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# MECH4450 Introduction to Finite

Element Methods

Basic Principles
Historical Background
Hrenikoff, 1941 frame work method
Courant, 1943 piecewise polynomial
interpolation
Turner, 1956 derived stiffness matrices for
truss, beam, etc
Clough, 1960 coined the term finite element
Key Ideas: - frame work method
piecewise polynomial approximation

Courant Clough
Applications of FEM
Applications: Aerospace
Engineering (AE)

4
Applications: Civil Engineering
(CE)

5
Applications: Electrical
Engineering (EE)

6
Applications: Biomedical
Engineering (BE)

7
Cosmetic Dentistry
The Future Virtual Engineering

8
Review:

P P
Stress: s= Stress: s =
A A
Strain: Strain:
PL
Deformation: d = Deformation:
EA
Review:
P

## Governing equation: Assume f is constant

Stress at x:
Equations and Boundary
Conditions
Differential Equation
d du
EA( x ) f ( x) = 0 0 xL
dx dx
Boundary Condition Types
prescribed displacement (essential BC)

## prescribed force/derivative of displacement

(natural BC)
Conditions
Examples
fixed end

simple support

free end
Potential Energy
Elastic Potential Energy (PE)
- Spring case
Unstretched spring

PE = 0
Stretched bar
1 2
PE = kx
2
x
undeformed: PE = 0
L
1
20
- Elastic body
1 T
PE =
2V
dv
Potential Energy
Work Potential (WP)
f
P f: distributed force over a line
A B P: point force
L
u: displacement
WP = u fdx P uB
0

## Total Potential Energy

L L
1
= sAdx u fdx P uB
20 0
Potential Energy
Principle of Stationary Potential
Energy
For conservative systems, of all the kinematically admissible displacement fields,
those corresponding to equilibrium extremize the total potential energy. If the
extremum condition is a minimum, the equilibrium state is stable.

Conservative system: WP is independent of the path taken from the original state to
the deformed state.

## Kinematically admissible displacement field: displacement field satisfy the geometric

(kinematic) boundary conditions.

Original state
deformed state equilibrium state
Potential Energy + Rayleigh-Ritz
Approach
Example: f
P Find the displacement field u x
A x Assume f is a constant
B

## Step 1: assume an admissible displacement field u x = a1 a2 x

In general: u = aifi x i = 1 to n f is shape function / basis function
i n-1 is the order of approximation
So for u x = a1 a2 x f1 = 1 f2 = x
The admissible displacement field must satisfy the essential boundary condition u = 0 at x = 0
So a1 = 0 and u x = a2 x

## Step 2: calculate total potential energy

Firstly write down the elastic potential energy
du
u x = a2 x = = a2 s = E = Ea2
dx
L L
1 1 1 2
s
2
Elastic potential: Adx = Ea a
2 2 Adx = Ea2 AL
0
2 0
2
Potential Energy + Rayleigh-Ritz
Approach
Example: f
P
A B

## Then write down the work energy

L L
WP = uB =
u fdx P a2 x fdx P
a2 L
0 0

1
= a2 fL2 Pa2 L
2
1 1
p = Ea2 2 AL a2 fL2 Pa2 L
2 2
Step 3:select ai so that the total potential energy is at its
minimum or maximum.
dp 1
= 0 Ea2 AL fL2 PL = 0
da 2
1 1
P fL P fL
a2 = 2 u = 2 x
EA EA
Potential Energy + Rayleigh-Ritz
Approach
Example 2.5:
f
P 1 2

Element 1:
P1

## Essential boundary condition

Element 2: P1 P

Continuity requirement
Potential Energy + Rayleigh-Ritz
Approach
Example 2.5:
f
P 1 2

Approach I:
Potential Energy + Rayleigh-Ritz
Approach
Example 2.5:
f
P 1 2

Approach II:
Potential Energy + Rayleigh-Ritz
Approach
Example: f
P
A B

## One section Two sections

Galerkins Method
Example: f
P
A B
d du Seek an approximation u~ so
EA( x ) f ( x) = 0
dx dx
u x = 0 = 0
du
EA( x ) =P
dx x=L

i

## where are arbitrary except for requiring that w satisfies zero

boundary condition at which u is specified.
Galerkins Method
Example: f
P Find the displacement field
A B

## du~ dwi du~

L L L
d du~ EA( x ) dx wi fdx wi EA( x ) =0
V i dx
w EA( x )
dx
f ( x ) dV = 0
0
dx dx 0
dx 0

1 2 3

## Let u%= a1 x, 0 x L f = x and w1 = x

L L
du%
xfdx w L P w 0 EA
1dx
EAa1 =0
0 0
dx 0
fL fL
P P
a1 = 2 u%= 2 x
EA EA
1 Strain energy

2 Work done by f

3 Work done by P
FEM Formulation of Axially
Differential Equation
d du
EA( x ) f ( x) = 0 0 x L
dx dx

Weighted-Integral Formulation
L d du
0
w EA( x) f ( x) dx = 0
dx dx

Weak Form
L L
dw du du
0 = EA( x) wf ( x) dx w EA( x) Starting point of FEA
0
dx dx dx 0