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Lecture-4 Outline

What is Power Quality


Improving Power Quality
Harmonic Analysis
Total Harmonic Distortion ( THD)
Harmonics in 3-phase Systems
Harmonics in Transformers
What is Power Quality?
Definitions of the quality of the supplied voltage (what about the current?)
Usually referred in negative contexts power quality problems
Measurement
IEC 61000-4-7 Voltage Flicker
IEC 61000-4-15 Harmonic Measurement
IEC 61000-4-30 Measurement Accuracy (Class A, Class S)
IEC 62052/3-11, 22, 23 Energy Accuracy (Class 0.2S, Class 0.5S)
Power Quality
BS:EN 50160: In use worldwide, in favor of the utilities, voltage only,
statistical standard
IEEE 519 and IEEE 1159: American standards, practical point of view
GOST 13019: Russian standard, very comprehensive
G5/4: British standard for Harmonics (also current)
Customized: Allows the user to select the best of all, including fault
recording, waveform capture and more
Power Quality Parameters

Frequency

Voltage Variations

Voltage Flicker

Voltage Dip
Power Quality Parameters

Interruptions

Temporary Overvoltage

Transients
Power Quality Parameters

Unbalance

Harmonics

Interharmonics
Harmonics

+ =

sin( 5 x ) sin( 5 x )
f ( x ) sin( x ) f ( x) f ( x ) sin( x )
5 5
IEEE1159-EN50160 Levels
IEEE 1159 EN50160
No. Categories Typical Spectral Typical Duration Typical Voltage
Content Magnitude
Short Duration Variations
Instantaneous
7 Sag 0.5-30 Cycles 0.1-0.9 pu <1 sec
8 Swell 0.5-30 Cycles 1.1-1.8 pu No
Momentary
9 Interruption 0.5 Cycles-3s <0.1 pu <1 sec
10 Sag 30 Cycles-3s 0.1-0.9 pu No
11 Swell 30 Cycles-3s 1.1-1.4 pu No
Temporary
12 Interruption 3 s-1 min <0.1 pu No
13 Sag 3 s-1 min 0.1-0.9 pu No
14 Swell 3 s-1 min 1.1-1.2 pu No
Long Duration Variations
15 Interruption, Sustained >1 min 0.0 pu Yes
16 Undervoltages >1 min 0.8-0.9 pu Yes 10 min
17 Overvoltages >1 min 1.1-1.2 pu Yes 10 min
THD-Total Harmonic Distortion

100 ( V 2 V 3 ..... V n )
2 2 2

THD(V) (%)
V 1

I 3 ..... I n )
2 2 2

THD(I)
100 ( I 2
(%)
I 1

IN, VN Individual Harmonics of order N


TDD - Total Demand Distortion
( - TDD )I " .

) I 3 ..... I n
2 2 2

TDD(I)
( 100 I 2
)(%
I max demand
- I max. demand
15 30 .
%THD I
"
.
IEEE .% TDD
K-Factor

K factor I
n
2 2
h h
h 1
Agenda
What is Power Quality
Improving Power Quality
Power Quality in SATEC products
Accuracy Standards
Should we Care about Power Quality?
Comprehensive Research in Europe in 1400 sites at 8 countries reports that
20% experience the following:
Computer lockouts (20%)
Light flickering (22%)
Electronic card failures (18%)
Power Factor correction system failures (17%)
Failures in high load switching (16%)
Neutral conductor overheating (12%)
Unexpected breaker operation (11%)
Power meters inaccurate readings (6%)

And of course excess losses and downtime


Causes and Solutions
PQ Problem Major Sources Solutions
Frequency The Utility
Sync. loads,
Voltage variations Load changing
Fast PF correction
Load changing, mainly
Voltage flicker Fast PF correction
welding
Motor and other load Motor starters, VFD,
Voltage dip
startups Fast PF correction
Interruptions The Utility
Overvoltage Over PF compensation Fast PF correction
Transients Connections, Switching Controlled switches
Unbalanced loads,
Unbalance Balance the loads
transformer phase shift
Active/passive filtration,
Harmonics Non linear loads, resonance detuned capacitors,
Improved VFD operation