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1 Research Design

Research Design

Concept

the procedures you will use to address

your research question.

Research design is a set of advance

decisions (plans) that make up the

master plan specifying the methods

and procedures for collecting and

analyzing the needed information.

Research Design

Concept

the procedures you will use to address

your research question.

Research design is a set of advance

decisions (plans) that make up the

master plan specifying the methods

and procedures for collecting and

analyzing the needed information.

The research design is formulated by

answering the following questions..

- What is the study all about?

- Why is the study being conducted?

- Where will the study be carried out?

- What type of data is required to be collected?

- Where can be the required data collected?

- What period of time will the study data include?

- What will be the sample design?

- What techniques of data collection is required to use?

- What techniques of data calculations be used?

- In what style the report be prepared?

Features of a good research design

maximizes the reliability of data collected & the

outcome of study.

- The design should give least experimental error.

- The research design should yield maximal information

& should provide different aspects of understanding

the problem.

- The questionnaire formulated should fulfill the

objectives of the study.

There are 3 types of Research Design

Exploratory

Descriptive

Causal

- The choice of the most appropriate design

depends largely on the objectives of the

research and how much is known about the

problem and research objectives.

A Classification of Research Designs

Research Design

Exploratory Conclusive

Research Design Research Design

Descriptive Causal

Research Research

Cross-Sectional Longitudinal

Design Design

Sectional Design Sectional Design

Exploratory Research

Exploratory Research

Designed to generate basic knowledge, clarify relevant

issues uncover variables associated with a problem,

uncover information needs, and/or define alternatives

for addressing research objectives.

A very flexible, open-ended process.

Descriptive Research (who, what, where, how)

Designed to provide further insight into the research

problem by describing the variables of interest.

Can be used for profiling, defining, segmentation,

estimating, predicting, and examining associative

relationships.

Exploratory & Conclusive Research

Differences

Exploratory Conclusive

Objective:To provide insights and To test specific hypotheses

understanding. and examine relationships.

istics: defined only loosely. defined. Research process is

Research Prof. Prashantis

process B. Kalaskar

formal and structured.

flexible and unstructured. Sample is large. Data

Sample is small and non- analysis is quantitative.

representative. Analysis of

primary data is qualitative.

Findings Conclusive.

/Results: Tentative.

Generally followed by decision making.

further exploratory or

conclusive research.

Exploratory Research Studies

formulative research studies

The major emphasis in such studies is on the

discovery of ideas and insights

.

Basic Research Objectives and Research

Design

to define terms, to clarify

problems and hypotheses,

Prof. Prashant B. Kalaskar

to establish research priorities

phenomena at a point in time

to make if-then statements

Exploratory Research

unstructured, informal research that is undertaken to

gain background information about the general

nature of the research problem.

By unstructured, we mean there is no formal set of

objectives, sample plan, or questionnaire.

It is usually conducted when the researcher does not

know much about the problems.

Exploratory research is usually conducted at the

outset of research projects.

Uses of Exploratory Research

precisely

Identify alternative courses of action

Develop hypotheses

Isolate key variables and relationships for further

examination

Gain insights for developing an approach to the

problem

Establish priorities for further research

Methods for Exploratory Research

exploratory research:

Secondary Data Analysis

Experience Surveys

Prof. Prashant B. Kalaskar

Case Analysis

Focus Groups

Observation Method

Methods for Exploratory Research

process of searching for and interpreting existing info

relevant to the research problem (e.g., census data,

articles in journals, newspapers, etc.).

from those thought to be knowledgeable on the issues

relevant to the problem (i.e., ask experts, people who

had experience).

Survey of people who have had practical experience

Competent people are to be selected

Respondents should be allowed to raise issues &

questions

Methods for Exploratory Research

Case Analysis. Uses past situations that are

similar to the present research problem.

people brought together and guided by a

moderator through unstructured,

spontaneous discussion.

Descriptive Research

answers to questions of who, what, where, when,

and how.

Descriptive research is desirable when we wish to

Prof. Prashant B. Kalaskar

project a studys findings to a larger population, if the

studys sample is representative.

