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N Venkata Srinath,
1st Yr MS Power Systems.
Heat in the interior of the earth
Greek originated.
Geo-earth and thermal-heat.
Temperature rise 20-30/Km .

Geothermal effects can be visualized as

Hot gasses
Hot spring
-A spring that discharges hot water and steam
Geothermal heat pump/District heating
Power Generation
Geothermal aquaculture, the farming of water-dwelling creatures.
Uses natural warm water to speed the growth of fish.
Europe, USA, China and Japan.
Catfish, Tilapia, Eels and Alligators.
A health resort near a spring.
A place of business with equipment and facilities for exercising and
improving physical fitness.
Geothermal desalination is a proven process under development for the
production of fresh water using heat energy.
It requires less maintenance than reverse osmosis membranes.
In 1998 Douglas Firestone Aquagenesis from Nevada has began
working with evaporation/condensation air loop water desalination.
Geothermal heat pump/District heating
A geothermal heat pump or ground source heat pump (GSHP) is
a central heating.
The first successful commercial project was installed in the Common
wealth Building (Portland, Oregon) in 1946.
Geothermal energy is used by industries like food processing for
pasteurizing , timber, leather manufactures, paper and dying .
Power generation
Geothermal power is the power extracted form the heat stored in the

Types of technologies for locating geothermal reservoirs

How geothermal is an alternative/renewable
Alternative: Instead of fossil fuels, we are using earths heat to
generate steam.
Renewable: The rate at which its heat is reducing is less than the rate it
is increasing due to radioactive decomposition.
Different types of power generations
Flash steam plants.
Dry steam plants.
Binary power plants.
Hybrid power plants.
Flash steam plants
Suitable for the reservoirs which cannot generate the steam 150c.
Most geothermal power plants operating today are Flash steam power
Hot water from production wells is passed through one or two
separators where, released from the pressure of the deep reservoir, part
of it flashes (explosively boils) to steam.
Dry steam plant
Reservoirs which can generate steam of temperature 180-350c.
This geothermal reservoirs produce mostly steam and very little water.
Here, the steam shoots directly into the turbine.
Binary power plants.
The geothermal water is passed through one side of a heat exchanger.

where the heat is transferred to a second liquid, called a working fluid,

in an adjacent separate pipe loop.

The working fluid boils to vapour (like steam) powers the turbine

The geothermal water passes only through the heat exchanger and is
immediately recycled back into the reservoir.
Binary power plants are generally more expensive to
build than steam-driven plants.

The working fluid (usually isobutene or isopentane)
boils and vapours at a lower temperature than does
The binary system uses the reservoir water more
Binary power plants have virtually no emissions.
Hybrid power plant
In Hybrid power plants, flash and binary processes are combined.
An example of such a hybrid system is in Hawaii, where a plant
provides about 25% of the electricity used on the Big Island.

World 1st geothermal plant(Dry steam power plant) was built in 1904 at
Larderello in Tuscany Italy which can give supply for 5 bulb.
1911 250kw power plant was built in devil valley which was destroyed in
world war II.
Rebuilt and expanded, still serving today.
Geothermal heat is extracted from deep within the
earths surface, and this is the main disadvantage
concerning finding a suitable location.
To lay pipe lines, it has to dig for several feet's.
Too expansive to bore.
Indian Scenario
In India 1970 MNRE has started Hot Spring Committee .
Other survey committees are NGRI, GSI.
In India total potential is 6000 10,000MW
There are 340 potential cites.

The most promising provinces are

i)The Himalaya,
ii) Sohana,
iii) Cambay,
iv) Son-Narmada-Tapi (SONATA) and
v) The Godavari.
Indias first Geothermal plant was installed at Parbati Valley Manikaran
(Himachal Pradesh) in 1992.

India has collaborated with Iceland for Geothermal Technology in


NTPC combined with Mitsubishi(Japan) in 2009 to built a 25MW

power plant in Gujarat.

MNRE planned to built a 1MW power plant at puga (Ladakh district,

Tattapani region (Madhya Pradesh) where the installation of a 20MWe
binary plant has been planned.
Magnetotelluric Dept, NGRI, Hyderabad.