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FRAMEWORK FOR MORAL DELIBERATION
FRAMEWORK FOR
MORAL DELIBERATION
Objectives I. To be able to know the steps of moral deliberation and its implications on
Objectives
I.
To be able to know the steps of moral deliberation and its
implications on our daily lives.
II. To be able to apply the steps of moral deliberation on our
decision making process.
III. To be able to empathize with others through proper moral
deliberation before enacting a decision.
MINIMUM REQUIREMENT FOR MORALITY
MINIMUM REQUIREMENT
FOR MORALITY
Identifying and setting up the Ethical STEP 1 Problem. STEP 2 What are the relevant facts?
Identifying and setting up the Ethical
STEP 1
Problem.
STEP 2
What are the relevant facts?
STEP 3
Who are the stakeholders?
STEP 4
What are the available options?
ETHICAL STANDARDS
ETHICAL STANDARDS
The Utilitarian Approach ◦An ethical action is the one that provides the most good or does
The Utilitarian Approach
◦An ethical action is the one that provides the
most good or does the least harm, or, to put it
another way, produces the greatest balance of
good over harm.
The Rights Approach ◦An ethical action is the one that best protects and respects the moral
The Rights Approach
◦An ethical action is the one that best protects
and respects the moral rights of those affected.
The Fairness or Justice Approach ◦Ethical actions treat all human beings equally-or if unequally, then fairly
The Fairness or Justice Approach
◦Ethical actions treat all human beings equally-or
if unequally, then fairly based on some standard
that is defensible.
The Common Good Approach ◦This approach suggests that the interlocking relationships of society are the basis
The Common Good Approach
◦This approach suggests that the interlocking
relationships of society are the basis of ethical
reasoning and that respect and compassion for
all others-especially the vulnerable-are
requirements of such reasoning.
The Virtue Approach ◦Ethical actions ought to be consistent with certain ideal virtues that provide for
The Virtue Approach
◦Ethical actions ought to be consistent with
certain ideal virtues that provide for the full
development of our humanity.
DOUBLE CHECKING THE DECISION
DOUBLE CHECKING THE
DECISION
Check if the arguments that entails our decisions are sound and valid. ◦ Valid Argument =
Check if the arguments that entails
our decisions are sound and valid.
◦ Valid Argument = Premise logically entail its conclusion
◦ Invalid = Premises do not entail its conclusion
◦ Sound = True premises and valid reasoning
◦ Unsound = Invalid reasoning or at least one premises is
false
Ask yourself the following questions: ◦ What are the best and worse-case scenarios if I choose
Ask yourself the following questions:
◦ What are the best and worse-case scenarios if I choose
this
particular option?
◦ Can I honestly live with myself if I make this decision?
◦ Will I be able to defend this decision to that claimant
who has lost the most or been harmed the most?
The “Ought” vs. the “Can” “Ought” “Can” The “Ought” expresses the objective pole of morality. The
The “Ought” vs. the “Can”
“Ought”
“Can”
The “Ought” expresses the
objective pole of morality.
The “Can” expresses the
subjective pole
of
a
This imperative is what
person’s
capacity
to
ethical reflection tries to
uncover.
choose right or wrong.
Moral judgments must be backed by good reasons ◦ We must avoid making judgments on the
Moral judgments must be backed by good reasons
◦ We must avoid making judgments on the basis of
feelings alone.
◦ Our facts should be truthful and impartial.
◦ Moral theories and principles should be used to justify
(not rationalize) our actions and decisions.
The Requirement of Impartiality ◦Each individual's interests are equally important.
The Requirement of Impartiality
◦Each individual's interests are equally important.