Two basic classifications:

Cross-sectional studies

Longitudinal studies

Types and Characteristics of

Descriptive Studies

Cross-Sectional Study

Easily the most common type of research project.

Typically involves conducting a survey of a sample of population

elements at one point in time.

Useful because it provides a quick snapshot of whats going on with

the variables of interest for our research problem.

Longitudinal Study

An investigation that involves taking repeated measures over time.

Useful for conducting trend analysis, tracking changes in behavior over

time (e.g., brand switching, levels of awareness, turnover) and

monitoring long-term effects of marketing activities (e.g., market

share, pricing effects)

Examples of Descriptive Research

Training Program, or a Retailing Situation

well as what happened to sales volume

particular store

the year

Uses of Descriptive Research

such as consumers, salespeople, organizations, or

market areas.

To estimate the percentage of units in a specified

population exhibiting a certain behavior.

To determine the perceptions of product

characteristics.

To determine the degree to which Business variables

are associated.

To make specific predictions.

Uses of Descriptive Research

study is about and why is it being made?)

(b) Designing the methods of data collection (what

techniques of gathering data will be adopted?)

(c) Selecting the sample (how much material will be

needed?)

(d) Collecting the data (where can the required data be

found and with what time period should the data be

related?)

(e) Processing and analysing the data.

(f) Reporting the findings.

Cross Sectional Studies

sample of the population at only one point in

time.

Sample surveys are cross-sectional studies

whose samples are drawn in such a way as to

be representative of a specific population.

On-line survey research is being used to collect

data for cross-sectional surveys at a faster rate

of speed.

Longitudinal Studies

units of a population over time.

One method is to draw different units from the

same sampling frame.

A second method is to use a panel where the

same people are asked to respond periodically.

On-line survey research firms recruit panel

members to respond to online queries.

Causal/Experimental Research

phenomenon in terms of conditional statements of

the form If x, then y.

Causal relationships are typically determined by the

use of experiments, but other methods are also used.

Causal Research (If-then)

Designed to provide information on potential

cause-and-effect relationships.

Most practical in marketing to talk about

associations or impact of one variable on another.

Casual Research

Evidence to Support Causation

Concomitant variation

If X is supposed to cause Y, then the two variables must

move together.

If one variable changes, we should observe a resulting

change in the other.

Time order of occurrence

If X is supposed to cause Y, then changes in X must precede

changes in Y.

Elimination of other possible causes

If X causes Y, no other factor could have reasonably caused

the change in Y at that moment.

Must hold all other variables constant.

Important concepts related to

Experiment Research Design

1) Dependent & Independent Variable:

2) Extraneous Variable:

3) Control:

4) Confounded Relationship:

5) Research Hypothesis:

6) Experimental & non experimental hypothesis testing research:

7) Experimental & Control group:

8) Treatments:

9) Experiment:

10) Experimental Units:

Important concepts related to

Research Design

1) Independent Variable & Dependent :

Independent variables are those variables which the

researcher has control over and he can manipulate.

For example: level of ad expenditure; type of ad appeal;

price; product features, etc.

or no direct control over, yet we have a strong interest in.

Examples: Return on investment, net profits, market share,

customer satisfaction.

Pretest and Posttest

dependent variable taken prior to changing the

independent variable.

Posttest refers to measuring the dependent

variable after changing the independent variable.

Important concepts related to

Research Design

2) Extraneous Variable:

- Those independent variables that are not related to the purpose

of the study, but may affect the dependent variable are called as

Extraneous variable.

- Ex- The researcher wants to test the hypothesis that, there is a

relationship between students knowledge gain in social studies

achievements & their self confidence.

- In this study self confidence is an dependent variable & students

knowledge gain are the independent variable. The achievement is

affected by the different levels of intelligence, but the intelligence

is not related to the purpose of study undertaken, it will be called

as extraneous variable

Important concepts related to

Research Design

3) Control: The extraneous variables some times have

influence on the outcome of the study. Control is the

technical term used when the researcher design the

study to minimize the influence of such extraneous

effects of independent variables.

