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# Psychrometric

Chart
Basics
Objectives
Differentiate between dry air and atmospheric
air.
Define and calculate the specific and relative
humidity of atmospheric air.
Calculate the dew-point temperature of
atmospheric air.
and wet-bulb temperatures of atmospheric air.
Use the psychrometric chart as a tool to
determine the properties of atmospheric air.
Apply the principles of the conservation of
mass and energy to various air-conditioning
processes.
2
DRY AND ATMOSPHERIC AIR
Atmospheric air: Air in the atmosphere
containing some water vapor (or moisture).
Dry air: Air that contains no water vapor.
Water vapor in the air plays a major role in
human comfort. Therefore, it is an important
consideration in air-conditioning applications.

## Water vapor in air behaves as if it existed alone The cp of air can be

and obeys the ideal-gas relation Pv = RT. Then assumed to be
the atmospheric air can be treated as an ideal- constant at 1.005
gas mixture: kJ/kgC in the
temperature range 10
to 50C with an error
Pa Partial pressure of dry air under 0.2%.
Pv Partial pressure of vapor (vapor pressure)
3
SPECIFIC AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY OF AIR
Absolute or specific humidity
(humidity ratio): The mass of water
vapor present in a unit mass of dry
air.

## For saturated air, the vapor

pressure is equal to the
saturation pressure of water.

## Saturated air: The air saturated with

moisture.
Relative humidity: The ratio of the
amount of moisture the air holds (mv) to
the maximum amount of moisture the
air can hold at the same temperature
(mg).
The difference between
specific and 4
relative
What is the relative
humidity of dry air and
saturated air?
In most practical applications,
the amount of dry air in the
airwater-vapor mixture
remains constant, but the
amount of water vapor
changes.
Therefore, the enthalpy of
atmospheric air is expressed
per unit mass of dry air.

## The enthalpy of moist (atmospheric) air

Dry-bulb temperature: is expressed per unit mass of dry air,
The ordinary not per unit mass of moist air.
temperature of
5
atmospheric air.
DEW-POINT
TEMPERATURE
Dew-point temperature Tdp:
The temperature at which
condensation begins when the
air is cooled at constant
pressure (i.e., the saturation
temperature of water
corresponding to the vapor
pressure.)

Constant-presssure cooling of
moist
air and the dew-point temperature
on
the T-s diagram of water.
When the temperature of a
cold drink is below the
dew-point temperature of
the surrounding air, it
6
sweats.
saturation process is
not practical. To
determine the
absolute and relative
humidity of air, a more
practical approach is
to use a thermometer
whose bulb is covered
with a cotton wick
saturated with water
and to blow air over
the wick.
The temperature A simple arrangement
measured is the wet- to measure the wet-
bulb temperature Twb bulb temperature. Sling
and it is commonly psychrometer
used in A-C
applications. For airwater vapor mixtures at
atmospheric pressure, Twb is
saturation temperature. 7
THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
Psychrometric charts: Present moist air properties in a convenient form.
They are used extensively in A-C applications. The psychrometric chart
serves as a valuable aid in visualizing the A-C processes such as heating,
cooling, and humidification.

Schematic for a psychrometric chart. For saturated air, the dry-bulb, wet-
bulb, and dew-point temperatures are
8 identical.
Today, modern air-conditioning systems can HUMAN COMFORT
heat, cool, humidify, dehumidify, clean, and
even deodorize the airin other words, AND AIR-
condition the air to peoples desires.
CONDITIONING
The rate of heat generation by human body
depends on the level of the activity. For an
sleeping, 115 W when resting or doing office
work, and 440 W when doing heavy physical
work.
When doing light work or walking slowly, about
half of the rejected body heat is dissipated
through perspiration as latent heat while the
other half is dissipated through convection and
We cannot
change the
weather, but we
can change the
climate in a
confined space A body feels comfortable
by air- when it can freely dissipate
conditioning. its waste heat, and no more.
9
In an environment at 10C with The comfort of the human body
48 km/h winds feels as cold as depends primarily on three factors:
an environment at -7C with 3 the (dry-bulb) temperature, relative
km/h winds as a result of the humidity, and air motion.
body-chilling effect of the air The relative humidity affects the
motion (the wind-chill factor). amount of heat a body can dissipate
through evaporation. Most people
prefer a relative humidity of 40 to
60%.
Air motion removes the warm, moist
air that builds up around the body
and replaces it with fresh air. Air
motion should be strong enough to
remove heat and moisture from the
vicinity of the body, but gentle
enough to be unnoticed.
An important factor that affects
human comfort is heat transfer by
radiation between the body and the
surrounding surfaces such as walls
and windows.
A comfortable Other factors that affect comfort are
environment. air cleanliness, odor,10
and noise.

