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Hazard identification
Can be the greatest potential hazard on ship,
rig or platform
The three most common chemical plants
accidents; fire, explosion & toxic releases
The theory of combustion and fire spread
should be understood
Also important; duty of care, common sense,
and good housekeeping
Fire theory
Definition of fire
Combustion or fire is a chemical reaction
(oxidation process), producing heat and light

Triangle of fire

Combustible substances (fuel)

exist as solids, liquids and gases
Fire-fighting methods
To reduce, segregate or eliminate fuel
during combustion
To reduce or prevent Oxygen during combustion
To reduce Heat during combustion
Interrupting Chemical Chain Reaction
By reaction with dry chemical agent
Classification of fire (European)
Class A: Carbon based materials (wood, rubber,
paper, fabric, textiles)
Class B: Flammable liquids (petrol, oil, thinners)
Class C: Flammable gases (acetylene, propane,
LPG, butane)
Class D: Flammable metals (sodium, potassium,
magnesium, Uranium, Lithium)
Note: special extinguishing agents require
Class F: Involve cooking oils and fats
American fire classification

A for ash

B for barrel

C for current

D for dynamite

K for kitchen
Fire classification
Comparison of fire classes

American European Australian/Asian Fuel/Heat source

Class A Class A Class A

Class B Class B Flammable liquids

Class B
Class C Class C Flammable gases


Class D Class D Class D

Class K Class F Class F Cooking oil or fat

Fire spread
RADIATION: Materials may be ignited when placed too close to a
source of radiated heat, e.g. heat energy is transferred through the
atmosphere in straight lines

CONVECTION: Fire spreading from a lower to a higher level by rising

of hot gases, e.g. stair and lift wells

CONDUCTION: Heat travelling from a lower to a higher level by

rising of hot gases, e.g. steel girders, deck plating, steel bulkheads
(heat transfer through solid material)

DIRECT CONTACT: Combustible materials giving off sufficient vapour

to encourage combustion and continue burning when coming into
contact with a naked flame, e.g. chair or mattress exposed to
lighted cigarette
Extinguishers must be
Readily available and visible
Easy to operate
Maintained in good order
Appropriate to the risk being protected
Operating method
A rapid expansion of gases resulting in a
rapidly moving pressure or shock wave
The expansion can be mechanical (rupture) or
rapid chemical reaction
The major distinction to fire is the rate of
energy release.
Fire: slow rate
Explosion: rapid (microseconds)
Fire can cause explosion, and explosion can
cause fire.