4) Confound Relationship: When the dependent variable is

not free from the influence of extraneous variable(s),

this relationship between independent & dependent

variable is said to be confounded by extraneous

variable(s)

Important concepts related to

Research Design

5) Research Hypothesis: The pre assumption made by the

researcher, which he wanted to test for its validity.

When a prediction or a hypothesized relationship is to be

tested by scientific methods, it is termed as research

hypothesis.

6) Experimental & Non experimental hypothesis testing research:

When the research is conducted to test the hypothesis, is called

as Hypothesis testing research.

The research in which, the independent variables are manipulated

are called as Experimental Hypothesis research design & when

the independent variable are not manipulated, it is called as Non

Experimental Hypothesis testing research.

Important concepts related to

Research Design

7) Experimental & Control group: In an experimental hypothesis

testing research, when a group is exposed to normal (usual)

conditions, it is termed as Control group.

When the group is exposed to some special condition, it is called

as experimental group

8) Treatments: The different conditions under which experimental

& control groups are put are usually referred to as

Treatments.

9) Experiment: The process of examining the truth of a statistical

hypothesis of a research problem

10) Experimental Units(s): The groups or individual who are the

part of the study, who will get different experimental

treatments.

Important concepts related to

Research Design

7) Experimental & Control group: In an experimental hypothesis

testing research, when a group is exposed to normal (usual)

conditions, it is termed as Control group.

When the group is exposed to some special condition, it is called

as experimental group

8) Treatments: The different conditions under which experimental

& control groups are put are usually referred to as

Treatments.

9) Experiment: The process of examining the truth of a statistical

hypothesis of a research problem

10) Experimental Units(s): The groups or individual who are the

part of the study, who will get different experimental

treatments.

A Comparison of Basic Research

Designs

Exploratory Descriptive Causal

Objective: Discovery of Describe market Determine

ideas and characteristics or cause and effect

insights of functions relationships

problem

Characteristi Marked by the Manipulation of

cs: Flexible,Prof. Prashant

prior formulation

B. Kalaskar one or more

versatile of specific independent

hypotheses variables

Often the front

end of total Preplanned and Control of other

research design structured design mediating

variables

Expert surveys Surveys

Pilot surveys Panels

Secondary data Observation and

Qualitative other data

Qualitative and Quantitative

Research

Research Approaches

Deductive Theory

Hypotheses Patterns

Observations/

Data Inductive

Deductive thinking (Quantitative)

THEORY

HYPOTHESIS

OBSERVATION

CONFIRMATION

Inductive thinking (Qualitative)

OBSERVATION

PATTERNS

HYPOTHESIS

THEORY

General approaches in

qualitative research

Individual interviews

Non-structured

Structured

Projective Techniques

Group interviews

Structured or unstructured

Focus groups

Observation

In-depth Interview

A conversation on a given topic between a

respondent and an interviewer

Used to obtain detailed insights and personal thoughts

Flexible and unstructured, but usually with an interview

guide

Purpose: to probe informants motivations, feelings,

beliefs

Lasts about an hour

Interviewer creates relaxed, open environment

Wording of questions and order are determined by flow

of conversation

Interview transcripts are analyzed for themes and

connections between themes

Projective techniques

Projective techniques are unstructured and

indirect forms of questioning which encourage

the respondents to project their underlying

motivations, beliefs, attitudes or feelings

regarding the issues of concern.

Techniques-

A)Word Association, B)Sentence Completion

Method, c)Picture Drawing and Interpretation,

d)Role Playing

Focus Groups

Focus groups. Involves small (8-12usually paid up )

groups of people brought together and guided by a

moderator through unstructured, spontaneous

discussion.

Observation Research

process of recording the behavioral

patterns of people, objects, and

occurrences without questioning or

communicating with them.

Observational Situations

Situation Example

People watching people Observers stationed in supermarkets watch

consumers select frozen dinner.

The purpose is to see how much comparison

shopping people do at the point of purchase.

phenomena traffic moving in various directions.

people as in people-watching-people example.

phenomena flow.

Major Differences between Qualitative and Quantitative Research

2.5 Hypothesis

Meaning

In ordinary context:

Hypothesis means mere assumptions or

supposition which are to be proved or disproved.