## American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC001-EN

Effect Of Removing Sensible Heat

## American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC001-EN

Effect Of Removing Moisture

## American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC001-EN

effect of changing
Sensible Heat And Moisture Content

## American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC001-EN

effect of changing
Sensible Heat And Moisture Content

## American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC001-EN

AIR-CONDITIONING PROCESSES
Maintaining a living space or an
industrial facility at the desired
temperature and humidity
requires some processes called
air-conditioning processes.
These processes include simple
heating (raising the temperature),
simple cooling (lowering the
temperature), humidifying
dehumidifying (removing
moisture).
Sometimes two or more of these
processes are needed to bring
the air to a desired temperature
and humidity level.
Air is commonly heated and
humidified in winter and cooled Various air-conditioning processes.
and dehumidified in summer.
17
Determining Entering Air Conditions

B
B
70F
70F
C
C

A
A 95F
95F
83.75F
83.75F
80F
80F

## American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC001-EN

Basic Concepts
Saturation Line
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
Lexington, Kentucky USA 210
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 28.874 inches of Mercury

200

190

180

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

Staturation Line
100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

## Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

Constant Dry Bulb Temperature
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
Lexington, Kentucky USA 210
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 28.874 inches of Mercury

200

190

180

170

160

150

140

130

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

## Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

Constant Humidity Ratio
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
Lexington, Kentucky USA 210
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 28.874 inches of Mercury

200

190

180

170

160

150

140

130

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

## Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

Constant Humidity Ratio
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
Lexington, Kentucky USA 210
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 28.874 inches of Mercury

200

190

180

170

160

150

140

130

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

## Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

Constant Relative Humidity
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
Lexington, Kentucky USA 210
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 28.874 inches of Mercury

200

190

180

170

160

150

140

130

110

100

90

80

%
90
70

%
80
%
60

70
%
60 50

%
50
40
%
40
30
30%

20
20%

MIDITY
TIVE HU 10
10% RELA

## Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

Constant Specific Volume
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
Lexington, Kentucky USA 210
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 28.874 inches of Mercury

200

190

180

170

160

150

140

130

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

## Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

Constant Wet Bulb Temperature
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
Lexington, Kentucky USA 210
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 28.874 inches of Mercury

200

85
190

180

170

80
160

150

## HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Constant Web Bulb Temperature 75
140

130

120
70

110

100
65

90

60
80

70
55

60
50

50
45

40 40

35
30
30

25
20
20
15
10 10
5

## Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

Constant Enthalpy
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
Lexington, Kentucky USA 210
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 28.874 inches of Mercury

200

190

180

170

160

150

## HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Constant Enthalpy 140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

## Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

Constant Enthalpy and Web Bulb
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
Lexington, Kentucky USA 210
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 28.874 inches of Mercury

200

85
190

180

170

80
160

150

## HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Constant Enthalpy 75
140

and 130

120

110

100
65

90

60
80

70
55

60
50

50
45

40 40

35
30
30

25
20
20
15
10 10
5

## Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

Sensible Heating
Sensible Cooling
Removing Moisture
Sensible & Latent Energy
State Point

78F

%
50

%
40
72F

95F
Typical Chart With Enthalpy Lines
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART 210
Lexington, Kentucky USA 1.3
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 28.874 inches of Mercury
200

85
85
190 1.2

180

1.1
170

80
80
160
1.0

150

140 .9
75
75

## ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

130

.8
120
70
70
110
.7

100
65
65
.6
90

60
80 60
.5

70
55
55

60 .4
50
50
50
45
45 .3

40 40
40
35
30 35 .2

DEW POINT - F
30
30
25
20 25
20
15 20 .1
10 10
5 10
0
-20
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120

## Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

Typical Chart Without Enthalpy Lines
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART 210
Lexington, Kentucky USA 1.3
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 28.874 inches of Mercury
200

85
85
190 1.2

180

1.1
170

80
80
160
1.0

150

140 .9
75
75

## ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

130

.8
120
70
70
110
.7

100
65
65
.6
90

60
80 60
.5

70
55
55

60 .4
50
50
50
45
45 .3

40 40
40
35
30 35 .2

DEW POINT - F
30
30
25
20 25
20
15 20 .1
10 10
5 10
0
-20
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120

## Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

State Point
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
Lexington, Kentucky USA 210
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 28.874 inches of Mercury

