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Element Methods

Basic Principles

Historical Background

Hrenikoff, 1941 frame work method

Courant, 1943 piecewise polynomial

interpolation

Turner, 1956 derived stiffness matrices for

truss, beam, etc

Clough, 1960 coined the term finite element

Key Ideas: - frame work method

piecewise polynomial approximation

Courant Clough

Applications of FEM

Applications: Aerospace

Engineering (AE)

4

Applications: Civil Engineering

(CE)

5

Applications: Electrical

Engineering (EE)

6

Applications: Biomedical

Engineering (BE)

7

Cosmetic Dentistry

The Future Virtual Engineering

8

Axially Loaded Bar

Review:

P P

Stress: s= Stress: s =

A A

Strain: Strain:

PL

Deformation: d = Deformation:

EA

Axially Loaded Bar

Review:

P

Stress at x:

Axially Loaded Bar Governing

Equations and Boundary

Conditions

Differential Equation

d du

EA( x ) f ( x) = 0 0 xL

dx dx

Boundary Condition Types

prescribed displacement (essential BC)

(natural BC)

Axially Loaded Bar Boundary

Conditions

Examples

fixed end

simple support

free end

Potential Energy

Elastic Potential Energy (PE)

- Spring case

Unstretched spring

PE = 0

Stretched bar

1 2

PE = kx

2

x

- Axially loaded bar

undeformed: PE = 0

L

1

deformed: PE = sAdx

20

- Elastic body

1 T

PE =

2V

dv

Potential Energy

Work Potential (WP)

f

P f: distributed force over a line

A B P: point force

L

u: displacement

WP = u fdx P uB

0

L L

1

= sAdx u fdx P uB

20 0

Potential Energy

Principle of Stationary Potential

Energy

For conservative systems, of all the kinematically admissible displacement fields,

those corresponding to equilibrium extremize the total potential energy. If the

extremum condition is a minimum, the equilibrium state is stable.

Conservative system: WP is independent of the path taken from the original state to

the deformed state.

(kinematic) boundary conditions.

Original state

deformed state equilibrium state

Potential Energy + Rayleigh-Ritz

Approach

Example: f

P Find the displacement field u x

A x Assume f is a constant

B

In general: u = aifi x i = 1 to n f is shape function / basis function

i n-1 is the order of approximation

So for u x = a1 a2 x f1 = 1 f2 = x

The admissible displacement field must satisfy the essential boundary condition u = 0 at x = 0

So a1 = 0 and u x = a2 x

Firstly write down the elastic potential energy

du

u x = a2 x = = a2 s = E = Ea2

dx

L L

1 1 1 2

s

2

Elastic potential: Adx = Ea a

2 2 Adx = Ea2 AL

0

2 0

2

Potential Energy + Rayleigh-Ritz

Approach

Example: f

P

A B

L L

WP = uB =

u fdx P a2 x fdx P

a2 L

0 0

1

= a2 fL2 Pa2 L

2

1 1

p = Ea2 2 AL a2 fL2 Pa2 L

2 2

Step 3:select ai so that the total potential energy is at its

minimum or maximum.

dp 1

= 0 Ea2 AL fL2 PL = 0

da 2

1 1

P fL P fL

a2 = 2 u = 2 x

EA EA

Potential Energy + Rayleigh-Ritz

Approach

Example 2.5:

f

P 1 2

Element 1:

P1

Element 2: P1 P

Continuity requirement

Potential Energy + Rayleigh-Ritz

Approach

Example 2.5:

f

P 1 2

Approach I:

Potential Energy + Rayleigh-Ritz

Approach

Example 2.5:

f

P 1 2

Approach II:

Potential Energy + Rayleigh-Ritz

Approach

Example: f

P

A B

Galerkins Method

Example: f

P

A B

d du Seek an approximation u~ so

EA( x ) f ( x) = 0

dx dx

u x = 0 = 0

du

EA( x ) =P

dx x=L

i

boundary condition at which u is specified.

Galerkins Method

Example: f

P Find the displacement field

A B

L L L

d du~ EA( x ) dx wi fdx wi EA( x ) =0

V i dx

w EA( x )

dx

f ( x ) dV = 0

0

dx dx 0

dx 0

1 2 3

L L

du%

xfdx w L P w 0 EA

1dx

EAa1 =0

0 0

dx 0

fL fL

P P

a1 = 2 u%= 2 x

EA EA

1 Strain energy

2 Work done by f

3 Work done by P

FEM Formulation of Axially

Loaded Bar Governing Equations

Differential Equation

d du

EA( x ) f ( x) = 0 0 x L

dx dx

Weighted-Integral Formulation

L d du

0

w EA( x) f ( x) dx = 0

dx dx

Weak Form

L L

dw du du

0 = EA( x) wf ( x) dx w EA( x) Starting point of FEA

0

dx dx dx 0

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