In research context:

Hypothesis is a formal question that is intended to

resolve.

Definition

Hypothesis may be defined as a proposition

OR a set of proposition set forth as an

explanation for the occurrence of some

specified group phenomenon either asserted

merely as a provisional conjecture(guess) to

guide some investigation or accepted as highly

probable in the light of established facts.

Definition by Various Authors

A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relation

between two or more variables. (Kerlinger, 1956)

assumed for use in devising theory or planning experiments

intended to be given a direct experimental test when

possible. (Eric Rogers, 1966)

relationship between an independent and dependent

variable.(Creswell, 1994)

Hypothesis Defined

An educated guess

A preliminary explanation

A preliminary Postulate

Characteristics

Related to problem Clear & Precise

less likely to commit a crime when he is released.

Purpose

Guides/gives direction to the study/investigation

Defines Facts that are relevant and not relevant

Suggests which form of research design is likely to be

the most appropriate

Provides a framework for organizing the conclusions of

the findings

Limits the research to specific area

Offers explanations for the relationships between those

variables that can be empirically tested

Components of Hypothesis

To be complete the hypothesis must include three components:

improve Sales' result

Types of Hypothesis

Universal hypothesis

It is one, which denotes that, the stated

relationship holds for all specified variables for

all times at all places.

For example,

if brave soldiers are frequently rewarded for their

better performance, they will perform better.

This relationship hold true for all time and all

place.

Existential Hypothesis

It is one in which the stated relationship is said

to exist for atleast one particular case.

For example,

There are at least few corporate workers who are

scrounger(idle) and may not perform better

despite the fact that he is being awarded suitably

for better performance

Null Hypothesis

Null hypothesis always predicts that there is no

relationship between the variables being studied.

The researcher wishes to disapprove this

hypothesis.

It is denoted by H0

For example:

There is no relationship between smoking and lung

cancer.

Alternate Hypothesis

The alternate hypothesis always predicts that

there will be a relationship between the

variables being studied.

It is denoted by Ha

Hypothesis Hypothesis

Continued

If the hypothesis simply predicts that there will be a difference

between the two groups, then it is a non-directional hypothesis.

It is non-directional because it predicts that there will be a

difference but does not specify how the groups will differ.

smoking leads to lungs cancer

If, however, the hypothesis uses so-called comparison terms,

such as greater,less,better, or worse, then it is a

directional hypothesis. It is directional because it predicts that

there will be a difference between the two groups and it

specifies how the two groups will differ

smoking will increase the chances of lungs cancer in a person than a

person who do not smoke.

Research Hypothesis

This type of hypothesis is derived from some

type of theory or some observation and

examination.

In other words, the hypothesis set upon the

basis of theory or prior observation or on

logical grounds.

Nonstatistical Hypothesis Testing

A criminal trial is an example of hypothesis testing

without the statistics.

In a trial a jury must decide between two

hypotheses. The null hypothesis is

H0: The defendant is innocent

The alternative hypothesis or research hypothesis is

H1: The defendant is guilty

The jury does not know which hypothesis is true.

They must make a decision on the basis of evidence

presented.

Nonstatistical Hypothesis Testing

rejecting the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis.

That is, the jury is saying that there is enough evidence to conclude

that the defendant is guilty (i.e., there is enough evidence to

support the alternative hypothesis).

support the alternative hypothesis. Notice that the jury is not saying

that the defendant is innocent, only that there is not enough

evidence to support the alternative hypothesis. That is why we

never say that we accept the null hypothesis,

Procedure for hypothesis testing

Steps in Hypothesis Testing

Problem Definition

alternate hypotheses.

and the appropriate

probability distribution

Determine the

Determine the

Choose the critical value degrees of

significance level

freedom

relevant test and critical value two-tailed test

statistic

Does the test statistic fall No

in the critical region? Do not reject null

Yes

Reject null

What is Hypothesis Testing?

1. Making an assumption, called hypothesis, about a

- the B-school

population parameter.

2. Collecting sample data.

3. Using the sample statistic to evaluate the hypothesis (how

likely is it that our hypothesized parameter is correct. To test

the validity of our assumption we determine the difference

between the hypothesized parameter value and the sample

value.)

