densityg / cm3
Penetration: empirical measure of ease to penetration
Penetration of 1 mm diameter needle.
Performance-Graded Asphalt Binders

Maximum
Temperature Minimum Temperature (C)
(C)
PG 46 -34 -40 -46
PG 52 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46
PG 58 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40
PG 64 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40
PG 70 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40
PG 76 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34
PG 82 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34

As an example, a PG 64-28 is acceptable for use in a


climatic region where the maximum temperature is
64C and the minimum temperature is-28C.
Selection of Grading Temperatures

Pavement Air Temperature


Temperature Maximum 7 -day
(Running Average)

-28 -22 -16 Temperature 64 70 76 82

Given that the minimum measured air temperature for a site is-21C and
the maximum 7-day average temperature is 73C, which PG grade should
be used for this site. Here, use PG 76 -22.
Alternative Grading System
Grade Viscosity Penetration Flash Point
Abs., Poises Kinetic, cStokes
C
AC-2.5 250 125 220 163
AC-5 500 175 140 177
AC-10 1000 250 80 219
AC-20 2000 300 60 232
AC-30 3000 350 50 232
AC-40 4000 400 40 232
Asphalt and Asphalt Concrete

Asphalt Concrete
Aggregates
Properties
Pavements
Mixture Design
Asphalt Concrete

Aggregates
clean and dry aggregates are necessary for
adhesion (no dust, no water)
interlocking nature creates internal friction
which is important to the long-term
properties of the asphalt concrete.
angular shape aggregates 50-80% with 2
angular faces
ACC: Importance of Aggregate
Asphalt cement has
no strength at

Modulus, Pa
temperatures > 60C
Stability of
pavements in hot
weather is due to
internal friction in
the aggregates -40 -20 0 20 40 60
Temperature, C
Asphalt Concrete Mixtures

Mixtures of aggregate
and asphalt cement
binder
about 95% aggregate
by weight
about 75% aggregate
by volume
ideally, 3-5% air voids
Asphalt Concrete

Flexibility
high binder content
low viscosity binder
Short-term Loadings
elastic properties of binder-aggregate
matrix
Asphalt Concrete

Long-term Durability
fluid properties of binder
dry clean aggregates
water causes stripping
strong porous angular stone
durable aggregates (LA abrasion)
Asphalt Concrete

Workability: Ease in which material is


handled and laid and compacted.
poor compaction leads to deformation and
the permeability of water and air.
temperature affects workability
Strength
high viscosity binder
crushed stone aggregates (interlock)
Pavement Section

ACC Surface

ACC Base

Granular Subbase

Subgrade
Asphalt Pavement Distress
Cracking
Consistency

Traffic Associated Fatigue

Rutting

-40 -20 0 20 40 60
Temperature, C
Asphalt Concrete Applications

Roofing,
slurry
composition shingles
Sealants
waterproofing for foundations, etc
electrical insulation
Asphalt Concrete Applications

Pavements
Hot Mixed Asphalt Cement
(asphaltine, resin)
Emulsions (repairs, small jobs)
moist or dry aggregates
hot or cold applications
no fuel or solvents
anionic or cationic
Asphalt Concrete Applications

Cutbacks (on the way out)


RC - flash point in 27C !!!
hard base (hot regions)
MC - safer
softer base (cold regions)
SC - Road Oils
rural roads, sealants
Primary Distress Modes HMA Pavements

Rutting

5 - 15 m Fatigue Cracking

Thermal Cracking Moisture Damage?


Temperature Regimes where Distress Predominates

Plexiglas Low-temperature thermal


Consistency Shrinkage cracking

Salt Water Intermediate-temperature


Taffy traffic-associated fatigue

Molasses High-temperature
rutting

-25 0 25 50 75
Approximate Temperature, C