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Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS More efficient than single phase system Cost is less Size is small . Compared to single phase system

Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS  •

Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS  Generation of Three Phase Voltages  Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS  ov

www.bookspar.com | Website for Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS  • The three phase supply is said to be unbalanced, even if one of the above conditions is not satisfied.  • A three phase load is said to be balanced, when the impedances of all the three phases are exactly the same. Even if one of them is different

www.bookspar.com | Website for from the other, then the three phase load is said to be unbalanced

PAPERS www.bookspar.com | Website for Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS  In this method of inter-connection, the similar ends, say, “start” ends of three coils (it could be “finishing” ends also) are joined together at point ‘N’

www.bookspar.com | Website for Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS ‘phase’ voltage and current in each winding is known as ‘phase’ current.

Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS  Line voltage V YBbetween line 2 and line 3 is the vector difference of E Yand E B. Line voltage V BRbetween line 3 and line 1 is the vector difference of E Band E R.

www.bookspar.com | Website for Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS cos30  V
RY
2
E
ph

 2 E  cos30

o  3

2 

C O 11 similarly
V
E
E Vector Difference
(
)
YB
Y
B
 3 E
ph
V
V
V
RY
YB
BR
line voltage V
,
L
and
V
E
 3 E
E
(
Vector Difference
)
BR
B
R
Hence, in star connection
ph
V  3E
L
ph
It will be noted from figure that
(a) Line voltages are 120° apart.
(b) Line voltages are 30° ahead of their respective phase
voltages.
(c) The angle between the line currents and the
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Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION
12
corresponding line voltages is (30 + ɸ) with current lagging.
PAPERS

The total power in the circuit is the sum of the three phase powers. Hence  •

www.bookspar.com | Website for Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS V RY=V YB= V BR= line voltage V LThen, it V L= E ph

Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS  14   Line Currents and Phase Currents: • www.bookspar.com | Website for Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS 16   Since all line currents are equal in magnitude i.e., I 1= I 2= I 3= I L (30 + ɸ) with the current lagging. Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS 17 Power:
P   E I
3
cos
ph
ph
but
E  V
ph
L
I
I
L
ph
3
I
L
P
 3 
V
 cos
L
3
P 
3
V I
cos
L
L
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PAPERS

It can be proved that only two watt-meters are sufficient to Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION Instantaneous P.D. Across • by L and P • P.D. across voltage coil of W 2= V YBI Ycos (30° + ɸ) Since the load is balanced, V RB= V YB= line voltage, V LI R= I Y= line current, I LW 1= V LI Lcos (30° - ɸ) --------(1) cos (30° + ɸ)-------(2)

Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS (2 cos 30° cos ɸ) 3 = V LI Lsin ɸ

www.bookspar.com | Website for Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS 24  Contd
..  One of the watt-meters, reads negative (-ve).

www.bookspar.com | Website for Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS When p.f. = 0.5, one wattmeter reads zero (0). When p.f. lies between 0.5 to 1.0, both watt-meter readings are positive (+). When p.f. = 1, the readings of both watt-meters are equal.

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