Null Hypothesis

put forward either because it is believed to be true or

because it is used as a basis for an argument and has

not been proven. For example, in a clinical trial of a new

drug, the null hypothesis might be that the new drug is no

better, on average, than the current drug. We would write

H0: there is no difference between the two drugs on an

average.

Alternative Hypothesis

statistical hypothesis test is set up to establish. For

example, in the clinical trial of a new drug, the

alternative hypothesis might be that the new drug has a

different effect, on average, compared to that of the

current drug. We would write

HA: the two drugs have different effects, on average.

or

HA: the new drug is better than the current drug, on

average.

Reject H0 in favour of HA OR Do not reject H0

The idea of statistical inference

Generalisation to the population

Conclusions based

on the sample

Population

Hypotheses

Sample

Significance level

The significance level of a statistical hypothesis

test is a fixed probability of wrongly rejecting the

null hypothesis H0, if it is in fact can not be

rejected.

It is the probability of a type I error and is set by

the investigator in relation to the consequences of

such an error. That is, we want to make the

significance level as small as possible in order to

protect the null hypothesis and to prevent, as far

as possible, the investigator from inadvertently

making false claims.

Selecting and interpreting significance level

hypothesis.

2. Significance level refers to the percentage of sample means

that is outside certain prescribed limits. E.g testing a

hypothesis at 5% level of significance means

that we reject the null hypothesis if it falls in the two regions

of area 0.025.

Do not reject the null hypothesis if it falls within the region of

area 0.95.

3. The higher the level of significance, the higher is the

probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.

(acceptance region narrows)

Type I and Type II Errors

1. Type I error refers to the situation when we reject the null

hypothesis when it is true (H0 is wrongly rejected).

e.g H0: there is no difference between the two drugs on

average.

Type I error will occur if we conclude that the two drugs produce

different effects when actually there isnt a difference.

Prob(Type I error) = significance level =

2. Type II error refers to the situation when we accept the null

hypothesis when it is false.

H0: there is no difference between the two drugs on average.

Type II error will occur if we conclude that the two drugs

produce the same effect when actually there is a difference.

Prob(Type II error) =

Type I and Type II Errors Example

pacemaker has an average life of 300 days, with the

alternative hypothesis that the average life is more than

300 days. You are the quality control manager for the

battery manufacturer.

(a)Would you rather make a Type I error or a Type II error?

(b)Based on your answer to part (a), should you use a high

or low significance level?

Type I and Type II Errors Example

HA: Average life of pacemaker > 300 days

(a)It is better to make a Type II error (where H 0 is false i.e

average life is actually more than 300 days but we accept

H0 and assume that the average life is equal to 300 days)

(b)As we increase the significance level () we increase the

chances of making a type I error. Since here it is better to

make a type II error we shall choose a low .

Types of Errors

A Type I error occurs when we reject a true null

hypothesis (i.e. Reject H0 when it is TRUE)

H0 T F

Reject I

Reject II

hypothesis (i.e. Do NOT reject H0 when it is FALSE)

Interpreting the p-value

The smaller the p-value, the more statistical evidence

exists to support the alternative hypothesis.

If the p-value is less than 1%, there is overwhelming

evidence that supports the alternative hypothesis.

If the p-value is between 1% and 5%, there is a strong

evidence that supports the alternative hypothesis.

If the p-value is between 5% and 10% there is a weak

evidence that supports the alternative hypothesis.

If the p-value exceeds 10%, there is no evidence that

supports the alternative hypothesis.

Interpreting

Overwhelming Evidence

the p-value

(Highly Significant)

Strong Evidence

(Significant)

Weak Evidence

(Not Significant)

No Evidence

(Not Significant)

p=.0069

Conclusions of a Test of Hypothesis

If we reject the null hypothesis, we conclude that

there is enough evidence to infer that the

alternative hypothesis is true.

that there is not enough statistical evidence to infer

that the alternative hypothesis is true

Keep in mind that committing a Type I error OR a

Type II error can be VERY bad depending on the

problem.

www.themegallery.com

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