200

190

180

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

State Point
90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

State Point

## Sea Level Chart

Dry-bulb temperature = 70 F
Relative humidity = 60%
State Point 70 F
210

200

190

180

170

160

150

140

130

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

## 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120

Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

Dry Bulb 70
State Point 60%
Wet-bulb

## Sea Level Chart

Dry-bulb temperature = 70 F
Relative humidity = 60%

Wet-bulb temperature = ? F
Wet-bulb
Wet-bulb

## Sea Level Chart

Dry-bulb temperature = 70 F
Relative humidity = 60%

Wet-bulb temperature = 61 F
Dew Point

## Sea Level Chart

Dry-bulb temperature = 70 F
Relative humidity = 60%

Dew point = ?
Dew Point

Dew Point
Dew Point

## Sea Level Chart

Dry-bulb temperature = 70 F
Relative humidity = 60%

Specific Volume

## Sea Level Chart

Dry-bulb temperature = 70 F
Relative humidity = 60%

Specific volume = ?
Specific Volume
Specific Volume

## Sea Level Chart

Dry-bulb temperature = 70 F
Relative Humidity = 60%

Humidity Ratio

## Sea Level Chart

Dry-bulb temperature = 70 F
Relative humidity = 60%

Humidity ratio = ?
Humidity Ratio
Humidity Ratio

## Sea Level Chart

Dry-bulb temperature = 70 F
Relative humidity = 60%

## Humidity ratio = 0.0094 lb water / lb dry air

or
7000 grains = 1 lb water
7000 x 0.0094 = 65.8
Enthalpy

## Sea Level Chart

Dry-bulb temperature = 70 F
Relative humidity = 60%

Enthalpy = ?
Enthalpy
Enthalpy

## Sea Level Chart

Dry-bulb temperature = 70 F
Relative humidity = 60%

## Enthalpy = 27.0 Btu / lb dry air

Calculating Air Property Values

http://linricsoftw.web127.discountasp.net/webpsycalc.aspx
Sensible Heating
Raise Room Temperature 1 degree F
Constant Humidity Ratio

27.31 Btu/lb
27.06 Btu/lb
00.25 Btu/lb
Raise Room Temperature 1 degree F
Constant Humidity Ratio

## Length (ft) x Width (ft) x Height (ft) = Volume (ft3)

Volume (ft3) / Specific Volume (ft3/lb) = Mass of Air (lb)
Mass of Air (lb) x Enthalpy Change (Btu/lb) = Heat Input (Btu)

Bedroom
12 x 12 x 8 = 1152 ft3
1152 / 14.02 = 82.17 lb
82.17 x 0.25 = 20.54 Btu
Heating System Example
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART 210
Lexington, Kentucky USA
1) Return Air 65 F and 60%
1.3
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 28.874 inches of Mercury
200

85
190 1.2

180

1.1
170

80
160
1.0

150

Furnace
140 .9
75

130

Expected 120

70
.8

Result 110
.7

100
65
.6
90

80 60

.5

70
55

60 .4

50

## return air to furnace 1 2

50

40
45 .3

40

30 35 .2

DEW POINT - F
30
20 25
20 .1
10 10
0
-20
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120

## Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

Heating System Example
1) PSYCHROMETRIC
Return
Lexington, 65
Kentucky
CHART
USAF and 60% Measured Values 210
1.3

## 2) Supply 95 F and 18%

BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 28.874 inches of Mercury
200

85
190 1.2

1.1
170

80
160
1.0

150

140 .9
75

130

.8
120

70
110
.7

100
65
.6
90

80 60
.5

70
55

.4

60
50
50

## return air to furnace

45 .3

40
40

30 35 .2

DEW POINT - F
30
20 25
20 .1
10 10
0
-20
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120

## Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

Mixing Air Streams

## ma1 Energy Balance

h1 ma1 h1 + ma2 h2 = ma3 h3
w1

ma3
Mass Balance
h3
w3 ma1 w1 + ma2 w2 = ma3 w3

ma2 By Algebra
h2 h2 h3 = w2 w3 = ma1
w2 h3 h1 w3 w1 ma2
Mixing Air Streams

## Resulting mixture lies on the line between the

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
two state points.
Lexington, Kentucky USA
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 28.874 inches of Mercury

