y Albert Bandura (born on December 4,1925 in Mundare

Alberta, Canada. He has specialised in social cognitive theory and self efficacy. y Education :Bandura graduated with a B.A. from the University of British Columbia with the Bolocan Award in psychology, and then obtained his M.A. in 1951 and Ph.D. in 1952 from the University of Iowa. Arthur Benton was his academic adviser at Iowa. [1] Upon graduation, he participated in a clinical internship with the Wichita Kansas Guidance Center. The following year, he accepted a teaching position at Stanford, the same position he holds today. y Academic career: Bandura joined the faculty of the Department of Psychology at Stanford University in 1953, where he has remained to pursue his career. In 1974 the American Psychological Association elected him to its presidency.

Earlier Explanations Of Observational Learning

y Early Greeks ± Plato Aristotle (education

selecting the best model.) y Thorndike ± first attempt to study

observational learning experimentally. Results unfavorable y JB Watson- replicated earlier experiment y Conclusions ± direct experience not vicarious learning. y Miller and Dollard ± challenged nativistic explanation

Types of imitative behaviour
y Same behaviour- same situation same

y Copying behaviour- guiding or instructing

.responses are strengthened and reinforced
y Matched dependent behaviour- reinforcement

for blind repetition. Characteristic of adult behaviour . (generalized imitation)

Learning according to Bandura
y Observational learning may or may not

involve imitation. y Role of ³information´ y Acknowledged that Observational learning is complex y Uses cognitive elements .

Bobo doll experiment
y 2 types of reinforcement presented- vicarious

reinforcement ,vicarious punishment. y 1 neutral group. y Role of learning ,reinforcement performance .e.g. Tolman and Honzik experiment

Factors that affect Observational learning
y Attentional processes- sensory capacities

selective reinforcement influenced by past reinforcement. Characteristics of models (i.e. similarity ,reputation) y Retentional processes- information is stored in 2 ways 1 imaginally 2 verbally y The 2 process are linked y Information is retrieved cognitively.

Factors that affect Observational learning
y Behavioural production processes- these

processes determine the extent to which learning is translated into performance . E.g. observing monkeys y Cognitive rehearsal.
y Motivational processes-reinforcement it

serves 2 functions 1 expectation 2 incentive y Both these functions are informational

Factors that affect Observational learning
y Reciprocal Determinism-interaction between

person P, behaviour B, environment E




Self regulation of behaviour
y Human behaviour is largely self regulated. y Learning is a product of direct and vicarious experience and performance standards. y Standards can arise from ones direct experience with reinforcement from significant others. y Bandura believes intrinsic reinforcement comes from self evaluation and this is more influential than extrinsic reinforcement dispensed by others. y However if one has very high standards of performance it can prove to be a source of personal distress

Self efficacy
y Self efficacy-one¶s ability to perform various

tasks. One¶s perceived self-efficacy may or may not correspond to one¶s actual self efficacy. Perceived self efficacy plays a major role in self-regulated behaviour.

Moral Conduct
Departure from one¶s moral codebrings self contempt. y However individuals develop self exonerating mechanisms these are 1moral justification 2 euphemistic labeling 3 advantageous comparison 4 displacement of responsibility 5 diffusion of responsibility 6disregard or distortion of consequences 7dehumanization 8 attribution of blame
y Model code develops through interactions with models.

y A product of dysfunctional learning and the resulting incorrect anticipations. y Phobias maybe a result of inappropriate generalizations. y Inadvertent reinforcement y Overly severe set of self standards ,and the resulting attempts to avoid guilt or external punishment through excessive self contempt. y Distorted view of reality y Faulty processing of information y Faulty beliefs

y Powerful disconfirming experiences ± phobias y New responses maybe acquired by watching a y y y y

model being reinforced Modeling participation Restore self efficacy Positive reinforcement, desensitization and cognitive restructuring. Conversation is not seen as enough

y Therapists viewpoint is used to treat the client y Determinism vs. freedom freedom varies in

social contexts y Ignores conflicts both conscious and unconscious. y Bias against psychoanalysis. y Bandura combines different viewpoints e.g. Kelly¶s constructs Freud's excessive superego

y It has a grounding in empirical research y Emphasis on human rather than animal subjects y Propagates new forms of psychotherapy such as y y y y y y

modeling Provides behaviourism with a more convincing rationale than Skinner or Dollard and Miller. Redefines behaviourism and personality theory. Brings together different ideas . Eclectic viewpoint Accepts observation as a valid method for learning Self regulation of behaviour and reciprocal determinism and social factors taken into consideration