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Heat Exchanger

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Heat Exchangers
A heat exchanger is used to exchange heat between two fluids of
different temperatures, which are separated by a solid wall.
Heat exchangers are ubiquitous to energy conversion and utilization.
They encompass a wide range of flow configurations.
Applications in heating and air conditioning, power production, waste
heat recovery, chemical processing, food processing, sterilization in
Heat exchangers are classified according to flow arrangement and
type of construction.

All principles that we have learned previously apply.

In this chapter we will learn how our previous knowledge can be
applied to do heat exchanger calculations, discuss methodologies for
design and introduce performance parameters.

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Design Process

Rating of a heat exchanger:

For a specific duty we need to specify the necessary area (or length)
and to decide what type of heat exchanger we need.

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Concentric Tube Construction

Parallel FlowFlow
Parallel Counterflow

- :

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Heat Exchanger Analysis
Expression for convection heat transfer for flow of a fluid inside a tube:

qconv m
c p (Tm,o Tm,i )

For case involving constant surrounding fluid temperature:

To Ti
q U As Tlm Tlm
ln( To / Ti )

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Heat Exchanger Analysis

In a two-fluid heat exchanger, consider the hot and cold fluids separately:

qh m h c p ,h (Th ,i Th ,o )
(11.1) and q UA Tlm (11.2)
qc m c c p,c (Tc,o Tc,i )
The usual design goal is to determine the
required area A for a heating duty q
Combine eqs. (11.1) and (11.2) and solve for A
Need to determine U and Tlm
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Tlm: 1. Parallel-Flow Heat Exchangers

T1 T2 q UA Tlm

T2 T1
Parallel Flow ln( TCounterflow
2 / T1 )


T1 Th,i Tc,i
T2 Th,o Tc,o

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Tlm: 2. Counter-Flow Heat Exchangers

T1 T2 q UA Tlm

T2 T1
Counterflow ln( T2 / T1 )


T1 Th,i Tc,o
T2 Th,o Tc,i

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Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

For tubular heat Flow
exchangers we must take into account Counterflow
the conduction
resistance in the wall and convection resistances of the fluids at the inner
and outer tube surfaces.
1 1 1
UA hi Ai ho Ao (11.3)
ln( Do / Di )
1 1 1 Ai Di L
where inner tube surface
UA U i Ai U o Ao outer tube surface Ao Do L
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Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
Baffles are used to
establish a cross-flow and
to induce turbulent mixing
of the shell-side fluid, both
of which enhance
The number of tube and
One Shell Pass and One Tube Pass shell passes may be varied

One Shell Pass, Two Shell Passes,

Two Tube Passes Four Tube Passes
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Heat exchanger surfaces are subject to fouling by fluid impurities,
rust formation, or other reactions between the fluid and the wall
material. The subsequent deposition of a film or scale on the surface
can greatly increase the resistance to heat transfer between the fluids.
An additional thermal resistance, can be introduced: The Fouling
factor, Rf.
Depends on operating temperature, fluid velocity and length of service of
heat exchanger. It is variable during heat exchanger operation.
Fouling factors can be found in Table 11.1 textbook (SI units) or p. 51
heat exchanger lecture notes (EE units)

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Pressure Drop
In practice there can be a significant pressure drop along the pipes of
a multipass heat exchanger.
Results in property changes
Pressure drop must be accounted for in real design situations.

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