85
210

200
1.3

85
190 1.2

Mixing Two Equal Air Streams = the center of the line 180

170
1.1

80
80
160

## H U M IDIT Y RA TIO - G R A INS O F M O ISTU R E P ER PO U N D O F D R Y AIR

1.0

150

140 .9
75

VAPO R P R ESSU R E - IN CH E S O F M E RC U RY

## E NT H ALP Y - BT U PER P OU N D O F DR Y AIR

75

130

.8
120
70
70
110
.7

100
65
65
.6
90

60
80 60
.5

70
55
55

60 .4
50
50
50
45
45 .3

40 40
40
35
30 35

D EW PO INT - F
.2
30
30
25
20 25
20
15 20 .1
10 10
5 10
0
-20
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120

## Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

Heating System Example
1) PSYCHROMETRIC
Return
Lexington, 65
Kentucky
CHART
USAF and 60% Measured Values 210
1.3

## 2) Supply 95 F and 18%

BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 28.874 inches of Mercury
200

85
190 1.2

1.1
170

80
160
1.0

150

140 .9
75

130

.8
120

70
110
.7

100
65
.6
90

80 60
.5

70
55

.4

60
50
50

## return air to furnace

45 .3

40
40

30 35 .2

DEW POINT - F
30
20 25
20 .1
10 10
0
-20
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120

## Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

Heating System Example
Heating System Example
Cooling
Cooling Systems
Cooling Systems
Solving the General Equations
for Air Conditioning
Total Heat
q = (cfm) (4.5) (h)
q = Btuh
h = enthalpy, Btu per lb dry air

Sensible Heat
q = (cfm) (1.08) (t)
t = temperature F

Latent Heat
q = (cfm) (4840) (w)
w = humidity ratio, lb water per lb dry air
Solving the General Equations
for Air Conditioning - Sources of Error
Sensible Heat
q (Btuh) = (cfm) (1.08) (t)
(t) = q (Btuh)
(cfm) (1.08)
cfm lower - (t) higher
cfm higher - (t) lower
q lower - (t) lower
q higher - (t) higher
Standard Operation of an Air Conditioner

## 12,000 Btuh / ton

400 cfm /ton
Sensible heat fraction = 0.70
Latent heat fraction = 0.30
Standard Operation of an Air Conditioner
Total Heat
q = (cfm) (4.5) (h)
12,000 = (400) (4.5) (h)
(h) = 27.3 Btu / lb dry air
Sensible Heat
q = (cfm) (1.08) (t)
12,000 (0.7) = (400) (1.08) (t)
(t) = 19 F
Latent Heat
q = (cfm) (4840) (w)
12,000 (.3) = (400) (4840) (w)
(w) = 0.002 lb water / lb dry air
Standard Operation of an Air Conditioner
Operation of an Air Conditioner

## What if humidity ratio of return air

equals the humidity ratio of the
supply air?
Air Conditioner Example
Air Conditioner Example
Air Conditioner Example

0.002

0.002
Air Conditioner Example

0.002

19 F
Evaporative Cooling
180
85
W
ET
BU 170

LB
TE
MP
80 E RA
TU 160
RE
-
F
150
80

140
75

130

15.0
75
120
70

110

70
100
65

90

65

14.5
60
80

SPE
90

CIF
60 70

%
55

IC
80

VOL
%
70

UME
60
50 55

ft
%

/lb O
60 50

14.0
45

FD
50
%
50

RY
40 40

A
45

IR
%
35 40
40 30
13.5

30
35 30%
25
30 20
20 20%
25
15
13.0

10 20 MIDITY
TIVE HU 10
5 15 10% RELA
10
12.5

0 5

## Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

Human Comfort Zones
180

85 170
WE
TB
UL
BT
EM 160
PE
80 R AT
UR
E-
F
150

80
140

75
130

14.
5
120
75

70
110

100
70
65
90

65

14.
60 80
%

0
90

SPE
CIF
% 70
80 60

IC
55

VO
%

LUM
70 60
50

E ft
55
%

/lb
60 50

13 .

OF
45 50

DR
%
50

YA
40
40
45

IR
40%
35
40 30
30 30%
13.

35
0

25 20
30
20%
25
12 .

20 DITY
TIVE HUMI 10
10% RELA
5

## Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

Crawl Space Conditions
Example
180
85
W
ET
BU
LB 170

TE
MP
80 E RA
TU 160
RE
-
F
150
80

140
75

130

15.0
75
120
70

110

70
100
65

90

65

14.5
60
80

SPE
90

CIF
60 70

%
55

IC
80

VOL
%
70

UME
60
50 55

ft
%

/lb O
60 50

14.0
45

FD
50
%
50

RY
40 40

A
45

IR
%
35 40
40 13.5 30
30
35 30%
25
30 20
20 20%
25
15
13.0

10 20 MIDITY
TIVE HU 10
5 15 10% RELA
10
12.5

0 5